For almost a half-decade, the unique autocorrelation properties of Golay complementary pairs (GCP) have added a significant value to the key performance of conventional time-domain multiplexed fiber Bragg grating sensors (TDM-FBGs). However, the employment of the unipolar form of Golay coded TDM-FBG has suffered from several performance flaws, such as limited improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNIR), noisy backgrounds, and distorted signals. Therefore, we propose and experimentally implement several digital filtering techniques to mitigate such limitations. Moving averages (MA), Savitzky-Golay (SG), and moving median (MM) filters were deployed to process the signals from two low reflectance FBG sensors located after around 16 km of fiber. The first part of the experiment discussed the sole deployment of Golay codes from 4 bits to 256 bits in the TDM-FBG sensor. As a result, the total SNIR of around 8.8 dB was experimentally confirmed for the longest 256-bit code. Furthermore, the individual deployment of MA, MM, and SG filters within the mentioned decoded sequences secured a further significant increase in SNIR of around 4, 3.5, and 3 dB, respectively. Thus, the deployment of the filtering technique alone resulted in at least four times faster measurement time (equivalent to 3 dB SNIR). Overall, the experimental analysis confirmed that MM outperformed the other two techniques in better signal shape, fastest signal transition time, comparable SNIR, and capability to maintain high spatial resolution.
A flow injection analysis (FIA) incorporating a thiosemicarbazone-based coated wire electrode (CWE) was developed method for the determination of mercury(II). A 0.1 M KNO(3) carrier stream with pH between 1 and 5 and flow rate of 1 mL·min(-1) were used as optimum parameters. A linear plot within the concentration range of 5 × 10(-6)–0.1 M Hg(II), slope of 27.8 ± 1 mV per decade and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.984 were obtained. The system was successfully applied for the determination of mercury(II) in dental amalgam solutions and spiked environmental water samples. Highly reproducible measurements with relative standard deviation (RSD < 1% (n = 3)) were obtained, giving a typical throughput of 30 samples·h(-1).
The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS) for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute new information to the system and wastes system resources. Existing approaches to deal with this problem cannot fulfill the real time demands to process the massive RFID data stream. We propose a data filtering approach that efficiently detects and removes duplicate readings from RFID data streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach offers a significant improvement as compared to the existing approaches.
A moisture detection of single rice grains using a slim and small open-ended coaxial probe is presented. The coaxial probe is suitable for the nondestructive measurement of moisture values in the rice grains ranging from from 9.5% to 26%. Empirical polynomial models are developed to predict the gravimetric moisture content of rice based on measured reflection coefficients using a vector network analyzer. The relationship between the reflection coefficient and relative permittivity were also created using a regression method and expressed in a polynomial model, whose model coefficients were obtained by fitting the data from Finite Element-based simulation. Besides, the designed single rice grain sample holder and experimental set-up were shown. The measurement of single rice grains in this study is more precise compared to the measurement in conventional bulk rice grains, as the random air gap present in the bulk rice grains is excluded.
Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are single-hop network systems, where sensors gather the body's vital signs and send them directly to master nodes (MNs). The sensors are distributed in or on the body. Therefore, body posture, clothing, muscle movement, body temperature, and climatic conditions generally influence the quality of the wireless link between sensors and the destination. Hence, in some cases, single hop transmission ('direct transmission') is not sufficient to deliver the signals to the destination. Therefore, we propose an emergency-based cooperative communication protocol for WBAN, named Critical Data-based Incremental Cooperative Communication (CD-ICC), based on the IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA standard but assuming a lognormal shadowing channel model. In this paper, a complete study of a system model is inspected in the terms of the channel path loss, the successful transmission probability, and the outage probability. Then a mathematical model is derived for the proposed protocol, end-to-end delay, duty cycle, and average power consumption. A new back-off time is proposed within CD-ICC, which ensures the best relays cooperate in a distributed manner. The design objective of the CD-ICC is to reduce the end-to-end delay, the duty cycle, and the average power transmission. The simulation and numerical results presented here show that, under general conditions, CD-ICC can enhance network performance compared to direct transmission mode (DTM) IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and benchmarking. To this end, we have shown that the power saving when using CD-ICC is 37.5% with respect to DTM IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA and 10% with respect to MI-ICC.
Metal cutting processes are important due to increased consumer demands for quality metal cutting related products (more precise tolerances and better product surface roughness) that has driven the metal cutting industry to continuously improve quality control of metal cutting processes. This paper presents optimum surface roughness by using milling mould aluminium alloys (AA6061-T6) with Response Ant Colony Optimization (RACO). The approach is based on Response Surface Method (RSM) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO). The main objectives to find the optimized parameters and the most dominant variables (cutting speed, feedrate, axial depth and radial depth). The first order model indicates that the feedrate is the most significant factor affecting surface roughness.
Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer 70/30 thin films are prepared by spin coating. The crystalline structure of these films is investigated by varying the annealing temperature from the ferroelectric phase to the paraelectric phase. A hot plate was used to produce a direct and an efficient annealing effect on the thin film. The dielectric, ferroelectric and pyroelectric properties of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin films are measured as a function of different annealing temperatures (80 to 140 °C). It was found that an annealing temperature of 100 °C (slightly above the Curie temperature, Tc) has induced a highly crystalline β phase with a rod-like crystal structure, as examined by X-ray. Such a crystal structure yields a high remanent polarization, Pr = 94 mC/m2, and pyroelectric constant, p = 24 μC/m2K. A higher annealing temperature exhibits an elongated needle-like crystal domain, resulting in a decrease in the crystalline structure and the functional electrical properties. This study revealed that highly crystalline P(VDF-TrFE) thin films could be induced at 100 °C by annealing the thin film with a simple and cheap method.
This article describes chemically modified polyaniline and graphene (PANI/GP) composite nanofibers prepared by self-assembly process using oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer and graphene in the presence of a solution containing poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (PMVEA). Characterization of the composite nanofibers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images revealed the size of the PANI nanofibers ranged from 90 to 360 nm in diameter and was greatly influenced by the proportion of PMVEA and graphene. The composite nanofibers with an immobilized DNA probe were used for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using an electrochemical technique. A photochemical indicator, methylene blue (MB) was used to monitor the hybridization of target DNA by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The detection range of DNA biosensor was obtained from of 10-6-10-9 M with the detection limit of 7.853 × 10-7 M under optimum conditions. The results show that the composite nanofibers have a great potential in a range of applications for DNA sensors.
This work presents an experimental study of gold-DNA-gold structures in the presence and absence of external magnetic fields with strengths less than 1,200.00 mT. The DNA strands, extracted by standard method were used to fabricate a Metal-DNA-Metal (MDM) structure. Its electric behavior when subjected to a magnetic field was studied through its current-voltage (I-V) curve. Acquisition of the I-V curve demonstrated that DNA as a semiconductor exhibits diode behavior in the MDM structure. The current versus magnetic field strength followed a decreasing trend because of a diminished mobility in the presence of a low magnetic field. This made clear that an externally imposed magnetic field would boost resistance of the MDM structure up to 1,000.00 mT and for higher magnetic field strengths we can observe an increase in potential barrier in MDM junction. The magnetic sensitivity indicates the promise of using MDM structures as potential magnetic sensors.
Sensing and communication coverage are among the most important trade-offs in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) design. A minimum bound of sensing coverage is vital in scheduling, target tracking and redeployment phases, as well as providing communication coverage. Some methods measure the coverage as a percentage value, but detailed information has been missing. Two scenarios with equal coverage percentage may not have the same Quality of Coverage (QoC). In this paper, we propose a new coverage measurement method using Delaunay Triangulation (DT). This can provide the value for all coverage measurement tools. Moreover, it categorizes sensors as 'fat', 'healthy' or 'thin' to show the dense, optimal and scattered areas. It can also yield the largest empty area of sensors in the field. Simulation results show that the proposed DT method can achieve accurate coverage information, and provides many tools to compare QoC between different scenarios.
In this work, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated for determination of amoxicillin in bovine milk samples by decoration of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using ethylenediamine (en) as a cross linker (AuNPs/en-MWCNTs). The constructed nanocomposite was homogenized in dimethylformamide and drop casted on screen printed electrode. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the synthesized nanocomposites. The results show that the synthesized nanocomposites induced a remarkable synergetic effect for the oxidation of amoxicillin. Effect of some parameters, including pH, buffer, scan rate, accumulation potential, accumulation time and amount of casted nanocomposites, on the sensitivity of fabricated sensor were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, there was two linear calibration ranges from 0.2-10 µM and 10-30 µM with equations of Ipa (µA) = 2.88C (µM) + 1.2017; r = 0.9939 and Ipa (µA) = 0.88C (µM) + 22.97; r = 0.9973, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were calculated as 0.015 µM and 0.149 µM, respectively. The fabricated electrochemical sensor was successfully applied for determination of Amoxicillin in bovine milk samples and all results compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) standard method.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) are also known as intelligent transportation systems. VANET ensures timely and accurate communications between vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) to improve road safety and enhance the efficiency of traffic flow. Due to its open wireless boundary and high mobility, VANET is vulnerable to malicious nodes that could gain access into the network and carry out serious medium access control (MAC) layer threats, such as denial of service (DoS) attacks, data modification attacks, impersonation attacks, Sybil attacks, and replay attacks. This could affect the network security and privacy, causing harm to the information exchange within the network by genuine nodes and increase fatal impacts on the road. Therefore, a novel secure trust-based architecture that utilizes blockchain technology has been proposed to increase security and privacy to mitigate the aforementioned MAC layer attacks. A series of experiment has been conducted using the Veins simulation tool to assess the performance of the proposed solution in the terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), end-to-end delay, packet loss, transmission overhead, and computational cost.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the common injuries when the human head receives an impact due to an accident or fall and is one of the most frequently submitted insurance claims. However, it is often always misused when individuals attempt an insurance fraud claim by providing false medical conditions. Therefore, there is a need for an instant brain condition classification system. This study presents a novel classification architecture that can classify non-severe TBI patients and healthy subjects employing resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) as the input, solving the immobility issue of the computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proposed architecture makes use of long short term memory (LSTM) and error-correcting output coding support vector machine (ECOC-SVM) to perform multiclass classification. The pre-processed EEG time series are supplied to the network by each time step, where important information from the previous time step will be remembered by the LSTM cell. Activations from the LSTM cell is used to train an ECOC-SVM. The temporal advantages of the EEG were amplified and able to achieve a classification accuracy of 100%. The proposed method was compared to existing works in the literature, and it is shown that the proposed method is superior in terms of classification accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision.
Currently, smart farming is considered an effective solution to enhance the productivity of farms; thereby, it has recently received broad interest from service providers to offer a wide range of applications, from pest identification to asset monitoring. Although the emergence of digital technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs), has led to significant advances in the smart farming industry, farming operations still need more efficient solutions. On the other hand, the utilization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, is growing rapidly across many civil application domains. This paper aims to develop a farm monitoring system that incorporates UAV, LPWAN, and IoT technologies to transform the current farm management approach and aid farmers in obtaining actionable data from their farm operations. In this regard, an IoT-based water quality monitoring system was developed because water is an essential aspect in livestock development. Then, based on the Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN®) technology, a multi-channel LoRaWAN® gateway was developed and integrated into a vertical takeoff and landing drone to convey collected data from the sensors to the cloud for further analysis. In addition, to develop LoRaWAN®-based aerial communication, a series of measurements and simulations were performed under different configurations and scenarios. Finally, to enhance the efficiency of aerial-based data collection, the UAV path planning was optimized. Measurement results showed that the maximum achievable LoRa coverage when operating on-air via the drone is about 10 km, and the Longley-Rice irregular terrain model provides the most suitable path loss model for the scenario of large-scale farms, and a multi-channel gateway with a spreading factor of 12 provides the most reliable communication link at a high drone speed (up to 95 km/h). Simulation results showed that the developed system can overcome the coverage limitation of LoRaWAN® and it can establish a reliable communication link over large-scale wireless sensor networks. In addition, it was shown that by optimizing flight paths, aerial data collection could be performed in a much shorter time than industrial mission planning (up to four times in our case).
High demand of semiconductor gas sensor works at low operating temperature to as low as 100 °C has led to the fabrication of gas sensor based on TiO₂ nanoparticles. A sensing film of gas sensor was prepared by mixing the sensing material, TiO₂ (P25) and glass powder, and B₂O₃ with organic binder. The sensing film was annealed at temperature of 500 °C in 30 min. The morphological and structural properties of the sensing film were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The gas sensor was exposed to hydrogen with concentration of 100⁻1000 ppm and was tested at different operating temperatures which are 100 °C, 200 °C, and 300 °C to find the optimum operating temperature for producing the highest sensitivity. The gas sensor exhibited p-type conductivity based on decreased current when exposed to hydrogen. The gas sensor showed capability in sensing low concentration of hydrogen to as low as 100 ppm at 100 °C.
A developed colorimetric pH sensor film based on edible materials for real-time monitoring of food freshness is described. The mixed natural dyes from edible plants Clitoria sp and Brassica sp were extracted and incorporated into ι-carrageenan film as a colorimetric pH sensor film for monitoring food spoilage and its freshness. The color changes of the developed colorimetric sensor film were measured with chromametry and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. Experimental results show that colorimetric pH sensor film demonstrated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between CIE-L*a*b* coordinates color system indicated that the developed colorimetric sensor film was able to give a gradual change in color over a wide pH range. The color of the colorimetric sensor film also changes discretely and linearly with factors that contribute to food spoilage using shrimp and durian samples. Moreover, the developed colorimetric pH sensor film has the potential to be used as a safe, non-destructive testing and also a flexibly visual method for direct assessment of food freshness indicator during storage.
Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0-100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types.
Armalcolite, a rare ceramic mineral and normally found in the lunar earth, was synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. The in situ phase-changed novel ceramic nanocrystals of Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe based oxide (CMTFOx), their chemical reactions and bonding with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and microscopy. Water absorption of all the CMTFOx was high. The lower dielectric loss tangent value (0.155 at 1 MHz) was obtained for the ceramic sintered at 1050 °C (S1050) and it became lowest for the S1050/PDMS nanocomposite (0.002 at 1 MHz) film, which was made by spin coating at 3000 rpm. The excellent flexibility (static modulus ≈ 0.27 MPa and elongation > 90%), viscoelastic property (tanδ = E″/E': 0.225) and glass transition temperature (Tg: -58.5 °C) were obtained for S1050/PDMS film. Parallel-plate capacitive and flexible resistive humidity sensors have been developed successfully. The best sensing performance of the present S1050 (3000%) and its flexible S1050/PDMS composite film (306%) based humidity sensors was found to be at 100 Hz, better than conventional materials.
Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%-95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors.