Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2561 in total

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  1. Baba Musta, Mohamad Md. Tan
    Highly weathered basaltic rock was exposed at PSK profile of Kuantan, Segamat Highway. The weathering profile from fresh rock soil can be observed at PKJ profile at Kg. Jabi Quarry. Twelve rock and soil samples from PSK profile and thirteen samples from PKJ profile have been collected for geochemical analysis. The objective of the analysis is to establish the behaviour of several major and trace elements in the weathering profile of the basaltic rock. The samples were analysed by XRF and XRD techniques. Petrographic study was done on fresh rock samples and concretions. The concentration of major elements (TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3) appear to be increased with the increasing of the degree of weathering whereas the concentration of SiO2 and CaO are decreased. There is a clear correlation between Fe2O3 + Al2O3 with L.O.I as well as between Fe2O3 with Al2O3. Behaviour of the trace elements (Ni, Co, Cr and Zn) against the weathering process are totally different. The secondary minerals (kaolinite, nactire, geothite, hematite and gibbsite) appear to control the behaviour of the major and trace elements.
    Batuan basalt yang terluluhawa sepenuhnya telah dicerap di lokaliti PSK Lebuhraya Segamat-Kuantan. Profil luluhawa yang boleh dilihat perubahan daripada batuan segar hingga tanih didapati di lokaliti PKJ Kuari Kg. Jabi. Dua contoh profil dengan masing-masing 12 sampel dan 13 sample tanih telah dikaji untuk menentukan perlakuan beberapa unsur major dan unsur surih batuan basalt yang terluluhawa. Kaedah analisis yang digunakan ialah pendarflour sinar-X (XRF) dan pembelauan sinar-X (XRF). Kajian petrografi pula dibuat pada sampel batuan segar dan sampel konkresi. Nilai unsur major TiO2, Al2O3 dan Fe2O3 bertambah dengan bertambahnya darjah luluhawa manakala SiO2 dan CaO menyusut. Hubungan korelasi Fe2O3 + Al2O3 dengan L.O.I dan Fe2O3 denagn Al2O3 adalah jelas. Unsur surih nikel (Ni) kobalt (Co), kromium (Cr) dan zink (Zn) mempunyai perlakuan yang berbeza-beza dengan luluhawa. Perlakuan yang ditunjukkan oleh unsur major dan surih tersebut dikawal oleh mineral sekunder (koalinit, nakrit, geotit, hematit dan gibsit).
  2. Khalid Md. Nor, Ithnin Abdul Jalil, Hassan Abu Kasim
    The relativistic Schrodinger equation is reinterpreted as describing a classical particle that mutually-interacts with other objects via electromagnetic-like gravity waves. The accompanying derivation equates the usual quantum mechanical energy and momentum operators to the effects of negative or attractive energy. Lorentz-like transformation equations are obtained that yield the uncertainty principle such that quantum uncertainty is ascribed to the disregard of a magnetic-like component of a gravity wave. Finally, quantum-level Maxwell-like equations that involve the above gravity waves are derived.
    Persamaan Schrodinger kerelatifan ditafsirkan sebagai memperihalkan suatu zarah klasik yang berinteraksi dengan jasad-jasad lain melalui gelombang graviti yang berciri keelektromagnetan. Terbitan sampingan menyamakan pengoperasi-pengeoperasi tenaga dan momentum mekanik kuantum dengan kesan-kesan tenaga negatif atau tarikan. Persamaan-persamaan bermirip transformasi Lorentz diperolehi yang menerbitkan prinsip ketakpastian dan memberi ketakpastian kuantum sebagai kesan pengabaian bahagian gelombang graviti yang bermirip kemagnetan. Akhir sekali, persamaan-persamaan diparas kuntum yang bermirip persamaan-persamaan Maxwell diterbitkan dan melibatkan gelombang graviti yang tersebut di atas.
  3. Yahya M.D., Lung C, Pinnas YL
    Sains Malaysiana, 1996;25(1):77-86.
    The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA)-specific antibodies in lupus-prone MRL/ lpr mice of different ages were compared to those against DNA. These mice elicited anti-MDA antibodies earlier and in higher levels that anti-DNA antibodies. The levels of immune complexes containing MDA adducts were also higher in these mice when compared to 3 other non-lupus strains. MDA binding to a 100 kDa serum protein was observed in 3 and 5 month old mice. Immune complexes involving anti-MDA antibodies and MDA adducts may represent an additional mechanism that contributes to disease pathogenesis in these mice.
  4. Darah I., Teo M, Ibrahim C.O.
    Atratoxin B1 which was extracted from a local sea cucumber, Holothuria atra is a potential antifungal agent against dermatophytes. Exposure of Microsporum canis mycelia inoculated into Sabouraud glucose agar medium to the 10 mg/ml atratoxin B1 solution, resulted in complete suppression of the fungal growth. Prolonged exposure to the atratoxin B] (72 hours) resulted with necrosis in a substantial portion of the existing hyphae. The main anomalies noted were the abnormally shaped hyphae and the alterations in its morphology and cytology.
    Atratoksin B] yang diekstrak daripada timun laut tempatan, Holothuria atra, adalah suatu agen antikulat yang berpotensi terhadap dermatofit. Pendedahan miselium Microsporum canis yang diinokulat ke dalam medium agar glukosa Sabouraud kepada larutan atratoksin B] berkepekatan 10 mg/ml, mengakibatkan penindasan lengkap dalam pertumbuhannya. Pendedahan yang lebih lama kepada larutan atratoksin B] (72 jam) mengakibatkan nekrosis berlaku pada sebahagian besar hifanya. Keganjilan yang jelas berlaku adalah ketidaknormalan pada bentuk hifanya dan juga pengubahsuaian yang terjadi pada morfologi dan sitologinya.
  5. Uyop Said
    This study mainly deals with the occurrence of palynomorph assemblage in the Tertiary and younger sediments from Kuala Kangsar area which were mapped by previous workers. The Tertiary sediment is interpreted to be deposited in small isolated basins and can be found through drilling. As other Tertiary sediments in the Malay Peninsula, they are seldom exposed. The age of the sediment from Kuala Kangsar area is interpreted to be Tertiary as it has similarities in lithology and sedimentary structures as those from other areas such as Batu Arang, Selangor. Palynological information can be utilized in interpreting the age and sedimentary environment of this sedi­ment. Several localities were chosen to be drilled to get samples for palynological study. These samples were processed and based on the normal palynological preparation technique. They were treated by hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid and followed by acetolysis for most of the samples to remove the cellulose. The observed palynomorph assemblage consists of younger age of pollen and spores (Quaternary-Recent). The dominant palynomorphs are those derived from shrub type plants (Ilex, Camnosperma, Gramineae and Palaquium) which normally dominating the river and swamp areas.
    Kajian ini mengkhusus kepada kehadiran palinomorf dalam bantuan sedimen berusia Tertiar dan lebih muda di sekitar Kuala Kangsar yang telah dipetakan oleh pengkaji terdahulu. Batuan ini telah ditafsirkan terendap dalam lembangan-lembangan kecil yang dikenalpasti melalui penggerudian. Seperti batuan seusia ditempat-tempat lain di Semenanjung Malaysia, batuan sedimen Tertiar di sekitar Kuala Kangsar jarang tersingkap ke permukaan. Persamaan jenis litologi dan struktur sedimen dari lembangan lain seperti di Batu Arang, Selangor dijadikan asas dalam penentuan usia batuan di sini. Maklumat palinologi dapat digunakan dalam mentafsir usia dan sekitaran pengendapan batuan ini. Beberapa lokaliti telah dipilih dan dilakukan penggerudian untuk mendapatkan sampel bagi kajian palinologi. Kesemua sampel telah diproses mengikut teknik penyediaan sampel palinologi yang lazim iaitu menggunakan asid hidrofluorik dan asid nitrik serta kebanyakan sampel yang diproses telah melalui proses asetolisis untuk membersihkan daripada bahan-bahan selulos sebelum dibuatkan slaid. Himpunan palinomoif yang dikenalpasti daripada sampel yang dikaji merupakan palinomoif berusia muda (Kuaterner-Resen). Debunga yang paling dominan terdiri daripada debunga yang dihasilkan oleh tumbuhan renek (Hex, Camnosperma, Gramineae dan Palaquium) yang lazimnya tumbuh dipinggir paya dan sungai.
  6. Abd. Rahim Samsudin, Umar Hamzah, Abd. Ghani Rafek, Haryono
    The whole Bachok area is covered by alluvial deposit. The alluvium has three aquifers at depth of 0 - 5, 15 - 30 and 40 - 60 meters below surface. Preliminary geophysical surveys including seismic refraction, reflection and resistivity techniques have been carried out to investigate thickness and depth of the aquifers, depth of bedrock and the salinity of the underground water. Results show that the position of first aquifer has been well determined by seismic refraction technique. Whereas the details of deeper aquifers and the bedrock have been determined by seismic reflection techniques. Geoelectrical resistivity low obtained for the first aquifer suggest that it could be due to either salt water intrusion or the presence of marine clay.
    Keseluruhan kawasan Bachok merupakan endapan aluvium. Endapan ini mempunyai tiga akuifer pada kedalaman 0 - 5 meter, 15 - 30 meter dan 40 - 60 meter. Kajian geofizik pada tahap awal yang merangkumi aspek seismos biasan, seismos pantulan dan kerintangan geoelektrik telah dilakukan untuk menyiasat ketebalan dan kedalaman akuifer, kedalaman batu dasar dan kemasinan air tanah. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa teknik seismos biasan telah dapat menghasilkan maklumat mengenai kedudukan akuifer pertama. manakala teknik seismos pantulan menghasilkan maklumat terperinci mengenai akuifer kedua dan ketiga serta batu dasar. Nilai kerintangan geoelektrik rendah bagi akuifer pertama menunjukkan sama ada disebabkan oleh intrusi air masin atau kehadiran lempung samudera.
  7. Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Md Jelas Haron
    Poly(hydroxamic acid) ion exchange resin was evaluated for speciation of iron(II) and iron(III) ions. Distribution coefficients indicate that the resin is more selective towards iron(III) ion. Column extractions show that iron(III) ion is quantatively extracted from sulfuric acid solutions at concentrations of between 0.01 to 0.00lM but only 2% or less of iron(II) ion is retained under these conditions. Further studies show that these two ions can be separated and their separations are not affected by the presence of nickel, zinc, copper, calcium, chloride, bromide, nitrate and sulphate.
    Resin penukar ion poli(asid hidroksamik) telah dikaji untuk penspesiesan ion-ionferum. Pekali taburan menunjukkan resin ini mempunyai kepilihan yang tinggi terhadap ion ferik berbanding dengan ionferus. Pengekstrakan dengan kaedah turus mendapati ion ferik dari larutan asid sulfurik 0.01 dan 0.00lM boleh diesktrak secara kuantitatif manakala pengekstrakan ion ferus hanya 2% atau lebih kecil. Kajian lanjut menunjukkan resin ini boleh memisahkan ion ferik dari ion ferus dan pemisahan ini tidak diganggu oleh kehadiran ion-ion nikel, zink, kuprum, kalsium, klorida, bromida, nitrat dan sulfat.
  8. Kaur S
    This study was conducted for 3 main purposes: 1) to determine if there was blue colour deficiency amongst diabetes mellitus (IDDM and NIDDM) patients without retinopathy, 2) to determine if the Dl5 test could be used to detect any colour vision defects amongst diabetics without retinopathy (all previous workers have used FM 100-Hue), and 3) to assess the performance of diabetics without retinopathy in detecting correct colour changes with the urine strip test. Thirty eight non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and 30 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients without retinopathy participated in this study. A control group of 23 normal subjects were also included in the study. Dl5 colour vision test was performed under daylight conditions. Colour dependent urine glucose test (Glukotest) was also performed on all subjects. The study showed that 47.1% of diabetics (47.4% NIDDM and 46.7% IDDM patients) without retinopathy had a blue colour deficiency. Amongst the diabetics with a blue colour deficiency, 25% of diabetics (22% of NIDDM and 28.6% of IDDM patients) failed to accurately match the strip colour with the comparison chart on the bottle.
    Kajian ini dilakukan untuk 3 tujuan: I) untuk menentukan samada terdapat gangguan penglihatan warna biru dalam pesakit diabetes mellitus (IDDM dan NIDDM) tanpa retinopati, 2) untuk menentukan samada ujian penglihatan warna Dl5 boleh digunakan untuk mengesan defek penglihatan warna dalam pesakit diabetes tanpa retinopati (kesemua kajian terdahulu menggunakan ujian FM 100-Hue). dan 3) untuk menilaikan prestasi pesakit diabetik tanpa retinopati dalam mengesan perubahan warna yang betul dengan menggunakan ujian strip urin. Tiga puluh lapan pesakit dengan non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) dan 30 pesakit dengan insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) tanpa retinopati menyertai kajian ini. Kumpulan kawalan mengandungi 23 orang subjek yang normal juga terlibat di dalam kajian ini. Ujian penglihatan warna Dl5 dilakukan di bawah cahaya daylight. Ujian glukos urin berasaskan warna (Glukotest) dilakukan ke atas semua subjek. Kajian menunjukkan 47.1% pesakit diabetes (47.4% pesakit NIDDM dan 46.7% pesakit IDDM) tanpa retinopati mengalami defisiensi warna biru. Dalam kumpulan diabetik dengan defisiensi warna biru, 25% pesakit diabetes (22.2% adalah pesakit NIDDM dan 28.6% adalah pesakit IDDM) gagal untuk memadankan dengan tepat warna strip dengan carta perbandingan warna di atas botol.
  9. Tengku M.T. Sembok
    Imaging Retrieval is a retrieval strategy which is based on modal logic where documents are viewed as possible worlds which are related through an accessibility relation established using their similarity/dissimilarity coefficients. With these accessibility relation documents are grouped into clusters based on a nearest neighbour concept. The work reported in this paper sets out to implement and evaluate the imaging retrieval as a relevance feedback retrieval with nearest neighbour clusters. The retrieval is implemented in two variations: a one-stage and a multi-stage retrieval. The results obtained from the experiments are enough to show the viability and validity of this strategy and to support it as something worth looking into further.
    Capaian Imejan ialah satu strategi capaian yang berasaskan mantik yang menganggap dukumen sebagai dunia mungkin yang berkaitan. Kaitan antara dokumen ialah hubungan capaian yang dilahirkan dengan menggunakan koefisien persamaan. Dengan hubungan capaian ini dokumen boleh dikumpulkan dalam kelompok berdasarkan konsep jiran terdekat. Kerja yang dilaporkan dalam kertas ini bertujuan untuk melaksanakan dan menilai capaian imejan sebagai capaian kerelevanan bermaklum balas dengan kelompok jiran terdekat. Capaian tersebut dilaksanakan dalam dua bentuk: capaian satu tahap dan multi tahap. Hasil yang diperolehi dari eksperimen adalah mencukupi untuk menunjukkan keupayaan dan kesahan strategi ini dan memberi sokongan sebagai sesuatu yang patut dikaji dengan lebih mendalam.
  10. Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff, Mustaffa Hj. Abdullah
    Samples of Mn0.6-zMgzZn0.4Fe2O4 ferrites (z = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) were prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of a single phase spinel structure. Analysis of XRD data indicates that the lattice parameter (a) and XRD density (ρXRD) decrease with the substitution of Mn by Mg. This ferrite system indicates a maximum magnetization at a certain composition of Mg. The initial permeability (µi) increases for samples with higher magnetization, while the coercivity vary in the opposite manner. DC resistivity (ρ) at 300 K was obtained for annealed an unannealed samples. It is seen that the resistivities at 300 K for samples with z = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 are lower than the others. The electrical resistivity as a function of temperature in one complete cycle (300 K---680 K---300 K) for unannealed samples indicates anomalies at Neel temperature (TN) and around a certain temperature (Tot). Anomaly at Tot can be seen during heating run and is greater for samples with higher Mg content. The anomaly is absent during cooling run and for the annealed samples except for Z = 0.6. The existence of this anomaly is discussed as due to a contribution of conductivity from the tetrahedral sites and cation redistribution between the two interstitial A and B sites. TN was determined from the variation of resistivity with temperature for the anealed samples and is seen to increase with increasing Mg content. The ferrimagnetic activation energy (Ef) is smaller than the paramagnetic activation energy (Ep) for all samples.
    Sistem ferit Mn0.6-zMgzZn0.4Fe2O4 (z = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 dan 0.6) disediakan melalui kaedah tindakbalas keadaan pepejal. Pembelauan sinar-X (XRD) mengesahkan kesemua sampel berstruktur spinel fasa tunggal. Analisa data XRD menunjukkan pemalar kekisi (a) dan ketumpatan XRD (rXRD) yang berkurang dengan penggantian Mn oleh Mg. Sistem ferit ini menunjukkan pemagnetan maksimum pada suatu komposisi Mg. Kebolehtelapan awal (µi) meningkat bagi sampel dengan pemagnetan yang tinggi manakala koersiviti (Hc) berubah sebaliknya. Kerintangan elektrik arus terus (ρat) pada 300 K diukur untuk sampel yang disepuh lindap dan yang tidak disepuh lindap. Nilai kerintangan elektrik pada 300 K untuk sampel dengan z = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 dan 0.6 didapati lebih rendah berbanding dengan yang lain. Perubahan kerintangan elektrik terhadap suhu dalam satu kitar (300 K---680 K---300 K) bagi sampel yang tidak disepuh lindap menunjukkan anomali pada suhu Neel (TN) dan suatu anomali di sekitar suatu suhu (Tot). Anomali pada Tot dicerap semasa pengukuran suhu meningkat dan semakin jelas untuk sampel dengan kandungan Mg yang tinggi. Anomali tersebut lenyap untuk pengukuran suhu menurun dan pengukuran bagi sampel yang disepuh lindap kecuali untuk z = 0.6. Kewujudan anomali tersebut dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron dan taburan semula kation-kation di antara dua tapak interstis A dan B. TN ditentukan daripada lengkung kerintangan melawan suhu untuk sampel yang disepuh lindap dan didapati meningkat dengan kandungan Mg. Kesemua sampel menunjukkan tenaga pengaktifan ferimagnet (Ef) yang lebih kecil daripada tenaga pengaktifan paramagnet (Ep ).
  11. Supian Samat
    A description is given of the numerical integration method for the calculation of the mean kidney dose for a Co-57 external radiation source. Based on this theory, a computer program was written. Initial calculation of the kidney volume shows that the method has a good accuracy. For the mean kidney dose, this method gives a satisfactory result, since the calculated value lies within the acceptable range of the central axis depth dose.
    Satu huraian diberikan tentang kaedah pengkamiran berangka untuk mengira dos buah pinggang purata untuk satu sumber sinaran luar Co-57. Berdasarkan teori ini, satu program komputer ditulis. Pengiraan awal isipadu buah pinggang menunjukkan yang kaedah ini mempunyai ketepatan yang baik. Untuk dos buah pinggang purata, kaedah ini memberikan keputusan yang baik, kerana nilai kiraan terletak diantara julat dos kedalaman paksi pusat yang diterima.
  12. Mustafa Hj. Abdullah, Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff
    The electrical resistivity of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferrite was measured as a function of temperature in the range 300-630 K. Two anomalies are observed in the resistivity curves for measurements during heating up. These anomalies are identified as a magnetic anomaly at the Neel temperature, TN = 598 K, while the other one at TOt = 445 K is discussed as due to the contribution of conduction from the tetrahedral sites. The anomaly at Tot was reduced in the measurements during recooling, while the anomaly at TN was disappeared completely during recooling and second cycle. These effects are discussed as due to the increase of Fe2+ ions at the octahedral sites as a result of cation redistribution at higher temperatures. A relatively small anomaly at Tot still can be observed during the second run. This is possible if the Fe2+ ions have a preference to be relocated at the tetrahedral sites at lower temperatures.
    Kerintangan elektrik Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 ferit telah diukur sebagai fungsi suhu dalam julat 300 - 630 K. Dua anomali dapat dicerap pada lengkung kerintangan bagi pengukuran semasa pemanasan. Dua anomali tersebut dikenalpasti sebagai anomali magnet pada suhu Neel, TN = 598 K, manakala yang satu lagi pada Tot = 445 K dibincangkan sebagai berpunca daripada sumbangan kekonduksian pada tapak tetrahedron. Anomali pada Tot mengurang dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula pada julat suhu yang sarna, manakala anomali pada TN terus lenyap dalam pengukuran semasa penyejukan semula dan juga semasa kitar kedua. Kesan ini dibincangkan sebagai disebabkan oleh peningkatan ion Fe2+ pada tapak oktahedron daripada proses taburan semula kation pada suhu tinggi. Anomali yang berkurang pada Tot masih boleh dicerap semasa pengukuran kitar kedua. Keadaan seperti ini adalah mungkin jika ion Fe2+ mempunyai kecenderongan untuk bertempat semula pada tapak tetrahedron apabila suhu menurun.
  13. Kaur H, Abdul Rahman Abdullah
    Some numerical methods for solving diffusion-convection equations in two dimensional space are formulated. Iterative scheme for each method is studied and numerical test to model problem is conducted. Comparison of methods is given in table form.
    Beberapa kaedah berangka bagi menyelesaikan persamaan resapan-olakan dalam ruang dua dimensi telah dirumuskan. Skema lelaran untuk setiap satunya dikaji dan pengujian berangka kepada masalah model dilakukan. Perbandingan antara kaedah telah diberikan secara berjadual.
  14. Mokhtar b. Abdullah
    Multicollinearity that may exist among explanatory variables in a regression model can make the regression coefficients insignificant and difficult to interpret. Principal component regression (PCR) is an effective way for solving multicollinearity in regression analysis. The existence of multicollinearity mayor may not be induced by the presence of influential observations. This paper discusses some diagnostic methods for identifying influential observations in the PCR. A data set on water quality of New York Rivers was considered to illustrate the methods.
    Multikolinearan yang wujud di kalangan pembolehubah penerang dalam model regresi boleh menyebabkan pekali regresi tidak bererti dan sukar untuk ditafsirkan. Regresi komponen utama (PCR) merupakan cara yang berkesan bagi menyelesaikan masalah multikolinearan dalam analisis regresi. Kewujudan multikolinearan mungkin disebabkan oleh data terpencil yang berpengaruh. Kertas ini membincangkan beberapa kaedah pengecaman bagi mengenalpasti data berpengaruh dalam PCR. Data tentang kualiti air di beberapa batang sungai di New York digunakan untuk memperihalkan kaedah pengecaman yang disarankan.
  15. Ajarem JS, Ahmad M
    The effects of prenatal caffeine exposure were examined on the morphological development and early development of reflexes in the mice pups, and further, the anxiety was also studied in the weaned mice using the plus-maze test. It was found that the postnatal body weight gain of the treated pups declined significantly. The normal eye-opening and hair appearance were also affected in the pups due to caffeine treatment. Measurement of early development of sensory motor reflexes in the pups showed that during the first week, caffeine had significantly stimulated the righting reflex, cliff avoidance and rotating reflexes with interaction between age and treatment doses. It was found in the plus-maze test that caffeine had significantly reduced the percentages of time spent as well as the entries into the open arms indicating for an anxiogenic action of caffeine in the young adult mouse. Also, caffeine stimulated the locomotor activity in the mouse as exemplified by an increase in the total number of arm entries in the plus­maze task. The present data support the basic conclusion that prenatal caffeine has a direct in utero action on the reflexes of the developing mouse pups and the anxiogenic action produced in them is longer lasting in nature.
  16. Shaharir bin Mohamad Zain, Zainal bin Abdul Aziz
    For the generalised diffusion equation with the potential of an harmonic ascillator, we obtain the exact real integral solution in a form similar to the existing Feynman integral solution.
    Penyelesaian tepat berkamiran nyata diperoleh dalam bentuk yang serupa dengan penyelesaian kamiran Feynman yang sedia ada, bagi persamaan resapan teritlak berpotensi pengayun harmonik
  17. Mohammad Ridwan Hidayat, Mazlan bt Othman
    Extinction and transformation coefficients for Kuala Lumpur were obtained from differential photometry of close red-blue star pairs using Johnson ­Morgan UBV photometric system.
    Kaedah fotometri pembezaan dengan menggunakan pasangan bintang merah biru dekat telah dipakai untuk memperoleh pekali transformasi eB dan eV Sistem fotometri yang digunakan adalah UBV Johnson-Morgan. Pencerapan adalah dilakukan di bandaraya (Kuala Lumpur) untuk menguji keberkesanan kaedah fotometri pembezaan. Untuk tujuan itu, nilai-nilai pekali pemupusan atomsfera peringkat kedua telah dibandingkan dengan nilai terdahulu.
  18. Supian bin Samat
    Using Ngraph software, the parameters of various functions were deter­mined by least squares analysis of fits to experimental efficiencies, εf of a coaxial HPGe detector for gamma rays in the energy range 59 keV to 1836 keV. When these parameters had been determined, their reliability was tested by the calculated goodness-of-fit parameter χ2cal It is shown that the function, where n = 3, gives satisfactory results.
    Menggunakan perisian Ngraph, parameter pelbagai fungsi ditentukan dengan kaedah penyesuaian kuasa-dua terkecil untuk kecekapan ujikaji, εf dalam julat tenaga sinar gama 59 ke V ke 1836 ke V untuk satu pengesan HPGe sepaksi. Setelah parameter ini ditentukan, kebolehpercayaan yang fungsi, dimana n = 3 memberikan keputusan yang memuaskan.
  19. Mohamed WN
    Sains Malaysiana, 1996;25(4):19-29.
    This paper examines the influence of maternal education on the acceptance of tetanus toxoid vaccine, using data from two villages in rural Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Maternal education results in increased tetanus toxoid uptake. Irrespective of the level of formal education, correct knowledge of the function of tetanus toxoid is positively associated with the probability of using the vaccine. It is therefore recommended that health education campaign be run to provide correct information on the importance of tetanus toxoid. This study can be used as a model for health programmes in other population with low levels of women education.
    Key words: Neonatal tetanus, maternal education, tetanus toxoid, binomial logistic regression, multinomial logistic regression.
    Kertas ini mengkaji pengaruh pendidikan ibu ke atas penerimaan vaksin tetanus toxoid, dengan menggunakan data daripada dua buah kampung di pendalaman Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Kajian ini mendapati pendidikan ibu dapat meningkatkan kadar pengambilan tetanus toxiod. Pengetahuan yang tepat tentang kepentingan vaksin tersebut didapati mempunyai hubungan yang positif dengan pengambilannya, tanpa mengira tahap pendidikan wanita. Dengan itu dicadangkan agar kempen pendidikan kesihatan dijalankan untuk menyebarkan maklumat yang jelas ten tang kepentingan tetanus toxoid. Kajian ini boleh dijadikan model bagi program kesihatan untuk populasi lain yang mempunyai tahap pendidikan wanita yang rendah.
    Kata kunci: Tetanus neonatal, pendidikan ibu, tetanus toxoid, regresi logistik binomial, regresi logistik multinomial.
  20. Zaiton Harun
    The Alur Lebey fault zone, which is paralled to part of Sungai Lebey, is exposed along the East-West Highway at km 221.5 to Kota Bharu. The outcrop is about 155 m wide on the east and 105 m wide on the west side of the road. Fault morphology can be recognised from the faceted hill spurs along the valley. The fault zone has been interpreted as a lithological contact between metavolcanic in the west and metaclastic in the east. The northern extension of the fault was interpreted as the contact between silicous pelite in the west, and chert and siliceous pelite in the east. Even though left lateral motion is exhibited within the zone, evidences of right lateral motion were also observed. On Landsat 3 image, a lineament in the direction of 355° representing the Alur Lebey fault zone could be traced for some 55 km from the East-West Highway to the middle of east Pattani River in Thailand. The outcrop at the East-West Highway comprises medium indurated mylonite containing lenses of quartz and tuff. Other than asymmetric lenses, quartz also occurs in the form of a comma, and pinch-and-swell structures. These forms of clasts are used to determine the sense of movements along the fault. In general, steeply to vertically dipping mylonite strikes towards the north. Fault planes with horizontal senses of motion cut the foliotion at an acute angle. Some of these fault planes are parallel to the foliation. There are also reverse fault planes with medium to gentle dips to the west. General motions of the fault were tOwards the east southeast. The mylonite foliation which strikes north contains evidences of both left and right lateral motions, whereas the northwest striking foliation exhibits left lateral motion. Several fault-associated folds plunging towards the north northwest, south southwest and east were observed in the fault zone. The combination of field observations and structural analysis are used to arrive at the interpretation on the history of the fault zone. Four systems of compressions (maximum principal stresses) can be deduced from the study. these are the north-northeast, east-southeast, east-southeast, and the youngest north-northeast directions. The oldest deformation is characterised by dextral movement along the mylonite zone. the zone contains asymmetric lenses of tuff and quartz striking 355° to 05°. The sinistral movement along mylonite fooliation striking 354° and 326° is the evidence of the east-southest compressive stress system. Both deformation episodes could represent aseismic faultings under fairly high confining pressure. However the recurrance of the east-southest stress system could have caused the sinistral movement along the northwest and north striking fault planes, the reverse faulting on south to southwest planes and the resulting drag folds. The dextral movement along the north and northwest planes is the youngest deformation episode. The final two episodes could represent brittle deformation resulting from the shallow position of the rock body at least along that particular fault segment.
    Zon sesar Alur Lebey yang selari dengan sebahagian Sungai Lebey, tersingkap di km 221.5 dari Kota Bharu di lebuhraya Timur-Barat. Panjang singkapan keratan di timur jalan di sekitar 155m, manakala di barat jalan pula 105m. Morfologi sesar ditunjukkan oleh barisan susuh bukit beifaset di sepanjang lembah. Di lapangan dan di peta geologi, sesar ini ditafsirkan sebagai sempadan di antara metavolkano di baratnya dan metaklas di timurnya. Lanjutannya ke utara ditafsirkan bahawa sesar tersebut memotong sepanjang sempadan di antara pelit bersilika di barat dan rijang serta pelit bersilika di timur. Sungguhpun gerakan mendatar ke kiri terpamer dalam milonit, namun pergerakan mendatar ke kanan boleh dicerap dalam zon tersebut. Dalam area Lansat 3 bertarikh 10 Januari 1979 lineamen berjurus 355° yang mewakili zon sesar Alur Lebey dapat dikesan sepanjang 55 Ian dari Lebuhraya Timur-Barat hingga ke pertengahan bahagian timur Sungai Pattani di Thailand. Singkapan sesar tersebut terdiri daripada milonit separuh terluluhawa yang mengandungi kekanta kuarza dan tuf. Selain berbentuk kekanta, kuarza juga berbentuk koma, dan ramping-dan-ampul. Klas yang berbentuk tersebut digunakan untuk menentukan hala pergerakan dalam zon sesar. Umumnya milonit menjurus ke utara dengan kemiringannya euram hingga tegak. Satah-satah sesar mendatar memo tong foliasi milonit pada sudut tirus atauJdan ada pula yang selari dengannya. Selain sesar mendatar terdapat pula sesar songsang yang kemiringannya landai hingga sederhana ke barat. Gerakan umumnya menyongsang ke timur-tenggara. Foliasi milonit yang menjurus ke utara mengandungi tanda-tanda pergerakan ke kiri dan ke kanan, manakala foliasi yang menjurus ke baratlaut mengandungi hanya pergerakan mendatar ke kiri. Sebilangan lipatan yang berkait-rapat dengan sesar menunjam ke utara-baratlaut, selatan-baratdaya dan ke arah timur dieerap di dalam zon sesar tersebut. Gabungan eerapan lapangan dan analisis struktur akhirnya sampai kepada pentafsiran sejarah canggaan yang berlaku di dalam zon sesar tersebut. Empat sistem tegasan boleh disimpulkan. Sistem tegasan maksimum (mampatan) tersebut ialah .utara-timurlaut, timur­tenggara, dan yang termuda utara-timurlaut. Canggaan tertua dicirikan oleh pergerakan dekstral di sepanjang zon milonit yang mengandungi kekanta tuf dan kuarza yang asimetri berjurus 355° hingga 05°. Pergerakan sinistral di sepanjang milonit yang berjurus 354° dan 326° merupakan bukti daripada sistem tegasan timur-tenggara. kedua-dua episod canggaan mungkin mewakili penyesaran aseismos yang berlaku dalam sekitaran tekanan mengepung yang tinggi. Namun demikian perulangan tindakan sistem tegasan timur-tenggara menyebabkan pergerakan sinistral di sepanjang satah sesar berjurus baratlaut dan utara, penyesaran songsang di atas satah berjurus selatan hingga baratdaya dan lipatan seret. Pergerakan dekstral di sepanjang satah berjurus utara dan baratdaya merupakan episod canggaan yang termuda. Dua episod yang terakhir mungkin mewakili canggan rapuh akibat daripada kedudukan cetek jasad batuan sekurang-kurangnya di sepanjang segmen sesar tersebut.
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