Methods: Chemical compounds fromDendrocalamus asperbamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted fromXenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from -80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels withn≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.
Results: All concentration showed statistically significant results withP< 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play any significant roles.
Conclusion: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be able to enhance the inactivation of Kv1.4 by lowering the membrane potential so that the abnormal neuronal firing can be inhibited. With IC50 slightly higher than 10 μM, increasing concentrations (100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) had shown to exhibit toxicity effects. The best concentration from this study is 10 μM with Hill slope of 0.1799.
METHODS: Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), age: 29.5 (SD = 5.6) years and 30 healthy gender-, age-, and education-matched control group participants, age: 28.8 (SD = 6.0) years, were recruited for this study. The participants in the healthy group were then randomly assigned into an EI (n = 15) group and a no-EI (n = 15) group. Similarly, the participants in the control group were then randomly assigned into EI (n = 15) and no-EI (n = 15) groups. The participants performed a serial reaction time (SRT) task and reaction times. A retention test was performed after 48 hours.
RESULTS: All participants reduced their reaction times across acquisition (MS group: 46.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001, and healthy group: 39.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001). The findings for the within-participants effect of repeated measures of time were significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 71.33. P < 0.001). These results indicate that the interaction between group and time was significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 6.44. P < 0.001), which indicated that the reaction time in both groups was significantly changed between the MS and healthy groups across times (B1 to B10). The main effect of the group (MS and healthy) (F(1, 56) = 22.78. P < 0.001) and also the main effect of no-EI vs EI (F(1, 56) = 4.71. P < 0.001) were significant.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that that RRMS patients are capable of learning new skills, but the provision of EI prior to physical practice is deleterious to implicit learning. It is sufficient to educate MS patients on the aim and general content of the training and only to provide feedback at the end of the rehabilitative session.
Methods: In the Event-related Potential (ERP) session, electroencephalographic (EEG) data was recorded for 90 participants, 60% of whom were females. The participants responded to 30 universal emotional pictures, randomly chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which were classified as invoking high, moderate, and low intensity of emotional arousal.
Results: From the analysis of variance of two-way mixed design, the interaction between sex and emotional intensity was observed in the occipital regions (O2), indexed by the amplitude of P300 and N200 components. Males exhibited higher amplitude of P300 and N200 components (in the occipital region) as responded to high and low emotional arousal stimuli than females.
Conclusion: Sex is a fundamental factor that modulates psychological states in reaction to emotional stimuli.