OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.
RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.
METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.
RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.
Methods: The authors systematically reviewed pertinent articles published between 1961 and December 2020 and identified 6 patients with PTTP treated by EEA in 5 reports. Additionally, the authors share their institutional experience including a seventh patient, where an EEA resolved a recurrent PTTP without rhinoliquorrhea.
Results: Seven PTTP cases in which EEA was used as part of the treatment regime were included in this review. All cases presented with a defect in the anterior skull base, and 3 of them had concomitant rhinoliquorrhea. A transcranial approach was performed in 6/7 cases before EEA was considered to treat PTTP. In 4/7 cases, the PTTP resolved after the first intent; in 2/7 cases a second repair was necessary because of recurrent PTTP, 1 with and 1 without rhinoliquorrhea, and 1/7 case because of recurrent rhinoliquorrhea only. Overall, PTTP treated by EEA resolved with a mean radiological resolution time of 69 days (range 23-150 days), with no late recurrences. Only 1 patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid diversion infection probably related to a first incomplete EEA skull base defects repair. A permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion was necessary in 3/7 cases.
Conclusions: Endonasal endoscopic approach repair of air conduits is a safe and efficacious second-line approach after failed transcranial approaches for symptomatic PTTP. However, the strength of recommendation for EEA remains low until further evidence is presented.
METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.
RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.
CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.
METHODS: This descriptive study comprised 5 patients of KCOT associated with NBCCS and 8 patients of nonsyndromic type treated in the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre between years 1998 and 2011. The clinical features (site, size, treatment, and recurrence), demographic characteristics, and immunohistochemistry results using antibodies of bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53, and PCNA were examined. The association of the antibody expression and the type of KCOT was analyzed using Fisher exact test.
RESULTS: Altogether there were 13 patients, 5 with syndromic KCOT (1 patient met 3 major criteria of NBCCS) and 8 with sporadic KCOT. The age range for syndromic KCT was 11 to 21 years (mean 16.00 years, SD 4.36) and 10 to 54 years (median 24.50 years, interquartile range 19.00) for the nonsyndromic KCOT. Tumor recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.7%); 1 patient from the syndromic and 2 patients from the nonsyndromic. The most positive expression was observed in PCNA for both the syndromic and nonsyndromic samples and the least positive expression involved the p53.
CONCLUSION: PCNA, bcl-2 protein, and cyclin D1 expressions could be useful in evaluating the proliferative activity of the tumor and the aggressiveness of the clinical presentation; however, the authors would propose for larger sample size research for more definitive results.
METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.
RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.
CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.
METHOD: This case series report includes all 19 consecutive cases presenting to the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center for combined orthognathic surgery with Asian double eyelid suture method blepharoplasty. The double eyelid crease height was measured as the vertical line between the upper eyelid margin (eyelid lash) and the upper eyelid crease, observed at the mid-pupillary line with the eyes in primary gaze.
RESULTS: There were no complications or relapse reported within this time period. There was significant improvement in the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease height postsurgery. There were no statistically significant differences between the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease heights after surgery indicating good eyelid crease height symmetry bilaterally was obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: Orthognathic surgery combined with suture method blepharoplasty can be safely performed in the same surgical setting without inappropriate rise in costs or operating room time. This case series demonstrates that excellent esthetic results can be obtained in simultaneous bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with suture method Asian blepharoplasty.
METHODS: This 5-year nonrandomized prospective study had included 65 cases of unilateral ZMC fractures from October 2014 until December 2019. Patients were treated and divided into nonsurgical and surgically treated group. Treatment outcomes in terms of step deformities, malar depression, diplopia, infraorbital hypoaesthesia, and mouth opening were evaluated up to six months post-trauma/intervention.
RESULTS: Road traffic accident (96.9%) was the main cause, with predominant male involvement (80%) and median age of 28 years. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were observed for step deformities and malar depression among the surgically treated group at postoperative day 1 and week 1. Throughout the six months review, infraorbital hypoesthesia and diplopia showed no significant differences between both groups, (P > 0.05). Besides, all patients showed significant mouth opening improvement (P
METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome of a new reconstruction technique that produces patient-specific hybrid polymethyl methacrylate-autologous cranial implant. Computer-assisted 3D modeling and printing was utilized to produce patient-specific molds, which allowed real-time reconstruction of bone flap with partial defect intra-operatively.
RESULTS: Outcome assessment for 11 patients at 6 weeks and 3 months post-operatively revealed satisfactory implant alignment with favorable cosmesis. The mean visual analog scale for cosmesis was 91. Mean implant size was 50cm, and the mean duration of intra-operative reconstruction was 30 minutes. All of them revealed improvement in quality of life following surgery as measured by the SF-36 score. Cost analysis revealed that this technique is more cost-effective compared to customized cranial prosthesis.
CONCLUSION: This new technique and approach produce hybrid autologous-alloplastic bone flap that resulted in satisfactory implant alignment and favorable cosmetic outcome with relatively low costs.