Methods: The authors systematically reviewed pertinent articles published between 1961 and December 2020 and identified 6 patients with PTTP treated by EEA in 5 reports. Additionally, the authors share their institutional experience including a seventh patient, where an EEA resolved a recurrent PTTP without rhinoliquorrhea.
Results: Seven PTTP cases in which EEA was used as part of the treatment regime were included in this review. All cases presented with a defect in the anterior skull base, and 3 of them had concomitant rhinoliquorrhea. A transcranial approach was performed in 6/7 cases before EEA was considered to treat PTTP. In 4/7 cases, the PTTP resolved after the first intent; in 2/7 cases a second repair was necessary because of recurrent PTTP, 1 with and 1 without rhinoliquorrhea, and 1/7 case because of recurrent rhinoliquorrhea only. Overall, PTTP treated by EEA resolved with a mean radiological resolution time of 69 days (range 23-150 days), with no late recurrences. Only 1 patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid diversion infection probably related to a first incomplete EEA skull base defects repair. A permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion was necessary in 3/7 cases.
Conclusions: Endonasal endoscopic approach repair of air conduits is a safe and efficacious second-line approach after failed transcranial approaches for symptomatic PTTP. However, the strength of recommendation for EEA remains low until further evidence is presented.
METHODS: This 5-year nonrandomized prospective study had included 65 cases of unilateral ZMC fractures from October 2014 until December 2019. Patients were treated and divided into nonsurgical and surgically treated group. Treatment outcomes in terms of step deformities, malar depression, diplopia, infraorbital hypoaesthesia, and mouth opening were evaluated up to six months post-trauma/intervention.
RESULTS: Road traffic accident (96.9%) was the main cause, with predominant male involvement (80%) and median age of 28 years. Significant improvements (P < 0.05) were observed for step deformities and malar depression among the surgically treated group at postoperative day 1 and week 1. Throughout the six months review, infraorbital hypoesthesia and diplopia showed no significant differences between both groups, (P > 0.05). Besides, all patients showed significant mouth opening improvement (P
METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.
RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.
METHOD: This case series report includes all 19 consecutive cases presenting to the Chang Gung Craniofacial Center for combined orthognathic surgery with Asian double eyelid suture method blepharoplasty. The double eyelid crease height was measured as the vertical line between the upper eyelid margin (eyelid lash) and the upper eyelid crease, observed at the mid-pupillary line with the eyes in primary gaze.
RESULTS: There were no complications or relapse reported within this time period. There was significant improvement in the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease height postsurgery. There were no statistically significant differences between the left and right mid-pupillary double eyelid crease heights after surgery indicating good eyelid crease height symmetry bilaterally was obtained.
CONCLUSIONS: Orthognathic surgery combined with suture method blepharoplasty can be safely performed in the same surgical setting without inappropriate rise in costs or operating room time. This case series demonstrates that excellent esthetic results can be obtained in simultaneous bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with suture method Asian blepharoplasty.
METHODS: Sixteen computed tomography scan of SC patients (8 months-6 years old) were imported to Materialise Interactive Medical Image Control System (MIMICS) and Materialise 3-matics software. Three-dimensional (3D) OC models were fabricated, and linear measurements were obtained. Mathematical formulas were used for calculation of OC volume and surface area from the 3D model. The same measurements were obtained from the software and used as ground truth. Data normality was investigated before statistical analyses were performed. Wilcoxon test was used to validate differences of OC volume and surface area between 3D model and software.
RESULTS: The mean values for OC surface area for 3D model and MIMICS software were 103.19 mm2 and 31.27 mm2, respectively, whereas the mean for OC volume for 3D model and MIMICS software were 184.37 mm2 and 147.07 mm2, respectively. Significant difference was found between OC volume (P = 0.0681) and surface area (P = 0.0002) between 3D model and software.
CONCLUSION: Optic canal in SC is not a perfect conical frustum thus making 3D model measurement and mathematical formula for surface area and volume estimation not ideal. Computer software remains the best modality to gauge dimensional parameter and is useful to elucidates the relationship of OC and eye function as well as aiding intervention in SC patients.
METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review was conducted from January 2008 until December 2011. All patients diagnosed with zygomatic complex fractured that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Zingg's Classification was used in the study.
RESULTS: The median age was 23.5. Type A was the most common fracture type made up 26.6%. About 90.8% of the injury was caused by road traffic accident. Forty-four patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation and 4 patients were treated with close reduction only. Fifty patients were treated conservatively. Gillies approach in combination with fixation is the most common procedure accounted for 50%. Three-point fixation at infraorbital, maxillary buttress, frontozygomatic suture, and zygomatic arch was the most common site. However, there were no significant associations between the number of fixation and the occurrence of the complication (P = 0.307). About 29.2% in the treatment group and 66% in the conservative group had complications. About 35.7% of patients in treatment group had complications, while 66% had trismus in conservative group.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between types of treatment and the occurrence of complication (P = 0.001). However, there were no significant association between number of fixation and the occurrence of complications (P = 0.307).
METHODS: A search was conducted using the PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Review databases from January 1, 1997 until September 9, 2017. The search strategy was constructed using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome framework with keywords related to nasal fracture and its treatment. Two sets of independent researchers performed the analysis. Qualitative analysis was performed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies and National Institute for Clinical Excellence methodology for randomized controlled trial checklists.
RESULTS: The 4276 titles were obtained from PubMed database alone. Exclusion was made based on the title, abstract and full-text analysis. Finally, 23 papers were included and analyzed. Of the 23 papers, 13 (56.5%) were retrospective record review, 2 (8.7%) were randomized clinical trial or a randomized study and 8 case series (34.8%). 16 (69.6%) studies addressed closed reduction, 3 studies (13%) on open reduction and 4 studies (17.4%) addressed both open and closed reduction. The main focus in the outcome in all studies was accuracy of the anatomical reduction of the nasal bones. Three studies (13.0%) reported restoration of function such as breathing comfort or release in respiratory obstruction and another 3 (13.0%) addressed both cosmetic and breathing outcomes. Residual deformity was the most described complications in the studies (30.4%). In general, most of the studies were not of high quality as they lacked in some key elements in the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies checklist.
CONCLUSION: Both closed and open reduction provided good outcomes in cosmetic and breathing. Septoplasty is recommended to be performed simultaneously with fracture reduction.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ICV in primary craniosynostosis patients after the cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA and to compare between syndromic and nonsyndromic synostosis group, to determine factors that associated with significant changes in the ICV postoperative, and to evaluate the resolution of copper beaten sign and improvement in neurodevelopmental delay after the surgery.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of all primary craniosynostosis patients who underwent operation cranial vault reshaping with or without FOA in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2017 until Jun 2018. The ICV preoperative and postoperative was measured using the 3D computed tomography (CT) imaging and analyzed. The demographic data, clinical and radiological findings were identified and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 14 cases (6 males and 8 females) with 28 3D CT scans were identified. The mean age of patients was 23 months. Seven patients were having syndromic synostosis (4 Crouzon syndromes and 3 Apert syndromes) and 7 nonsyndromic synostosis. The mean preoperative ICV was 880 mL (range, 641-1234 mL), whereas the mean postoperative ICV was 1081 mL (range, 811-1385 mL). The difference was 201 mL which was statistically significant (P 1.0). However, there was 100% (n = 13) improvement of this copper beaten sign. However, the neurodevelopmental delay showed no improvement which was statistically not significant (P > 1.0).
CONCLUSION: Surgery in craniosynostosis patient increases the ICV besides it improves the shape of the head. From this study, the syndromic synostosis had better increment of ICV compared to nonsyndromic synostosis.