Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Dalolio M, Cordier D, Al-Zahid S, Bennett WO, Prepageran N, Waran V, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 12.
    PMID: 35050560 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008204
    Objectives: Information about the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA) for the management of posttraumatic tension pneumocephalus (PTTP) remains scarce. Concomitant rhinoliquorrhea and posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) can complicate the clinical course.

    Methods: The authors systematically reviewed pertinent articles published between 1961 and December 2020 and identified 6 patients with PTTP treated by EEA in 5 reports. Additionally, the authors share their institutional experience including a seventh patient, where an EEA resolved a recurrent PTTP without rhinoliquorrhea.

    Results: Seven PTTP cases in which EEA was used as part of the treatment regime were included in this review. All cases presented with a defect in the anterior skull base, and 3 of them had concomitant rhinoliquorrhea. A transcranial approach was performed in 6/7 cases before EEA was considered to treat PTTP. In 4/7 cases, the PTTP resolved after the first intent; in 2/7 cases a second repair was necessary because of recurrent PTTP, 1 with and 1 without rhinoliquorrhea, and 1/7 case because of recurrent rhinoliquorrhea only. Overall, PTTP treated by EEA resolved with a mean radiological resolution time of 69 days (range 23-150 days), with no late recurrences. Only 1 patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid diversion infection probably related to a first incomplete EEA skull base defects repair. A permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion was necessary in 3/7 cases.

    Conclusions: Endonasal endoscopic approach repair of air conduits is a safe and efficacious second-line approach after failed transcranial approaches for symptomatic PTTP. However, the strength of recommendation for EEA remains low until further evidence is presented.

  2. Ling XF, Yew CC, Mohd Nazri SB, Tew MM
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 01;32(7):e627-e630.
    PMID: 33654041 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007603
    BACKGROUND: Medical advances have enabled zygomatic complex (ZMC) fractures to be treated by various approaches. This study aims to analyze the demographics and treatment outcomes of unilateral ZMC fractures, treated nonsurgically or surgically.

    METHODS: This 5-year nonrandomized prospective study had included 65 cases of unilateral ZMC fractures from October 2014 until December 2019. Patients were treated and divided into nonsurgical and surgically treated group. Treatment outcomes in terms of step deformities, malar depression, diplopia, infraorbital hypoaesthesia, and mouth opening were evaluated up to six months post-trauma/intervention.

    RESULTS: Road traffic accident (96.9%) was the main cause, with predominant male involvement (80%) and median age of 28 years. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were observed for step deformities and malar depression among the surgically treated group at postoperative day 1 and week 1. Throughout the six months review, infraorbital hypoesthesia and diplopia showed no significant differences between both groups, (P > 0.05). Besides, all patients showed significant mouth opening improvement (P 

  3. Cheng TC, Yahya MFN, Mohd Naffi AA, Othman O, Seng Fai T, Yong MH, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Oct 01;32(7):2285-2291.
    PMID: 33770023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007645
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the satisfaction of surgeons and trainees with three-dimensional (3D) ophthalmic surgery during a demonstration compared to traditional surgery.

    METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.

    RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).

    CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.

  4. Packirisamy V
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Sep 17.
    PMID: 34538799 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000008183
    ABSTRACT: In cosmetic rhinoplasty, knowledge of average nasal dimensions is important to create an aesthetic nose compatible with gender, ethnicity, and other facial feature. This study aimed to establish gender-specific nasal anthropometric data for Indian Malaysians (IMs) and to determine the interracial difference by comparing it with published data of three studies. Evaluation of nasal morphology was done on the standardized frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of 200 male and 200 female IM noses, aged 18-27 years. The measured variables were evaluated by using an independent t-test. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in 20 of 21 measurements, 5 nasal indices and 2 ratios. Significant racial features between IA and Saudi Arabian population were found in all 18 measurements and 5 nasal indexes. Seven of the 8 measurements and including the 2 ratios were significantly different between IM and Whites, but between IM and Chinese, all the 8 measurements and 2 ratios were significantly different. Compared to Saudi Arabian and Whites, IM had wider intercaantal distance, the nose was relatively shorter and wider, less projected radix, and prominent glabella with an increased backward slope of the forehead. Compared to the Chinese, the IM intercaantal distance and nose was narrower and the nasal root was slightly wider in the male group. The IM nasal tip was less projected and underrotated compared to all the 3 groups. In conclusion, the anthropometric analysis of IM noses revealed several unique nasal features, understanding these variations could be useful for the rhinoplasty surgeon to deliver ethnically congruent results.
  5. Ahmad WMAW, Noor NFM, Shaari R, Nawi MAA, Ghazali FMM, Aleng NA, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Jun 01;32(4):1500-1503.
    PMID: 33852515 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007435
    ABSTRACT: Oral and maxillofacial fractures are the most common injuries among multiple trauma. About 5% to 10% of trauma patients having facial fractures. The objectives of this case study are to focus the most common mid-face fractures types' and to determine the relationship of the midface fracture in maxillofacial trauma among the patient who attended the outpatient clinic in a Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In this research paper, an advanced statistical tool was chosen through the multilayer perceptron neural network methodology (MLPNN). Multilayer perceptron neural network methodology was applied to determine the most associated predictor important toward maxillary bone injury. Through the predictor important classification analysis, the relationship of each bone will be determined, and sorting according to their contribution. After sorting the most associated predictor important toward maxillary bone injury, the validation process will be applied through the value of training, testing, and validation. The input variables of MLPNN were zygomatic complex fracture, orbital wall fracture, nasal bone fracture, frontal bone fracture, and zygomatic arch fracture. The performance of MLPNN having high accuracy with 82.2%. As a conclusion, the zygomatic complex fracture is the most common fracture trauma among the patient, having the most important association toward maxillary bone fracture. This finding has the highest potential for further statistical modeling for education purposes and the decision-maker among the surgeon.
  6. Khoo LS, Hsiao YC, Huang JJ, Chang FC, Wang YC, Liao YF, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 5 4;32(8):2592-2596.
    PMID: 33935145 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007704
    BACKGROUND: The main objective of contemporary orthognathic surgery is to correct dentofacial deformities. Nonetheless, many adjunct procedures to enhance the esthetic outcome in orthognathic surgical cases have been successfully incorporated to improve patient satisfaction. The authors report our preliminary experience of performing simultaneous orthognathic surgery with Asian double eyelid suture method blepharoplasty in the same surgical setting.

    METHOD: This case series report includes all 19 consecutive cases presenting to the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center for combined orthognathic surgery with Asian double eyelid suture method blepharoplasty. The double eyelid crease height was measured as the vertical line between the upper eyelid margin (eyelid lash) and the upper eyelid crease, observed at the mid-pupillary line with the eyes in primary gaze.

    RESULTS: There were no complications or relapse reported within this time period. There was significant improvement in the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease height postsurgery. There were no statistically significant differences between the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease heights after surgery indicating good eyelid crease height symmetry bilaterally was obtained.

    CONCLUSIONS: Orthognathic surgery combined with suture method blepharoplasty can be safely performed in the same surgical setting without inappropriate rise in costs or operating room time. This case series demonstrates that excellent esthetic results can be obtained in simultaneous bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with suture method Asian blepharoplasty.

  7. Haque S, Khamis MF, Alam MK, Ahmad WMAW
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 May 01;32(3):964-966.
    PMID: 33405460 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007366
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple factors (congenital and postnatal treatment factors) on the treatment outcome by assessing the maxillary arch dimension of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Eighty-five Pakistani children with UCLP were taken who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty. Laser scanned 3D digital models of UCLP subjects were prepared before any orthodontic treatment and bone grafting at 7.69 ± 2.46 (mean ± standard deviation) years of age. Inter-canine width (ICW), inter-molar width (IMW), and arch depth (AD) measurements of maxillary arch were measured with Mimics software. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between congenital factors (age, gender, UCLP side, family history of cleft) and postnatal treatment factors (techniques of cheiloplasty and techniques of palatoplasty) with maxillary arch dimensions (ICW, IMW, and AD). P value was set at 5%. The mean (standard deviation) dimensions of ICW, IMW, and AD are 26.7 (5.70) mm, 43.3 (4.66) mm, and 27.1 (5.26) mm, respectively. There is no significant association found between multiple factors and maxillary arch dimensions. This regression analysis shows no significant association between multiple factors and MAD in this sample.
  8. Hariri F, Zainudin NAA, Anuar AMS, Ibrahim N, Abdullah NA, Aziz IA, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 11 7;32(1):355-359.
    PMID: 33156163 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006981
    BACKGROUND: In syndromic craniosynostosis (SC), unlike persistent corneal irritation due to severe exophthalmos and increased intracranial pressure, optic canal (OC) stenosis has been scarcely reported to cause visual impairment. This study aimed to validate the OC volumetric and surface area measurement among SC patients.

    METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.

    RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.

    CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.

  9. Nayak SB, Vasudeva SK, Pamidi N, Sirasanagandla SR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Oct;31(7):2015-2016.
    PMID: 32472879 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006539
    Knowledge of variant course and branching pattern of the facial artery gains importance in the surgeries of upper neck and face. The authors report a unilateral anomalous course and a redundant loop of right facial artery as seen in an adult male cadaver. The right facial artery had its origin from the external carotid artery. It pierced through the submandibular salivary gland and formed a redundant loop at the base of the mandible. Its further course and branching pattern was normal. This case could be important for radiologists, plastic surgeons and craniofacial surgeons.
  10. Mohd Umbaik NA, Mohamad I, Nik Hassan NFH
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 10;31(7):2064-2065.
    PMID: 32890162 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006839
  11. Nayak SB, Vasudeva SK
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Sep;31(6):e585-e586.
    PMID: 32502106 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006604
    Morphological variations of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli are extremely rare. The authors report an extremely rare type of combined variation of falx cerebri and dural venous sinuses in the tentorium cerebelli. During the removal of the brain from cranial cavity, it was noted that the anterior part of the falx cerebri had fenestrations and it looked like a mesh. There was no associated variations of medial surface of cerebrum. Further, there were unusual sinuses within the tentorium cerebelli. Two of them were present in the right half of the tentorium cerebelli and one in the left half of the tentorium cerebelli. There variations could be of importance to radiologists and neurosurgeons. The fenestrations of falx cerebri might lead to misinterpretations in cases of head injuries and the additional sinuses in the tentorium cerebelli might cause unexpected bleeding during surgeries of posterior cranial fossa.
  12. Sadacharan CM, Packirisamy V
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Jul 14.
    PMID: 32675767 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006757
    In cosmetic surgery, knowledge of the average dimensions of periorbital features based on gender and ethnicity is essential to improve the patient appearance and maintain the ethnicity. The aim the study was to establish gender-specific periorbital anthropometric and anthroposcopic data for Indian Americans (IA) and to assess the statistically ethnic differences by comparing with published data of Malaysian Indians (MI). Evaluation of periorbital features was done on the standardized frontal photographs of 400 IA, aged 18 to 26 years. The measured values were evaluated by an independent t-test. Sexual dimorphism was found in all 15 measurements. The eyebrow height, combined height of the orbit and eyebrow, eyebrow apex inclination, apex to lateral canthus distance, medial end of brow to medial canthus distance, lateral end of brow to lateral canthus distance; pretarsal skin height, palpebral fissure height, palpebral fissure inclination (PFI), and medial canthus tilt were significantly greater in female than the males. In males, eyebrow apex hairline distance, apex to lateral limbus distance, eyebrow apex angle (EAA), lower eyelid height, and interpupillary distance was significantly greater than the females. Significant ethnic difference was found between IA and MI for eyebrow height, apex to lateral limbus distance, EAA, palpebral fissure height, and PFI in male group. In female group, EAA, medial canthus tilt, and PFI were significantly greater in MI. Four types of epicanthus were observed and the brow apex between lateral limbus and lateral canthus was the most common position. The generated normative data may be useful during diagnosis and treatment planning.
  13. Rahman RA, Ghazali NM, Rahman NA, Pohchi A, Razak NHA
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 Jun;31(4):1056-1062.
    PMID: 32176023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006297
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the pattern of fractured zygoma, different treatment modalities, and complications of the treatment in our center. It also aimed to determine the association between the treatment modalities and complication of treatment, and association between number of fixation and complication.

    METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was conducted from January 2008 until December 2011. All patients diagnosed with zygomatic complex fractured that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Zingg's Classification was used in the study.

    RESULTS: The median age was 23.5. Type A was the most common fracture type made up 26.6%. About 90.8% of the injury was caused by road traffic accident. Forty-four patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation and 4 patients were treated with close reduction only. Fifty patients were treated conservatively. Gillies approach in combination with fixation is the most common procedure accounted for 50%. Three-point fixation at infraorbital, maxillary buttress, frontozygomatic suture, and zygomatic arch was the most common site. However, there were no significant associations between the number of fixation and the occurrence of the complication (P = 0.307). About 29.2% in the treatment group and 66% in the conservative group had complications. About 35.7% of patients in treatment group had complications, while 66% had trismus in conservative group.

    CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between types of treatment and the occurrence of complication (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant association between number of fixation and the occurrence of complications (P = 0.307).

  14. Haque S, Khamis MF, Alam MK, Ahmad WMAW
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 May 04.
    PMID: 32371703 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006464
    Studies have claimed that the maxillary arch dimension of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patient is significantly smaller than normal patient. Multiple factors (both congenital and post natal treatment factors) are believed to have an impact on the treatment outcome (maxillary arch retardation) of UCLP patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multiple factors on the treatment outcome by assessing the maxillary arch dimension of UCLP Children. Eighty-five Malaysian UCLP children were taken who received cheiloplasty and palatoplasty. Laser scanned 3D digital models of UCLP subjects were prepared before any orthodontic treatment and bone grafting at 7.69 ± 2.46 (mean± SD) years of age. Intercanine width (ICW), intermolar width (IMW), and arch depth (AD) measurements of maxillary arch were measured with Mimics software. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between multiple factors (gender, UCLP type, UCLP side, family history of cleft, family history of class III malocclusion, techniques of cheiloplasty, and techniques of palatoplasty) and maxillary arch dimensions (ICW, IMW, and AD). P value was set at 5%. Significant association was found between 2 techniques of cheiloplasty and ICW (P = 0.001) and also between 2 techniques of palatoplasty and ICW (P = 0.046) of maxilla. No significant association observed in IMW and AD in relation to all other factors. Modified Millard techniques of Cheiloplasty and Bardach technique of palatoplasty had unfavorable effect on the treatment outcome by assessing the maxillary arch dimension (ICW) using laser scanned 3D digital models in Malaysian UCLP children.
  15. Qabbani AA, Bayatti SWA, Hasan H, Samsudin AB, Kawas SA
    J Craniofac Surg, 2020 1 3;31(3):e233-e236.
    PMID: 31895847 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000006106
    To evaluate the ability of the maxillary sinus membrane to produce bone after internal sinus lifting and implant placement without adding exogenous bone graft, and to assess the quality of bone that has been produced 6 months postoperatively.In this retrospective study, 10 subjects who underwent maxillary sinus floor lifting and met the inclusion criteria were selected and then subdivided into: Group-A underwent internal sinus elevation and placement of implants without the use of bone graft and Group-B underwent classical internal sinus lifting and placement of bovine bone particles and then placement of the implant as a control group. Radiofrequency analysis (RFA) values for measuring the Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) of all implants were measured by Osstell device. CBCT was performed involving linear measurements of the site of sinus lifting for both groups.High RFA values demonstrating excellent biomechanical stability were observed in Group-A compared to Group-B at 6 months postoperatively. Group-A showed a median of ISQ value;78 (8), 77(12), 79(3.5) and 77(4.50). Group-A was significantly higher in ISQ values than Group-B, which showed median and interquartile range (IQR) of ISQ value of [51(12.50), 54(14.50), 55(9), and 55(7.50)]. However, the amount of bone available in group B was significantly higher than group A; [3.5 mm (0.75) and 3.8 mm (0.69)].Internal sinus lifting without bone graft has the ability of bone formation by osteogenic potential of the sinus membrane. Nevertheless, the high quality of bone being produced is of high importance for the success of an implant without the need for an exogenous bone graft. The newly formed bone was significantly of a better quality in Group-A. Thus, it is recommended to perform internal sinus lifting, without adding bone graft material and allow the osteogenic potential of the maxillary sinus membrane to produce its own osteogenic cells.
  16. Nazimi AJ, Rajaran JR, Nordin R
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Oct;30(7):e609-e611.
    PMID: 31503125 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005617
    Orbital blowout fractures are common. The same goes for its surgical complications when the efficiency of the dissection of entrapped or herniated intraorbital contents into the fracture could not be completely and safely dissected out. The authors describe a modification of the commonly used Howarth periosteal elevator for dissection of intraorbital content displacement or herniation on orbital blowout fracture. The instrument was modified by marking out the instrument from the tip into 10, 20, 25, 30, and 40 mm on both of its concave and convex surfaces to allow safe orbital soft tissue dissection and distance control. From the authors' experience, these simple modifications from its original instrument design allow better intraoperative control and appreciation of any intact important intraorbital anatomical structures such as inferomedial strut and posterior ledge. At the same time of importantly getting complete orbital fracture dissection and visualization, it causes less trauma to surrounding soft tissue with the markings ensuring unnecessary orbital exploration or visualization. Dissection can be kept for optimum maneuverability at the required or intended location based on the preoperative scan or dimension of anatomical orbital implant.
  17. Nazimi AJ, Khoo SC, Nabil S, Nordin R, Lan TH, Rajandram RK, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Oct;30(7):2159-2162.
    PMID: 31232997 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005667
    Orbital fractures pose specific challenge in its surgical management. One of the greatest challenges is to obtain satisfactory reconstruction by correct positioning of orbital implant. Intraoperative computed tomography (CT) scan may facilitate this procedure. The aim of this study was to describe the early use of intraoperative CT in orbital fractures repair in our center. The authors assessed the revision types and rates that have occurred with this technique. With the use of pre-surgical planning, optical intraoperative navigation, and intraoperative CT, the impact of intraoperative CT on the management of 5 cases involving a total number of 14 orbital wall fractures were described. There were 6 pure orbital blowout wall fractures reconstructed, involving both medial and inferior wall of the orbit fracturing the transition zone and 8 impure orbital wall fractures in orbitozygomaticomaxillary complex fracture. 4 patients underwent primary and 1 had delayed orbital reconstruction. Intraoperative CT resulted in intraoperative orbital implant revision, following final navigation planning position, in 40% (2/5) of patients or 14% (2/14) of the fractures. In revised cases, both implant repositioning was conducted at posterior ledge of orbit. Intraoperative CT confirmed true to original reconstruction of medial wall, inferior wall and transition zone of the orbit. Two selected cases were illustrated. In conclusion, intraoperative CT allows real-time assessment of fracture reduction and immediate orbital implant revision, especially at posterior ledge. As a result, no postoperative imaging was indicated in any of the patients. Long-term follow-ups for orbital fracture patients managed with intraoperative CT is suggested.
  18. James JG, Izam AS, Nabil S, Rahman NA, Ramli R
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 8 27;31(1):e22-e26.
    PMID: 31449209 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005812
    AIM: The objective of this review was to determine the different types of surgical intervention in the management of nasal bone fractures, the outcomes, and complications associated with each intervention.

    METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.

    RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.

    CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.

  19. Sulong S, Alias A, Johanabas F, Yap Abdullah J, Idris B
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 8 14;31(1):46-50.
    PMID: 31403510 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005810
    BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis is a congenital defect that causes ≥1 suture to fuse prematurely. Cranial expansion surgery which consists of cranial vault reshaping with or without fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) is done to correct the skull to a more normal shape of the head as well as to increase the intracranial volume (ICV). Therefore, it is important to evaluate the changes of ICV after the surgery and the effect of surgery both clinically and radiologically.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ICV in primary craniosynostosis patients after the cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA and to compare between syndromic and nonsyndromic synostosis group, to determine factors that associated with significant changes in the ICV postoperative, and to evaluate the resolution of copper beaten sign and improvement in neurodevelopmental delay after the surgery.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all primary craniosynostosis patients who underwent operation cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2017 until Jun 2018. The ICV preoperative and postoperative was measured using the 3D computed tomography (CT) imaging and analyzed. The demographic data, clinical and radiological findings were identified and analyzed.

    RESULTS: A total of 14 cases (6 males and 8 females) with 28 3D CT scans were identified. The mean age of patients was 23 months. Seven patients were having syndromic synostosis (4 Crouzon syndromes and 3 Apert syndromes) and 7 nonsyndromic synostosis. The mean preoperative ICV was 880 mL (range, 641-1234 mL), whereas the mean postoperative ICV was 1081 mL (range, 811-1385 mL). The difference was 201 mL which was statistically significant (P  1.0). However, there was 100% (n = 13) improvement of this copper beaten sign. However, the neurodevelopmental delay showed no improvement which was statistically not significant (P > 1.0).

    CONCLUSION: Surgery in craniosynostosis patient increases the ICV besides it improves the shape of the head. From this study, the syndromic synostosis had better increment of ICV compared to nonsyndromic synostosis.

  20. Shaeran TAT, Samsudin AR
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Jun 28.
    PMID: 31261319 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005689
    Temporomandibular joint ankylosis in children commonly lead to difficulty in feeding, poor oral hygiene, retrognathic mandible and obstructive sleep apnea. Surgical release of the ankylosis has always been the standard treatment. The authors report a 12 year old boy with unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis and obstructive sleep apnea underwent surgical release of the ankylosis with successful gain in mouth opening. However, he continued to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea as confirmed by post-operative polysomnography. Orthognathic surgery for mandibular advancement is not favorable due to his young age and mandibular distraction osteogenesis was not a choice. A mandibular advancement device similar to orthodontic myofunctional appliance was the preferred choice in the post-operative period while waiting for definitive retrognathia surgical treatment after skeletal maturity. Surgical release of temporomandibular joint ankylosis corrects the oral problem but does not adequately address the narrow pharyngeal airway space. Assessment of pharyngeal airway with a high suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea is mandatory in the management of TMJ ankylosis.
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