Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Ng AK, Hairi NN, Dahlui M, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Abdul Majid H
    Br J Nutr, 2020 12 14;124(11):1207-1218.
    PMID: 32624008 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520002202
    The longitudinal relationship between muscle strength, dietary intake and physical activity among adolescents is not well understood. We investigated the trend and longitudinal effects of dietary intakes and physical activity scores on muscle strength in adolescents. This prospective cohort study consisted of 436 adolescents (134 males; 302 females) aged 13 years at baseline (2012) who were followed up at the ages of 15 (2014) and 17 (2016) years, respectively. We measured muscle strength using a calibrated hand dynamometer, estimated dietary intake with a 7-d dietary history and physical activity scores with a validated physical activity questionnaire for older children. A generalised estimating equation was used to examine the effect of dietary intakes and physical activity on muscle strength changes. The analysis was performed separately by sex. The muscle strength for males and females had increased within the 5-year period. The dietary intakes (energy and macronutrients) also increased initially but plateaued after the age of 15 years for both sexes. Females recorded a significant declining trend in physical activity scores compared with males as they grew older. A significant positive longitudinal relationship was found between protein (β = 0·035; P = 0·016), carbohydrate intake (β = 0·002; P = 0·013) and muscle strength among males. However, no longitudinal relationship was found between dietary intake, physical activity and muscle strength among females. Higher protein and carbohydrate intake among males was associated with higher muscle strength but was not observed in females. Nutrition and physical activity focusing on strength building are required in early adolescence and need to be tailored to males and females accordingly.
  2. Cheikh Ismail L, Osaili TM, Mohamad MN, Al Marzouqi A, Jarrar AH, Zampelas A, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2021 09 14;126(5):757-766.
    PMID: 33198840 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520004547
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally, forcing countries to apply lockdowns and strict social distancing measures. The aim of this study was to assess eating habits and lifestyle behaviours among residents of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during the lockdown. A cross-sectional study among adult residents of the MENA region was conducted using an online questionnaire designed on Google Forms during April 2020. A total of 2970 participants from eighteen countries participated in the present study. During the pandemic, over 30 % reported weight gain, 6·2 % consumed five or more meals per d compared with 2·2 % before the pandemic (P < 0·001) and 48·8 % did not consume fruits on a daily basis. Moreover, 39·1 % did not engage in physical activity, and over 35 % spent more than 5 h/d on screens. A significant association between the frequency of training during the pandemic and the reported change in weight was found (P < 0·001). A significantly higher percentage of participants reported physical and emotional exhaustion, irritability and tension either all the time or a large part of the time during the pandemic (P < 0·001). Although a high percentage of participants reported sleeping more hours per night during the pandemic, 63 % had sleep disturbances. The study highlights that the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity and psychological problems among adults in the MENA region.
  3. Harms LM, Scalbert A, Zamora-Ros R, Rinaldi S, Jenab M, Murphy N, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2020 01 28;123(2):198-208.
    PMID: 31583990 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114519002538
    Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
  4. Husain R, Duncan MT, Cheah SH, Ch'ng SL
    Br J Nutr, 1987 Jul;58(1):41-8.
    PMID: 3620437
    1. Anthropometric variables, resting heart rate and respiratory gas exchange were measured in twelve male and nine female Asiatic adult Moslems during the month of Ramadan, the week before and the month after Ramadan. 2. Energy intakes were estimated from dietary recall during fasting and non-fasting conditions. 3. Both male and female subjects experienced a decrease in body mass with the reduction in energy intake during fasting. Males experienced a greater reduction than females in resting heart rate; females lost more body-weight and subcutaneous fat than males. 4. Urine output and fluid intake were measured in twelve male subjects for 1 d during each week of fasting and 1 d during the pre-fasting control period. Among the subjects examined, the Ramadan regimen did not result in changes in the pattern of fluid exchange.
  5. Gouk SW, Cheng SF, Ong AS, Chuah CH
    Br J Nutr, 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1174-80.
    PMID: 24286356 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513003668
    In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-acyl chain SFA, namely palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), at sn-1, 3 positions of TAG on obesity. Throughout the 15 weeks of the experimental period, C57BL/6 mice were fed diets fortified with cocoa butter, sal stearin (SAL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and high-oleic sunflower oil (HOS). The sn-1, 3 positions were varied by 16:0, 18:0 and 18:1, whilst the sn-2 position was preserved with 18:1. The HOS-enriched diet was found to lead to the highest fat deposition. This was in accordance with our previous postulation. Upon normalisation of total fat deposited with food intake to obtain the fat:feed ratio, interestingly, mice fed the SAL-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral fat/feed and total fat/feed compared with those fed the PMF-enriched diet, despite their similarity in SFA-unsaturated fatty acid-SFA profile. That long-chain SFA at sn-1, 3 positions concomitantly with an unsaturated FA at the sn-2 position exert an obesity-reducing effect was further validated. The present study is the first of its kind to demonstrate that SFA of different chain lengths at sn-1, 3 positions exert profound effects on fat accretion.
  6. Gouk SW, Cheng SF, Mok JS, Ong AS, Chuah CH
    Br J Nutr, 2013 Dec 14;110(11):1987-95.
    PMID: 23756564 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114513001475
    The present study aimed to determine the effect of positional distribution of long-chain SFA in TAG, especially at the sn-1, 3 positions, on fat deposition using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Throughout the 15 weeks of the study, mice were fed with diets fortified with palm olein (POo), chemically interesterified POo (IPOo) and soyabean oil (SOY). Mice receiving the SOY-enriched diet gained significantly higher amounts of subcutaneous fat (P= 0·011) and total fat (P= 0·013) compared with the POo group, despite similar body mass gain being recorded. During normalisation with food consumption to obtain the fat:feed ratio, mice fed with the POo-enriched diet exhibited significantly lower visceral (P= 0·044), subcutaneous (P= 0·006) and total (P= 0·003) fat:feed than those fed with the SOY-enriched diet. It is noteworthy that mice fed with the IPOo-enriched diet gained 14·3 % more fat per food consumed when compared with the POo group (P= 0·013), despite their identical total fatty acid compositions. This was mainly attributed to the higher content of long-chain SFA at the sn-1, 3 positions of TAG in POo, which results in delayed absorption after deacylation as evidenced by the higher amounts of long-chain SFA excreted in the faeces of mice fed with the POo-enriched diet. Negative correlations were found between the subcutaneous, visceral as well as total fat accretion per food consumption and the total SFA content at the sn-1, 3 positions, while no relationships were found for MUFA and PUFA. The present results show that the positional distribution of long-chain SFA exerts a more profound effect on body fat accretion than the total SFA content.
  7. Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JG, Deurenberg P
    Br J Nutr, 2001 Apr;85(4):491-8.
    PMID: 11348564 DOI: 10.1079/bjn2000276
    This cross-sectional study compared body fat percentage (BF%) obtained from a four-compartment (4C) model with BF% from hydrometry (using 2H2O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and densitometry among the three main ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore, and determined the suitability of two-compartment (2C) models as surrogate methods for assessing BF% among different ethnic groups. A total of 291 subjects (108 Chinese, seventy-six Malays, 107 Indians) were selected to ensure an adequate representation of age range (18-75 years) and BMI range (16-40 kg/m2) of the general adult population, with almost equal numbers from each gender group. Body weight was measured, together with body height, total body water by 2H2O dilution, densitometry with Bodpod and bone mineral content with Hologic QDR-4500. BF% measurements with a 4C model for the subgroups were: Chinese females 33.5 (sd 7.5), Chinese males 24.4 (sd 6.1), Malay females 37.8 (sd 6.3), Malay males 26.0 (sd 7.6), Indian females 38.2 (sd 7.0), Indian males 28.1 (sd 5.5). Differences between BF% measured by the 4C and 2C models (hydrometry, DXA and densitometry) were found, with underestimation of BF% in all the ethnic-gender groups by DXA of 2.1-4.2 BF% and by densitometry of 0.5-3.2 BF%). On a group level, the differences in BF% between the 4C model and 2H2O were the lowest (0.0-1.4 BF% in the different groups), while differences between the 4C model and DXA were the highest. Differences between the 4C model and 2H2O and between the 4C model and DXA were positively correlated with the 4C model, water fraction (f(water)) of fat-free mass (FFM) and the mineral fraction (f(mineral)) of FFM, and negatively correlated with density of the FFM (D(FFM)), while the difference between 4C model and densitometry correlated with these variables negatively and positively respectively (i.e. the correlations were opposite). The largest contributors to the observed differences were f(water) and D(FFM). When validated against the reference 4C model, 2C models were found to be unsuitable for accurate measurements of BF% at the individual level, owing to the high errors and violation of assumptions of constant hydration of FFM and D(FFM) among the ethnic groups. On a group level, the best 2C model for measuring BF% among Singaporeans was found to be 2H2O.
  8. Cheah SH, Ch'ng SL, Husain R, Duncan MT
    Br J Nutr, 1990 Mar;63(2):329-37.
    PMID: 2334668
    Urine analysis was conducted on male Muslims before, during and after Ramadan. Various changes in urine volume, osmolality, total solute, sodium, potassium, titratable acidity and urea in response to altered feeding and activity regimens were found. There were no detectable levels of ketones, protein, glucose, urobilinogen and haemoglobin. It was concluded that the body adapted to fasting during Ramadan and that there were no adverse effects on renal function.
  9. Liu A, Byrne NM, Kagawa M, Ma G, Poh BK, Ismail MN, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2011 Nov;106(9):1390-7.
    PMID: 21736824 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511001681
    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.
  10. Alimon AR, Ivan M, Jalaludin S
    Br J Nutr, 2011 Oct;106(8):1224-30.
    PMID: 21492494 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511001462
    A 6-month experiment with nine dietary treatments was conducted to determine amounts of S plus Mo supplements required to maintain normal hepatic concentrations of Cu and Mo and to prevent chronic Cu toxicity in lambs fed palm kernel cake (PKC) diets. All diets consisted of PKC supplemented with minerals and vitamins, and with appropriate amounts per kg DM of S (level 0 or level 1 = 1 g) as sodium sulfate and/or Mo (level 0; level 1 = 4 mg; level 2 = 8 mg; level 3 = 16 mg; level 4 = 32 mg) as ammonium molybdate to form treatments S0Mo1, S0Mo2, S0Mo3, S0Mo4, S1Mo0, S1Mo1, S1Mo2, S1Mo3 and S1Mo4.There was no effect (P>0·05) of dietary treatments on the growth performance of the lambs. The dietary supplement of 1 g S plus 8 mg Mo per kg dietary DM (treatment S1Mo2) prevented accumulation of Cu in the liver without elevation of the concentration of Mo (P>0·05). The treatments S0Mo1, S0Mo2 and S0Mo3 increased (P 
  11. Mohd Redzwan S, Abd Mutalib MS, Wang JS, Ahmad Z, Kang MS, Abdul Rahman N', et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2016 Jan 14;115(1):39-54.
    PMID: 26490018 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114515004109
    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.
  12. Naharudin MN, Adams J, Richardson H, Thomson T, Oxinou C, Marshall C, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2020 Mar 16.
    PMID: 32174286 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520001002
    Given the common view that pre-exercise nutrition/breakfast is important for performance, the present study investigated whether breakfast influences resistance exercise performance via a physiological or psychological effect. Twenty-two resistance-trained, breakfast-consuming men completed three experimental trials, consuming water-only (WAT), or semi-solid breakfasts containing 0 g/kg (PLA) or 1·5 g/kg (CHO) maltodextrin. PLA and CHO meals contained xanthan gum and low-energy flavouring (approximately 122 kJ), and subjects were told both 'contained energy'. At 2 h post-meal, subjects completed four sets of back squat and bench press to failure at 90 % ten repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken pre-meal, 45 min and 105 min post-meal to measure serum/plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations. Subjective hunger/fullness was also measured. Total back squat repetitions were greater in CHO (44 (sd 10) repetitions) and PLA (43 (sd 10) repetitions) than WAT (38 (sd 10) repetitions; P < 0·001). Total bench press repetitions were similar between trials (WAT 37 (sd 7) repetitions; CHO 39 (sd 7) repetitions; PLA 38 (sd 7) repetitions; P = 0·130). Performance was similar between CHO and PLA trials. Hunger was suppressed and fullness increased similarly in PLA and CHO, relative to WAT (P < 0·001). During CHO, plasma glucose was elevated at 45 min (P < 0·05), whilst serum insulin was elevated (P < 0·05) and plasma ghrelin suppressed at 45 and 105 min (P < 0·05). These results suggest that breakfast/pre-exercise nutrition enhances resistance exercise performance via a psychological effect, although a potential mediating role of hunger cannot be discounted.
  13. Muhammad HFL, Sulistyoningrum DC, Huriyati E, Lee YY, Muda WAMW
    Br J Nutr, 2021 03 28;125(6):611-617.
    PMID: 32746947 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520003104
    The present study aimed to investigate an interaction between energy intake, physical activity and UCP2 gene variation on weight gain and adiposity changes in Indonesian adults. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in 323 healthy adults living in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Energy intake, physical activity, body weight, BMI, percentage body fat and waist:hip ratio (WHR) were measured at baseline and after 2 years while UCP2 -866G/A gene variation was determined at baseline. We reported that after 2 years subjects had a significant increment in body weight, BMI, body fat and reduction in WHR (all P < 0·05). In all subjects, total energy intake was significantly correlated with changes in body weight (β = 0·128, P = 0·023) and body fat (β = 0·123, P = 0·030). Among subjects with the GG genotype, changes in energy intake were positively correlated with changes in body weight (β = 0·232, P = 0·016) and body fat (β = 0·201, P = 0·034). These correlations were insignificant among those with AA + GA genotypes (all P > 0·05). In summary, we show that UCP2 gene variation might influence the adiposity response towards changes in energy intake. Subjects with the GG genotype of UCP2 -866G/A gene were more responsive to energy intake, thus more prone to weight gain due to overeating.
  14. Stoutjesdijk E, Schaafsma A, Nhien NV, Khor GL, Kema IP, Hollis BW, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2017 Nov;118(10):804-812.
    PMID: 29103383 DOI: 10.1017/S000711451700277X
    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D 'adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 µg/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure reaches the AI. We measured milk ARA of lactating mothers with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes. Mature milk was derived from 181 lactating women in the Netherlands, Curaçao, Vietnam, Malaysia and Tanzania. Milk ARA and plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were analysed by liquid-chromatography-MS/MS; milk fatty acids were analysed by GC-flame ionisation detector (FID). None of the mothers reached the milk vitamin D AI. Milk ARA (n; median; range) were as follows: Netherlands (n 9; 46 IU/l; 3-51), Curaçao (n 10; 31 IU/l; 5-113), Vietnam: Halong Bay (n 20; 58 IU/l; 23-110), Phu Tho (n 22; 28 IU/l; 1-62), Tien Giang (n 20; 63 IU/l; 26-247), Ho-Chi-Minh-City (n 18; 49 IU/l; 24-116), Hanoi (n 21; 37 IU/l; 11-118), Malaysia-Kuala Lumpur (n 20; 14 IU/l; 1-46) and Tanzania-Ukerewe (n 21; 77 IU/l; 12-232) and Maasai (n 20; 88 IU/l; 43-189). We collected blood samples of these lactating women in Curaçao, Vietnam and from Tanzania-Ukerewe, and found that 33·3 % had plasma 25(OH)D levels between 80 and 249·9 nmol/l, 47·3 % between 50 and 79·9 nmol/l and 19·4 % between 25 and 49·9 nmol/l. Milk ARA correlated positively with maternal plasma 25(OH)D (range 27-132 nmol/l, r 0·40) and milk EPA+DHA (0·1-3·1 g%, r 0·20), and negatively with latitude (2°S-53°N, r -0·21). Milk ARA of mothers with lifetime abundant sunlight exposure is not even close to the vitamin D AI for 0-6-month-old infants. Our data may point at the importance of adequate fetal vitamin D stores.
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