METHODS: A retrospective analysis has been performed on patients with dento-skeletal class III deformity who had undergone orthognathic 2-jaw surgery with segmentations, presenting both pre- and post-surgical cone-beam computed tomographys. Three-dimensional skeletal movements, pharyngeal airway changes and hyoid bone position were measured and correlated.
RESULTS: The mean short term postsurgical review period for all included 47 patients was 5.8 ± 2.2 months. Thirteen patients among them provided a mean long term period of 26.4 ± 3.4 months. The mean postsurgical maxillary movement was 2.29 ± 2.49 mm in vertical, 2.02 ± 3.45 mm in horizontal direction, respectively, while the mandibular movement was 6.49 ± 4.58 mm in vertical, and -5.85 ± 6.13 mm in horizontal direction. In short-term, the vertical length of nasopharynx was found to be reduced (P = 0.005) but increased for the oropharynx (P 0.05) detected between patients with and without genioplasty advancement.
CONCLUSION: Two-jaw orthognathic surgery in dento-skeletal class III patients led to a statistically non-significant reduction of the post-surgical airway volume in both short- and long-term. Although the post-surgical oropharyneal minimum cross-sectional area was decreased significantly in the short term, this finding did not persist in the long term.
METHODS: This 5-year nonrandomized prospective study had included 65 cases of unilateral ZMC fractures from October 2014 until December 2019. Patients were treated and divided into nonsurgical and surgically treated group. Treatment outcomes in terms of step deformities, malar depression, diplopia, infraorbital hypoaesthesia, and mouth opening were evaluated up to six months post-trauma/intervention.
RESULTS: Road traffic accident (96.9%) was the main cause, with predominant male involvement (80%) and median age of 28 years. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were observed for step deformities and malar depression among the surgically treated group at postoperative day 1 and week 1. Throughout the six months review, infraorbital hypoesthesia and diplopia showed no significant differences between both groups, (P > 0.05). Besides, all patients showed significant mouth opening improvement (P
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of bovine bone granules on alveolar bone socket augmentation for ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty medically fit patients (12 males and 8 females aged between 18 and 40 years) who needed noncomplicated tooth extraction of 1 mandibular premolar tooth were divided randomly and equally into 2 groups. In control group I, the empty extraction socket was left untreated and allowed to heal in a conventional way. In group II, the empty extraction socket wound was filled with lyophilized bovine bone xenograft granules 0.25 to 1 mm of size, 1 mL/vial. A resorbable pericardium membrane was placed to cover the defect. Clinical and 3-dimensional radiological assessments were performed at day 0, 3 months, and 9 months postoperative.
RESULTS: There were no clinical differences in general wound healing between the groups. Comparisons within the groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption of 1.49 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.63-2.35) at 3 months, and further resorption of 1.84 mm (P ≤ 0.05) at 9 months in the control group. No significant changes of bone resorption were observed in group II during the same time interval. Comparison between groups showed a significant difference of bone resorption at 3 and 9 months (2.40 and 2.88 mm, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The use of lyophilized demineralized bovine bone granules in socket preservation to fill in the extraction socket seems essential in preserving the alveolar bone dimension as it showed excellent soft and hard tissue healing. This study concludes that the alveolar bone socket exhibited a dynamic process of resorption from the first day of tooth extraction. Evidence shows the possibility of using bovine bone granules routinely in socket volume preservation techniques following tooth extraction.
Methods: The authors systematically reviewed pertinent articles published between 1961 and December 2020 and identified 6 patients with PTTP treated by EEA in 5 reports. Additionally, the authors share their institutional experience including a seventh patient, where an EEA resolved a recurrent PTTP without rhinoliquorrhea.
Results: Seven PTTP cases in which EEA was used as part of the treatment regime were included in this review. All cases presented with a defect in the anterior skull base, and 3 of them had concomitant rhinoliquorrhea. A transcranial approach was performed in 6/7 cases before EEA was considered to treat PTTP. In 4/7 cases, the PTTP resolved after the first intent; in 2/7 cases a second repair was necessary because of recurrent PTTP, 1 with and 1 without rhinoliquorrhea, and 1/7 case because of recurrent rhinoliquorrhea only. Overall, PTTP treated by EEA resolved with a mean radiological resolution time of 69 days (range 23-150 days), with no late recurrences. Only 1 patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid diversion infection probably related to a first incomplete EEA skull base defects repair. A permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion was necessary in 3/7 cases.
Conclusions: Endonasal endoscopic approach repair of air conduits is a safe and efficacious second-line approach after failed transcranial approaches for symptomatic PTTP. However, the strength of recommendation for EEA remains low until further evidence is presented.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was conducted from January 2008 until December 2011. All patients diagnosed with zygomatic complex fractured that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Zingg's Classification was used in the study.
RESULTS: The median age was 23.5. Type A was the most common fracture type made up 26.6%. About 90.8% of the injury was caused by road traffic accident. Forty-four patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation and 4 patients were treated with close reduction only. Fifty patients were treated conservatively. Gillies approach in combination with fixation is the most common procedure accounted for 50%. Three-point fixation at infraorbital, maxillary buttress, frontozygomatic suture, and zygomatic arch was the most common site. However, there were no significant associations between the number of fixation and the occurrence of the complication (P = 0.307). About 29.2% in the treatment group and 66% in the conservative group had complications. About 35.7% of patients in treatment group had complications, while 66% had trismus in conservative group.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between types of treatment and the occurrence of complication (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant association between number of fixation and the occurrence of complications (P = 0.307).
METHODS: This descriptive study comprised 5 patients of KCOT associated with NBCCS and 8 patients of nonsyndromic type treated in the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre between years 1998 and 2011. The clinical features (site, size, treatment, and recurrence), demographic characteristics, and immunohistochemistry results using antibodies of bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53, and PCNA were examined. The association of the antibody expression and the type of KCOT was analyzed using Fisher exact test.
RESULTS: Altogether there were 13 patients, 5 with syndromic KCOT (1 patient met 3 major criteria of NBCCS) and 8 with sporadic KCOT. The age range for syndromic KCT was 11 to 21 years (mean 16.00 years, SD 4.36) and 10 to 54 years (median 24.50 years, interquartile range 19.00) for the nonsyndromic KCOT. Tumor recurrence occurred in 3 patients (7.7%); 1 patient from the syndromic and 2 patients from the nonsyndromic. The most positive expression was observed in PCNA for both the syndromic and nonsyndromic samples and the least positive expression involved the p53.
CONCLUSION: PCNA, bcl-2 protein, and cyclin D1 expressions could be useful in evaluating the proliferative activity of the tumor and the aggressiveness of the clinical presentation; however, the authors would propose for larger sample size research for more definitive results.
METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.
RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.
CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.
METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.
RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.
CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.