Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

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  1. Tan SK, Tang ATH, Leung WK, Zwahlen RA
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Mar 28.
    PMID: 30946225 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005351
    PURPOSE: To investigate short- and long-term three-dimensional changes of pharyngeal airway morphology and hyoid bone position in dento-skeletal class III deformity patients after 2-jaw orthognathic surgery with segmentation.

    METHODS: A retrospective analysis has been performed on patients with dento-skeletal class III deformity who had undergone orthognathic 2-jaw surgery with segmentations, presenting both pre- and post-surgical cone-beam computed tomographys. Three-dimensional skeletal movements, pharyngeal airway changes and hyoid bone position were measured and correlated.

    RESULTS: The mean short term postsurgical review period for all included 47 patients was 5.8 ± 2.2 months. Thirteen patients among them provided a mean long term period of 26.4 ± 3.4 months. The mean postsurgical maxillary movement was 2.29 ± 2.49 mm in vertical, 2.02 ± 3.45 mm in horizontal direction, respectively, while the mandibular movement was 6.49 ± 4.58 mm in vertical, and -5.85 ± 6.13 mm in horizontal direction. In short-term, the vertical length of nasopharynx was found to be reduced (P = 0.005) but increased for the oropharynx (P  0.05) detected between patients with and without genioplasty advancement.

    CONCLUSION: Two-jaw orthognathic surgery in dento-skeletal class III patients led to a statistically non-significant reduction of the post-surgical airway volume in both short- and long-term. Although the post-surgical oropharyneal minimum cross-sectional area was decreased significantly in the short term, this finding did not persist in the long term.

  2. Koh KL, Zain A
    J Craniofac Surg, 2018 Jun;29(4):861-867.
    PMID: 29438206 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004347
    : Open cranial vault remodeling techniques require rigid fixation with hardware such as plates and screws; however, complications can occur. The purpose of this study was to assess the surgical outcome after open reconstruction for craniosynostosis with less rigid fixation using nonabsorbable suture.

    METHODS: Retrospective review of patients who underwent open craniofacial reconstruction for craniosynostosis at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 2011 and December 2016 were performed. Demographic data, surgical complications, and postoperative aesthetic outcomes and reoperations were evaluated using Whitaker classification. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS.

    RESULTS: Thirty-four (n = 34) cases were included in this review consisting of 16 males and 18 females (ratio 1:1.25). Sixteen patients were syndromic with multiple suture synostoses: Apert syndrome (n = 8), Crouzon syndrome (n = 6), and Muenke's syndrome (n = 2). Eighteen patients were nonsyndromic: isolated single-suture craniosynostosis (n = 12) and multiple suture involvement (n = 6). Mean age of presentation was 17.4 months (4-16 months) with mean age of surgery of 23.8 months (6-68 months). Mean length of surgery was 6.1 hours (range 3-10 hours) and mean length of hospital stay was 10 days (mean 7-20 days). Mean duration of follow-up was 2.2 years (6 month-4 years). There were a total of 9 complications postoperatively: massive blood loss (n = 4), seroma (n = 2), exposure keratitis (n = 1), hand extravasation (n = 1), and occipital sore (n = 1). Analysis showed multiple suture craniosynostoses were associated with longer operative times (4.3 hours vs 6.5 hours, P = 0.0082 24 months of age, P = 0.00059). Patients were categorized as 88.2% (n = 30) Whitaker I and II and 11.8% (n = 4) Whitaker III and IV. Reoperation rates were 2.9% (n = 1). Whitaker III and IV class were higher among patients with syndromic synostosis, unicoronal and multiple suture synostoses.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our technique of open cranial reconstruction with nonabsorbable suture nylon 2/0 as sole method of fixation has resulted in good aesthetic outcome with low reoperations and complications rate. Longer follow-up is needed to ascertain our long-term results.
  3. Nayak SB, Vasudeva SK
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Sep;31(6):e585-e586.
    PMID: 32502106 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006604
    Morphological variations of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli are extremely rare. The authors report an extremely rare type of combined variation of falx cerebri and dural venous sinuses in the tentorium cerebelli. During the removal of the brain from cranial cavity, it was noted that the anterior part of the falx cerebri had fenestrations and it looked like a mesh. There was no associated variations of medial surface of cerebrum. Further, there were unusual sinuses within the tentorium cerebelli. Two of them were present in the right half of the tentorium cerebelli and one in the left half of the tentorium cerebelli. There variations could be of importance to radiologists and neurosurgeons. The fenestrations of falx cerebri might lead to misinterpretations in cases of head injuries and the additional sinuses in the tentorium cerebelli might cause unexpected bleeding during surgeries of posterior cranial fossa.
  4. Ling XF, Yew CC, Mohd Nazri SB, Tew MM
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 01;32(7):e627-e630.
    PMID: 33654041 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007603
    BACKGROUND: Medical advances have enabled zygomatic complex (ZMC) fractures to be treated by various approaches. This study aims to analyze the demographics and treatment outcomes of unilateral ZMC fractures, treated nonsurgically or surgically.

    METHODS: This 5-year nonrandomized prospective study had included 65 cases of unilateral ZMC fractures from October 2014 until December 2019. Patients were treated and divided into nonsurgical and surgically treated group. Treatment outcomes in terms of step deformities, malar depression, diplopia, infraorbital hypoaesthesia, and mouth opening were evaluated up to six months post-trauma/intervention.

    RESULTS: Road traffic accident (96.9%) was the main cause, with predominant male involvement (80%) and median age of 28 years. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were observed for step deformities and malar depression among the surgically treated group at postoperative day 1 and week 1. Throughout the six months review, infraorbital hypoesthesia and diplopia showed no significant differences between both groups, (P > 0.05). Besides, all patients showed significant mouth opening improvement (P 

  5. Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Rahman N, Abdul Karim F, Krsna Rajandram R, Mohamad MS, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2008 Mar;19(2):316-21.
    PMID: 18362705 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e318163f94d
    Motorcycle casualties represent significant number in road traffic accidents in Malaysia, and among all the injuries, facial injuries pose many significant problems physiologically, functionally, and aesthetically. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of maxillofacial as well as other injuries in motorcyclists who were seen at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.Patients' records from January 2004 to December 2005 were reviewed. Data related to demographics, vehicle/object involved in collision, involvement as a rider or pillion, whether a helmet was worn or not, location of injuries on the face/facial bones, and other associated injuries were collected.A total of 113 cases of motorcycle accidents were recorded; 106 males and 7 females were involved. Mean age was 25.8 years. Among all the races, Malay had the highest involvement (72.3%), followed by Chinese (14.3%), Indians (8.9%), and others (5.4%). The types of collision were either a single-vehicle collision (i.e., skidded) or with another vehicle/s or object (e.g., tree, stone, or lamppost). The injuries were mainly seen on the lower face (46.9%) followed by midface (25.7%) and a combination of the midface and lower face (15%) and others (12.4%). The most frequent other associated injuries recorded were orthopedic and head injuries.
  6. Nayak SB, Vasudeva SK, Pamidi N, Sirasanagandla SR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Oct;31(7):2015-2016.
    PMID: 32472879 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006539
    Knowledge of variant course and branching pattern of the facial artery gains importance in the surgeries of upper neck and face. The authors report a unilateral anomalous course and a redundant loop of right facial artery as seen in an adult male cadaver. The right facial artery had its origin from the external carotid artery. It pierced through the submandibular salivary gland and formed a redundant loop at the base of the mandible. Its further course and branching pattern was normal. This case could be important for radiologists, plastic surgeons and craniofacial surgeons.
  7. Al Qabbani A, Al Kawas S, A Razak NH, Al Bayatti SW, Enezei HH, Samsudin AR, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2018 Mar;29(2):e203-e209.
    PMID: 29303859 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004263
    INTRODUCTION: Alveolar bone is critical in supporting natural teeth, dental implants as well as a removable and fixed prosthesis. Alveolar bone volume diminishes when its associated natural tooth is lost.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.

    RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).

    CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.

  8. Arshad AR, Selvapragasam T
    J Craniofac Surg, 2008 Jan;19(1):175-83.
    PMID: 18216685 DOI: 10.1097/scs.0b013e3181534a77
    This is a study on 124 patients who were treated by the authors over a 19-year period. There were 48 male and 76 female patients. The age range of these patients at the time of treatment was between 4 months and 32 years. There was no family history of similar deformity. All of these patients come from a socially low-income group. Fourteen patients had accompanying congenital amputation of fingers, toes, or limbs. Two had oral cleft lip and palate. The surgical treatment was medial orbital wall osteotomy and excision of encephalocele. There were two mortalities and five patients who had complications that needed secondary surgical intervention. Thirty-eight patients are still under follow up without any complaints.
  9. Qabbani AA, Razak NHA, Kawas SA, Sheikh Abdul Hamid S, Wahbi S, Samsudin AR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2017 Jun;28(4):e318-e325.
    PMID: 28230596 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000003569
    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of immediate implant placement with alveolar bone augmentation on socket preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction and comparing it with a tooth alveolar socket that was allowed to heal in a conventional way.Twenty medically fit patients (8 males and 12 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of mandibular premolar teeth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In Group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In Group II, the immediate implant was placed and the gap between the implant and the inner buccal plate surface of the socket wall was filled with lyophilized bovine bone granules and the wound was covered with pericardium membrane. The patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for regular reviews at 1 week, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative. Cone beam computerized tomography images of the alveolar ridge and socket were analyzed to determine the structural changes of the alveolar ridge. Resonance frequency analysis was measured at 9 months for Group II to assess the degree of secondary stability of the implants by using Osstell machine.A significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (confidence interval, CI 95%, 0.63-2.35) was observed within the control group at 3 months, and 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months intervals. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in Group II. Comparison between groups showed a highly significant difference at 3 months; 2.56 mm (CI 95% 4.22-0.90) and at 9 months intervals; 3.2 mm (CI 95%, 4.70-1.62) P ≤ 0.001 between Group I and II. High resonance frequency analysis values were observed at 9 months postoperative in Group II.In conclusion, the insertion of immediate implants in fresh extraction sockets together with grafting the circumferential gap between the bony socket wall and the implant surface with bovine bone granules was able to preserve a greater amount of alveolar ridge volume when compared with an extraction socket that was left to heal in a conventional way.
  10. Shaeran TAT, Samsudin AR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Jun 28.
    PMID: 31261319 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005689
    Temporomandibular joint ankylosis in children commonly lead to difficulty in feeding, poor oral hygiene, retrognathic mandible and obstructive sleep apnea. Surgical release of the ankylosis has always been the standard treatment. The authors report a 12 year old boy with unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis and obstructive sleep apnea underwent surgical release of the ankylosis with successful gain in mouth opening. However, he continued to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea as confirmed by post-operative polysomnography. Orthognathic surgery for mandibular advancement is not favorable due to his young age and mandibular distraction osteogenesis was not a choice. A mandibular advancement device similar to orthodontic myofunctional appliance was the preferred choice in the post-operative period while waiting for definitive retrognathia surgical treatment after skeletal maturity. Surgical release of temporomandibular joint ankylosis corrects the oral problem but does not adequately address the narrow pharyngeal airway space. Assessment of pharyngeal airway with a high suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea is mandatory in the management of TMJ ankylosis.
  11. Dalolio M, Cordier D, Al-Zahid S, Bennett WO, Prepageran N, Waran V, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 12.
    PMID: 35050560 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008204
    Objectives: Information about the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA) for the management of posttraumatic tension pneumocephalus (PTTP) remains scarce. Concomitant rhinoliquorrhea and posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) can complicate the clinical course.

    Methods: The authors systematically reviewed pertinent articles published between 1961 and December 2020 and identified 6 patients with PTTP treated by EEA in 5 reports. Additionally, the authors share their institutional experience including a seventh patient, where an EEA resolved a recurrent PTTP without rhinoliquorrhea.

    Results: Seven PTTP cases in which EEA was used as part of the treatment regime were included in this review. All cases presented with a defect in the anterior skull base, and 3 of them had concomitant rhinoliquorrhea. A transcranial approach was performed in 6/7 cases before EEA was considered to treat PTTP. In 4/7 cases, the PTTP resolved after the first intent; in 2/7 cases a second repair was necessary because of recurrent PTTP, 1 with and 1 without rhinoliquorrhea, and 1/7 case because of recurrent rhinoliquorrhea only. Overall, PTTP treated by EEA resolved with a mean radiological resolution time of 69 days (range 23-150 days), with no late recurrences. Only 1 patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid diversion infection probably related to a first incomplete EEA skull base defects repair. A permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion was necessary in 3/7 cases.

    Conclusions: Endonasal endoscopic approach repair of air conduits is a safe and efficacious second-line approach after failed transcranial approaches for symptomatic PTTP. However, the strength of recommendation for EEA remains low until further evidence is presented.

  12. Rahman RA, Ghazali NM, Rahman NA, Pohchi A, Razak NHA
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Jun;31(4):1056-1062.
    PMID: 32176023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006297
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the pattern of fractured zygoma, different treatment modalities, and complications of the treatment in our center. It also aimed to determine the association between the treatment modalities and complication of treatment, and association between number of fixation and complication.

    METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was conducted from January 2008 until December 2011. All patients diagnosed with zygomatic complex fractured that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Zingg's Classification was used in the study.

    RESULTS: The median age was 23.5. Type A was the most common fracture type made up 26.6%. About 90.8% of the injury was caused by road traffic accident. Forty-four patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation and 4 patients were treated with close reduction only. Fifty patients were treated conservatively. Gillies approach in combination with fixation is the most common procedure accounted for 50%. Three-point fixation at infraorbital, maxillary buttress, frontozygomatic suture, and zygomatic arch was the most common site. However, there were no significant associations between the number of fixation and the occurrence of the complication (P = 0.307). About 29.2% in the treatment group and 66% in the conservative group had complications. About 35.7% of patients in treatment group had complications, while 66% had trismus in conservative group.

    CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between types of treatment and the occurrence of complication (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant association between number of fixation and the occurrence of complications (P = 0.307).

  13. Raveendran M
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Mar 19.
    PMID: 30896517 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005444
    Facial anthropometric data has significant ethnic variation. East Asia, comprised of fourteen countries, represents a significant proportion of the global population. This systematic review presents the facial anthropometric data collected from these countries. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search of the MEDLINE database returned 3054 articles. Twenty articles were considered eligible for inclusion. Nine studies were conducted in China, 1 in Indonesia, 2 in Japan,3 in Korea, 4 in Malaysia, and 1 was a multicentre study conducted in China, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Qualitative and quantitative parameters were extracted from the20 studies. No data was found for the other East Asian countries. There is a paucity of facial anthropometric data for East Asian countries despite their high burden of craniofacial anomalies and a strong demand for cosmetic facial surgery, both of which would benefit from the collection of robust craniofacial norms. It is in the interest of both the craniofacial surgeon and the East Asian patient to collect baseline facial anthropometric data for this population.
  14. Ibrahim N, Nazimi AJ, Ajura AJ, Nordin R, Latiff ZA, Ramli R
    J Craniofac Surg, 2016 Jul;27(5):1361-6.
    PMID: 27391504 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000002792
    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and expression of bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibodies in syndromic (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) and nonsyndromic patients diagnosed with keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT).

    METHODS: This descriptive study comprised 5 patients of KCOT associated with NBCCS and 8 patients of nonsyndromic type treated in the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre between years 1998 and 2011. The clinical features (site, size, treatment, and recurrence), demographic characteristics, and immunohistochemistry results using antibodies of bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53, and PCNA were examined. The association of the antibody expression and the type of KCOT was analyzed using Fisher exact test.

    RESULTS: Altogether there were 13 patients, 5 with syndromic KCOT (1 patient met 3 major criteria of NBCCS) and 8 with sporadic KCOT. The age range for syndromic KCT was 11 to 21 years (mean 16.00 years, SD 4.36) and 10 to 54 years (median 24.50 years, interquartile range 19.00) for the nonsyndromic KCOT. Tumor recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.7%); 1 patient from the syndromic and 2 patients from the nonsyndromic. The most positive expression was observed in PCNA for both the syndromic and nonsyndromic samples and the least positive expression involved the p53.

    CONCLUSION: PCNA, bcl-2 protein, and cyclin D1 expressions could be useful in evaluating the proliferative activity of the tumor and the aggressiveness of the clinical presentation; however, the authors would propose for larger sample size research for more definitive results.

  15. James JG, Izam AS, Nabil S, Rahman NA, Ramli R
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 8 27;31(1):e22-e26.
    PMID: 31449209 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005812
    AIM: The objective of this review was to determine the different types of surgical intervention in the management of nasal bone fractures, the outcomes, and complications associated with each intervention.

    METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.

    RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.

    CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.

  16. Nazimi AJ, Khoo SC, Nabil S, Nordin R, Lan TH, Rajandram RK, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Oct;30(7):2159-2162.
    PMID: 31232997 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005667
    Orbital fractures pose specific challenge in its surgical management. One of the greatest challenges is to obtain satisfactory reconstruction by correct positioning of orbital implant. Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) scan may facilitate this procedure. The aim of this study was to describe the early use of intraoperative CT in orbital fractures repair in our center. The authors assessed the revision types and rates that have occurred with this technique. With the use of pre-surgical planning, optical intraoperative navigation, and intraoperative CT, the impact of intraoperative CT on the management of 5 cases involving a total number of 14 orbital wall fractures were described. There were 6 pure orbital blowout wall fractures reconstructed, involving both medial and inferior wall of the orbit fracturing the transition zone and 8 impure orbital wall fractures in orbitozygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. 4 patients underwent primary and 1 had delayed orbital reconstruction. Intraoperative CT resulted in intraoperative orbital implant revision, following final navigation planning position, in 40% (2/5) of patients or 14% (2/14) of the fractures. In revised cases, both implant repositioning was conducted at posterior ledge of orbit. Intraoperative CT confirmed true to original reconstruction of medial wall, inferior wall and transition zone of the orbit. Two selected cases were illustrated. In conclusion, intraoperative CT allows real-time assessment of fracture reduction and immediate orbital implant revision, especially at posterior ledge. As a result, no postoperative imaging was indicated in any of the patients. Long-term follow-ups for orbital fracture patients managed with intraoperative CT is suggested.
  17. Hariri F, Zainudin NAA, Anuar AMS, Ibrahim N, Abdullah NA, Aziz IA, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 11 7;32(1):355-359.
    PMID: 33156163 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006981
    BACKGROUND: In syndromic craniosynostosis (SC), unlike persistent corneal irritation due to severe exophthalmos and increased intracranial pressure, optic canal (OC) stenosis has been scarcely reported to cause visual impairment. This study aimed to validate the OC volumetric and surface area measurement among SC patients.

    METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.

    RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.

    CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.

  18. Sadacharan CM, Packirisamy V
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Jul 14.
    PMID: 32675767 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006757
    In cosmetic surgery, knowledge of the average dimensions of periorbital features based on gender and ethnicity is essential to improve the patient appearance and maintain the ethnicity. The aim the study was to establish gender-specific periorbital anthropometric and anthroposcopic data for Indian Americans (IA) and to assess the statistically ethnic differences by comparing with published data of Malaysian Indians (MI). Evaluation of periorbital features was done on the standardized frontal photographs of 400 IA, aged 18 to 26 years. The measured values were evaluated by an independent t-test. Sexual dimorphism was found in all 15 measurements. The eyebrow height, combined height of the orbit and eyebrow, eyebrow apex inclination, apex to lateral canthus distance, medial end of brow to medial canthus distance, lateral end of brow to lateral canthus distance; pretarsal skin height, palpebral fissure height, palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), and medial canthus tilt were significantly greater in female than the males. In males, eyebrow apex hairline distance, apex to lateral limbus distance, eyebrow apex angle (EAA), lower eyelid height, and interpupillary distance was significantly greater than the females. Significant ethnic difference was found between IA and MI for eyebrow height, apex to lateral limbus distance, EAA, palpebral fissure height, and PFI in male group. In female group, EAA, medial canthus tilt, and PFI were significantly greater in MI. Four types of epicanthus were observed and the brow apex between lateral limbus and lateral canthus was the most common position. The generated normative data may be useful during diagnosis and treatment planning.
  19. Packirisamy V
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Sep 17.
    PMID: 34538799 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008183
    ABSTRACT: In cosmetic rhinoplasty, knowledge of average nasal dimensions is important to create an aesthetic nose compatible with gender, ethnicity, and other facial feature. This study aimed to establish gender-specific nasal anthropometric data for Indian Malaysians (IMs) and to determine the interracial difference by comparing it with published data of three studies. Evaluation of nasal morphology was done on the standardized frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of 200 male and 200 female IM noses, aged 18-27 years. The measured variables were evaluated by using an independent t-test. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in 20 of 21 measurements, 5 nasal indices and 2 ratios. Significant racial features between IA and Saudi Arabian population were found in all 18 measurements and 5 nasal indexes. Seven of the 8 measurements and including the 2 ratios were significantly different between IM and Whites, but between IM and Chinese, all the 8 measurements and 2 ratios were significantly different. Compared to Saudi Arabian and Whites, IM had wider intercaantal distance, the nose was relatively shorter and wider, less projected radix, and prominent glabella with an increased backward slope of the forehead. Compared to the Chinese, the IM intercaantal distance and nose was narrower and the nasal root was slightly wider in the male group. The IM nasal tip was less projected and underrotated compared to all the 3 groups. In conclusion, the anthropometric analysis of IM noses revealed several unique nasal features, understanding these variations could be useful for the rhinoplasty surgeon to deliver ethnically congruent results.
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