Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1398 in total

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. SEA-ORCHID Study Group, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, McDonald SJ, Henderson-Smart DJ, Green S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2008 Jul 09;3(7):e2646.
    PMID: 18612381 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002646
    BACKGROUND: The burden of mortality and morbidity related to pregnancy and childbirth remains concentrated in developing countries. SEA-ORCHID (South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health In Developing countries) is evaluating whether a multifaceted intervention to strengthen capacity for research synthesis, evidence-based care and knowledge implementation improves adoption of best clinical practice recommendations leading to better health for mothers and babies. In this study we assessed current practices in perinatal health care in four South East Asian countries and determined whether they were aligned with best practice recommendations.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We completed an audit of 9550 medical records of women and their 9665 infants at nine hospitals; two in each of Indonesia, Malaysia and The Philippines, and three in Thailand between January-December 2005. We compared actual clinical practices with best practice recommendations selected from the Cochrane Library and the World Health Organization Reproductive Health Library. Evidence-based components of the active management of the third stage of labour and appropriately treating eclampsia with magnesium sulphate were universally practiced in all hospitals. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section, a beneficial form of care, was practiced in less than 5% of cases in most hospitals. Use of the unnecessary practices of enema in labour ranged from 1% to 61% and rates of episiotomy for vaginal birth ranged from 31% to 95%. Other appropriate practices were commonly performed to varying degrees between countries and also between hospitals within the same country.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Whilst some perinatal health care practices audited were consistent with best available evidence, several were not. We conclude that recording of clinical practices should be an essential step to improve quality of care. Based on these findings, the SEA-ORCHID project team has been developing and implementing interventions aimed at increasing compliance with evidence-based clinical practice recommendations to improve perinatal practice in South East Asia.

  2. Toh GT, Kang P, Lee SS, Lee DS, Lee SY, Selamat S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2008;3(4):e2024.
    PMID: 18431501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002024
    BACKGROUND: In Asia, breast cancer is characterised by an early age of onset: In Malaysia, approximately 50% of cases occur in women under the age of 50 years. A proportion of these cases may be attributable, at least in part, to genetic components, but to date, the contribution of genetic components to breast cancer in many of Malaysia's ethnic groups has not been well-characterised.
    METHODOLOGY: Given that hereditary breast carcinoma is primarily due to germline mutations in one of two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, we have characterised the spectrum of BRCA mutations in a cohort of 37 individuals with early-onset disease (
  3. Chua KB, Voon K, Crameri G, Tan HS, Rosli J, McEachern JA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2008;3(11):e3803.
    PMID: 19030226 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003803
    First discovered in the early 1950s, reoviruses (respiratory enteric orphan viruses) were not associated with any known disease, and hence named orphan viruses. Recently, our group reported the isolation of the Melaka virus from a patient with acute respiratory disease and provided data suggesting that this new orthoreovirus is capable of human-to-human transmission and is probably of bat origin. Here we report yet another Melaka-like reovirus (named Kampar virus) isolated from the throat swab of a 54 year old male patient in Kampar, Perak, Malaysia who was suffering from high fever, acute respiratory disease and vomiting at the time of virus isolation. Serological studies indicated that Kampar virus was transmitted from the index case to at least one other individual and caused respiratory disease in the contact case. Sequence analysis of the four small class genome segments indicated that Kampar and Melaka viruses are closely related. This was confirmed by virus neutralization assay, showing an effective two-way cross neutralization, i.e., the serum against one virus was able to neutralize the other. Although the exact origin of Kampar virus is unknown, epidemiological tracing revealed that the house of the index case is surrounded by fruit trees frequently visited by fruit bats. There is a high probability that Kampar virus originated from bats and was transmitted to humans via bat droppings or contaminated fruits. The discovery of Kampar virus highlights the increasing trend of emergence of bat zoonotic viruses and the need to expand our understanding of bats as a source of many unknown viruses.
  4. Hara Y, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    PLoS ONE, 2009 Aug 05;4(8):e6496.
    PMID: 19654871 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006496
    BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease of significant morbidity and mortality in both human and animals in endemic areas. There is no vaccine towards the bacterium available in the market, and the efficacy of many of the bacterium's surface and secreted proteins are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the availability of the B. pseudomallei whole genome sequence, we undertook to identify genes encoding the known immunogenic outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Twelve OmpA domains were identified and ORFs containing these domains were fully annotated. Of the 12 ORFs, two of these OmpAs, Omp3 and Omp7, were successfully cloned, expressed as soluble protein and purified. Both proteins were recognised by antibodies in melioidosis patients' sera by Western blot analysis. Purified soluble fractions of Omp3 and Omp7 were assessed for their ability to protect BALB/c mice against B. pseudomallei infection. Mice were immunised with either Omp3 or Omp7, subsequently challenged with 1x10(6) colony forming units (cfu) of B. pseudomallei via the intraperitoneal route, and examined daily for 21 days post-challenge. This pilot study has demonstrated that whilst all control unimmunised mice died by day 9 post-challenge, two mice (out of 4) from both immunised groups survived beyond 21 days post-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OmpA proteins are immunogenic in mice as well as melioidosis patients and should be further assessed as potential vaccine candidates against B. pseudomallei infection.

  5. Imai N, Samejima H, Langner A, Ong RC, Kita S, Titin J, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(12):e8267.
    PMID: 20011516 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008267
    Sustainable forest management (SFM), which has been recently introduced to tropical natural production forests, is beneficial in maintaining timber resources, but information about the co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration is currently lacking.
  6. Tan KS, Armugam A, Sepramaniam S, Lim KY, Setyowati KD, Wang CW, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(11):e7689.
    PMID: 19888324 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007689
    The methods currently available for diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral ischaemia still require further improvements. Micro-RNAs (small non-coding RNAs) have been recently reported as useful biomarkers in diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We therefore carried out microRNA (miRNA) profiling from peripheral blood to detect and identify characteristic patterns in ischaemic stroke.
  7. Nomikou K, Dovas CI, Maan S, Anthony SJ, Samuel AR, Papanastassopoulou M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(7):e6437.
    PMID: 19649272 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006437
    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the 'type' species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), each of which codes for one of ten distinct viral proteins. Previous phylogenetic comparisons have evaluated variations in genome segment 3 (Seg-3) nucleotide sequence as way to identify the geographical origin (different topotypes) of BTV isolates. The full-length nucleotide sequence of genome Seg-3 was determined for thirty BTV isolates recovered in the eastern Mediterranean region, the Balkans and other geographic areas (Spain, India, Malaysia and Africa). These data were compared, based on molecular variability, positive-selection-analysis and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic reconstructions (using appropriate substitution models) to 24 previously published sequences, revealing their evolutionary relationships. These analyses indicate that negative selection is a major force in the evolution of BTV, restricting nucleotide variability, reducing the evolutionary rate of Seg-3 and potentially of other regions of the BTV genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the BTV-4 strains isolated over a relatively long time interval (1979-2000), in a single geographic area (Greece), showed a low level of nucleotide diversity, indicating that the virus can circulate almost unchanged for many years. These analyses also show that the recent incursions into south-eastern Europe were caused by BTV strains belonging to two different major-lineages: representing an 'eastern' (BTV-9, -16 and -1) and a 'western' (BTV-4) group/topotype. Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these viruses originated from a geographic area to the east and southeast of Greece (including Cyprus and the Middle East), which appears to represent an important ecological niche for the virus that is likely to represent a continuing source of future BTV incursions into Europe.
  8. Drexler JF, Corman VM, Gloza-Rausch F, Seebens A, Annan A, Ipsen A, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(7):e6367.
    PMID: 19636378 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006367
    Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat.
  9. Tee KK, Kusagawa S, Li XJ, Onogi N, Isogai M, Hase S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2009;4(8):e6666.
    PMID: 19688091 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006666
    A growing number of emerging HIV-1 recombinants classified as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have been identified in Southeast Asia in recent years, establishing a molecular diversity of increasing complexity in the region. Here, we constructed a replication-competent HIV-1 clone for CRF33_01B (designated p05MYKL045.1), a newly identified recombinant comprised of CRF01_AE and subtype B. p05MYKL045.1 was reconstituted by cloning of the near full-length HIV-1 sequence from a newly-diagnosed individual presumably infected heterosexually in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The chimeric clone, which contains the 5' LTR (long terminal repeat) region of p93JP-NH1 (a previously isolated CRF01_AE infectious clone), showed robust viral replication in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This clone demonstrated robust viral propagation and profound syncytium formation in CD4+, CXCR4-expressing human glioma NP-2 cells, indicating that p05MYKL045.1 is a CXCR4-using virus. Viral propagation, however, was not detected in various human T cell lines including MT-2, M8166, Sup-T1, H9, Jurkat, Molt-4 and PM1. p05MYKL045.1 appears to proliferate only in restricted host range, suggesting that unknown viral and/or cellular host factors may play a role in viral infectivity and replication in human T cell lines. Availability of a CRF33_01B molecular clone will be useful in facilitating the development of vaccine candidates that match the HIV-1 strains circulating in Southeast Asia.
  10. Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Al-Mekhlafi AM, Lim YA, Bin Shuaib NO, Azazy AA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2010 Sep 20;5(9).
    PMID: 20862227 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012879
    BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics with a global yearly incidence of 1.5 million. Although CL is the most common form of leishmaniasis, which is responsible for 60% of DALYs lost due to tropical-cluster diseases prevalent in Yemen, available information is very limited.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted to determine the molecular characterization of Leishmania species isolated from human cutaneous lesions in Yemen. Dermal scrapes were collected and examined for Leishmania amastigotes using the Giemsa staining technique. Amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1(ITS-1) gene was carried out using nested PCR and subsequent sequencing. The sequences from Leishmania isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The trees identified Leishmania tropica from 16 isolates which were represented by two sequence types.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The predominance of the anthroponotic species (i.e. L. tropica) indicates the probability of anthroponotic transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yemen. These findings will help public health authorities to build an effective control strategy taking into consideration person-to-person transmission as the main dynamic of transmission of CL.

  11. Achoui M, Appleton D, Abdulla MA, Awang K, Mohd MA, Mustafa MR
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(12):e15105.
    PMID: 21152019 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015105
    17-O-acetylacuminolide (AA), a diterpenoid labdane, was isolated for the first time from the plant species Neouvaria foetida. The anti-inflammatory effects of this compound were studied both in vitro and in vivo.
  12. Bradshaw CJ, Giam X, Sodhi NS
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(5):e10440.
    PMID: 20454670 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010440
    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy 'models' can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks - one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact - that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic indicators. Our rankings are based on natural forest loss, habitat conversion, marine captures, fertilizer use, water pollution, carbon emissions and species threat, although many other variables were excluded due to a lack of country-specific data. Of 228 countries considered, 179 (proportional) and 171 (absolute) had sufficient data for correlations. The proportional index ranked Singapore, Korea, Qatar, Kuwait, Japan, Thailand, Bahrain, Malaysia, Philippines and Netherlands as having the highest proportional environmental impact, whereas Brazil, USA, China, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, India, Russia, Australia and Peru had the highest absolute impact (i.e., total resource use, emissions and species threatened). Proportional and absolute environmental impact ranks were correlated, with mainly Asian countries having both high proportional and absolute impact. Despite weak concordance among the drivers of environmental impact, countries often perform poorly for different reasons. We found no evidence to support the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis of a non-linear relationship between impact and per capita wealth, although there was a weak reduction in environmental impact as per capita wealth increases. Using structural equation models to account for cross-correlation, we found that increasing wealth was the most important driver of environmental impact. Our results show that the global community not only has to encourage better environmental performance in less-developed countries, especially those in Asia, there is also a requirement to focus on the development of environmentally friendly practices in wealthier countries.
  13. Appanna R, Ponnampalavanar S, Lum Chai See L, Sekaran SD
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(9).
    PMID: 20927388 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013029
    The human leukocyte antigen alleles have been implicated as probable genetic markers in predicting the susceptibility and/or protection to severe manifestations of dengue virus (DENV) infection. In this present study, we aimed to investigate for the first time, the genotype variants of HLA Class 1(-A and -B) of DENV infected patients against healthy individuals in Malaysia.
  14. Mohd-Padil H, Tajul-Arifin K, Mohd-Adnan A
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(10):e13159.
    PMID: 20949082 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013159
    β2-Microglobulin (β(2)M) is the light chain of major histocompatibility class I (MHC I) that binds non-covalently with the α heavy chain. Both proteins attach to the antigen peptide, presenting a complex to the T cell to be destroyed via the immune mechanism.
  15. Too WC, Wong MT, Few LL, Konrad M
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(9):e12999.
    PMID: 20886003 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012999
    Choline kinase is the first enzyme in the CDP-choline pathway that synthesizes phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid in eukaryotic cell membranes. In humans, choline kinase exists as three isoforms (CKα1, α2, and β). Specific inhibition of CKα has been reported to selectively kill tumoral cells. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against CKα used in previous studies to detect the level of this isozyme in different cellular or biochemical contexts were able to detect either the α1 or the α2 isoform.
  16. Tang YQ, Jaganath IB, Sekaran SD
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(9):e12644.
    PMID: 20838625 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012644
    Phyllanthus is a traditional medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of many diseases including hepatitis and diabetes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of four Phyllanthus species (P.amarus, P.niruri, P.urinaria and P.watsonii) against skin melanoma and prostate cancer cells.
  17. Dieng H, Saifur RG, Hassan AA, Salmah MR, Boots M, Satho T, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(7):e11790.
    PMID: 20668543 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011790
    The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities.
  18. Ancrenaz M, Ambu L, Sunjoto I, Ahmad E, Manokaran K, Meijaard E, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(7):e11510.
    PMID: 20634974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011510
    Today the majority of wild great ape populations are found outside of the network of protected areas in both Africa and Asia, therefore determining if these populations are able to survive in forests that are exploited for timber or other extractive uses and how this is managed, is paramount for their conservation.
  19. Wilting A, Cord A, Hearn AJ, Hesse D, Mohamed A, Traeholdt C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2010;5(3):e9612.
    PMID: 20305809 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009612
    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat.
  20. Khor BS, Jamil MF, Adenan MI, Shu-Chien AC
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(12):e28340.
    PMID: 22205946 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028340
    A major obstacle in treating drug addiction is the severity of opiate withdrawal syndrome, which can lead to unwanted relapse. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid compound found in leaves of Mitragyna speciosa, a plant widely used by opiate addicts to mitigate the harshness of drug withdrawal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of mitragynine on anxiety behavior, cortisol level and expression of stress pathway related genes in zebrafish undergoing morphine withdrawal phase. Adult zebrafish were subjected to two weeks chronic morphine exposure at 1.5 mg/L, followed by withdrawal for 24 hours prior to tests. Using the novel tank diving tests, we first showed that morphine-withdrawn zebrafish display anxiety-related swimming behaviors such as decreased exploratory behavior and increased erratic movement. Morphine withdrawal also elevated whole-body cortisol levels, which confirms the phenotypic stress-like behaviors. Exposing morphine-withdrawn fish to mitragynine however attenuates majority of the stress-related swimming behaviors and concomitantly lower whole-body cortisol level. Using real-time PCR gene expression analysis, we also showed that mitragynine reduces the mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor receptors and prodynorphin in zebrafish brain during morphine withdrawal phase, revealing for the first time a possible link between mitragynine's ability to attenuate anxiety during opiate withdrawal with the stress-related corticotropin pathway.
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links