Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, a census sample of 76 midwives from two public hospitals and urban health centers in Torbat Heydariyeh, a city east of Iran were surveyed. Data collection tools were two reliable and valid questionnaires that measure midwives' attitudes and barriers of implementation of evidence-based practice. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.
Results: The mean age and years of experience were 29.30 ± 4.86 and 5.22 ± 4.21 years, respectively. The mean score of attitude was 40.85 ± 4.84 (range = 30-60). This study also found time constraints (2.70 ± 0.92), inadequate facilities (2.64 ± 0.72), non-compilation of literature in one place (2.59 ± 0.92), lack of cooperation of physicians (2.48 ± 1.06) and the feeling of inadequate authority (2.45 ± 0.88) as the top five barriers to implementing EBP.
Conclusion: Survey participants demonstrated a positive attitude toward EBP. Organisational comprehensive strategies such as time efficiency, adequate material and human resources, familiarity with organisations such as the Cochrane Collaboration and managerial support for increasing professional legitimate authority are recommended to promote the use of Evidence-Based Practice in Iran.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional validation study. The original English version of the IDAF-4C+ was translated into Malay, back-translated, and then sent for content validation via an expert validation and face validation by the target student population. Three hundred and seventy questionnaires were then distributed among 16-year-old school children. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for the IDAF-4C module using a bootstrapped maximum likelihood estimator. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between the IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to determine the stability of the IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules, while kappa values were used for the IDAF-P module.
Results: The response rate was 86.5% for CFA and 76.9% for stability. CFA showed the existence of only one factor with a reliability estimate of 0.921, obtained via Raykov's procedure. All items in the IDAF-S module were significantly correlated with the IDAF-4C module (P < 0.001). The IDAF-S and IDAF-4C modules were stable, as determined via a two-way mixed model with absolute agreement, a single measure and a Case 3 ICC (A, 1). The IDAF-P module showed satisfactory stability, as assessed via kappa values.
Conclusion: The Malay version of the IDAF-4C+ is valid and reliable in measuring dental anxiety and fear among Malaysian secondary school children.
Methods: In the Event-related Potential (ERP) session, electroencephalographic (EEG) data was recorded for 90 participants, 60% of whom were females. The participants responded to 30 universal emotional pictures, randomly chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), which were classified as invoking high, moderate, and low intensity of emotional arousal.
Results: From the analysis of variance of two-way mixed design, the interaction between sex and emotional intensity was observed in the occipital regions (O2), indexed by the amplitude of P300 and N200 components. Males exhibited higher amplitude of P300 and N200 components (in the occipital region) as responded to high and low emotional arousal stimuli than females.
Conclusion: Sex is a fundamental factor that modulates psychological states in reaction to emotional stimuli.
Methods: Current smokers ≥ 40 years old who were asymptomatic clinic attendees in a primary care setting were recruited consecutively for two months. We used a two-step strategy. Step 1: participants filled in a questionnaire. Step 2: Assessment of airflow limitation using a pocket spirometer. Multiple logistic regression was utilised to determine the best risk predictors for airflow limitation.
Results: Three hundred participants were recruited. Mean age was 58.35 (SD 10.30) years old and mean smoking history was 34.56 pack-years (SD 25.23). One in two smokers were found to have airflow limitation; the predictors were Indian ethnicity, prolonged smoking pack-year history and Lung Function Questionnaire score ≤ 18. Readiness to quit smoking and the awareness of COPD were low.
Conclusions: The high prevalence of airflow limitation and low readiness to quit smoking imply urgency with helping smokers to quit smoking. Identifying airflow limitation as an additional motivator for smoking cessation intervention may be considered. A two-step case-finding method is potentially feasible.
Methods: This is a retrospective study consisting of 199 patients with meningiomas who have been operated at the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital from January 2010-December 2014. They were categorised into skull base and non-skull base groups. Demography, tumour characteristics, and patient outcomes were analysed. Kaplan-Meier survival curves as well as Cox hazard univariable and multivariable regressions for the possible predictors of survival were analysed.
Results: 97.5% of the patients (n = 194) had WHO grade I meningioma and only five patients had WHO grade II meningioma. There was a female predominance (n = 134; 67.3%), with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2. Some 27.1 % patients had skull base meningiomas. Patients with skull base meningiomas had poorer outcomes and discharge conditions (n = 23; 42.6% P < 0.01), in addition to higher risk of incomplete resections (n = 34; 63% P < 0.01). Multivariate cox hazard regressions showed that the skull base meningioma group had four times the risk of death of the non-skull base group.
Conclusions: Symptomatic meningiomas can be curative if the tumour is completely removed. Our study has revealed that skull base meningiomas which were operated locally had higher rates of incomplete resection and poorer surgical outcomes as compared to the non-skull base group. Patients with skull base meningiomas had four times the risk of death vis-à-vis non-skull base ones. More local studies are needed to look into skull base meningiomas for the improvement of its surgical outcomes.
Methods: Forty-eight female BALB/c mice were divided into a healthy control (HC) and a pristine-induced (PI) group. SLE was induced by a single 0.5 cc pristane intraperitoneal injection. Six from each group were sacrificed every eight weeks until 32 weeks post-pristane injection. Treg, Th1, Th2 and Th17 percentages from the spleen were measured using flowcytometry. ANA, IL-6 and IFN-α levels were measured from serum using ELISA.
Results: The Treg percentage from the PI group increased significantly at 16 weeks compared to the HC group, while Th1, Th2 and Th17 percentages decreased. Tregs in the PI group began to reduce from the 24th to 32nd weeks, followed by an elevation of the Th1, Th2 and Th17 percentages. Tregs were negatively correlated with Th1 and Th2. Tregs in the PI group had a negative correlation with ANA and IFN-α levels from serum, whereas Tregs had a positive correlation with IL-6 levels.
Conclusion: The compensation of Tregs observed at 16 weeks after pristane injection failed, marked by a decreasing number of Tregs, followed by an increase of Th subsets, pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. This compensatory failure of Tregs could be affected by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-α and IL-6.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). A total of 303 students participated. Data was collected from January to April 2016. Self-designed questionnaires comprised questions pertaining to current weight, self-reported height data, information on eating habits, exercise and knowledge of the food pyramid. The collected data were used to compare and contrast eating habits and lifestyle practices among overweight/obese students with those of non-overweight/obese students.
Results: The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 28.8% (95% CI: 24.0%, 34.0%). The majority ate regular daily meals, but more than half skipped breakfast. Frequent snacking, fried food consumption at least three times per week and low intake of daily fruits and vegetables were common. The frequency of visits to fast food restaurants was significantly higher in the overweight/obese. 25.4% of the students exercised at least three times per week. Almost all students are aware of balanced nutrition and the food pyramid.
Conclusions: Most university students had poor eating habits, although the majority had good nutrition knowledge. By way of recommendation, the university is encouraged to provide a multi-disciplinary team specialising in health promotion that includes nutrition and physical activity programmes to increase the awareness among the university students.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study consisted of 37 type II diabetes patients in an SMS group and 36 type II diabetes patients in a control group. The patients in both groups completed written consent forms and questionnaires at the beginning of the study. The patients in the SMS group received training messages within two weeks (two or three messages daily) in the field of physical activity based on HPM constructs. Both groups completed questionnaires in three stages (at the beginning of the study, four weeks after the first visit, and three months later) comprising demographic factors, questions regarding the constructs, and 7-day physical activity recall. After data collection, statistical analysis was conducted using an independent t-test, a Chi-square test, and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Results: As compared with the control group, changes in mean scores of perceived self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and family support (P = 0.046) of physical activity in the training group were significantly greater and perceived barriers (P < 0.001) were significantly lower over time. The physical activity performance of the SMS group was better three months after training as compared with that of the control group (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: The results demonstrated the efficacy of training messages in changing the beliefs and physical activity behaviours of diabetic patients.
Methods: With the SCOPUS database, we selected those documents made in Malaysia whose title included descriptors related to SGAs. We applied bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion, as Price's law and Bradford's law, respectively. We also calculated the participation index of the different countries. The bibliometric data were also been correlated with some social and health data from Malaysia (total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on R&D).
Results: We found 105 original documents published between 2004 and 2016. Our results fulfilled Price's law, with scientific production on SGAs showing exponential growth (r = 0.401, vs. r = 0.260 after linear adjustment). The drugs most studied are olanzapine (9 documents), clozapine (7), and risperidone (7). Division into Bradford zones yields a nucleus occupied by the Medical Journal of Malaysia, Singapore Medical Journal, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, and Pharmacogenomics. Totally, 63 different journals were used, but only one in the top four journals had an impact factor being greater than 3.
Conclusion: The publications on SGAs in Malaysia have undergone exponential growth, without evidence a saturation point.
Methods: Using a pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model, sensory-motor and visual cortical slices were prepared, and the whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (sIPSCs).
Results: The primary finding was that the mean amplitude of sIPSC from the sensory-motor cortex increased significantly in epileptic mice when the recording pipette contained MK-801 compared to control mice, whereas the mean sIPSC frequency was not significantly different, indicating that post-synaptic mechanisms are involved. However, there was no significant pre-synaptic inhibition through preNMDARs in the acute brain slices from pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice.
Conclusion: In the acute case of epilepsy, a compensatory mechanism of post-synaptic inhibition, possibly from ambient GABA, was observed through changes in the amplitude without significant changes in the frequency of sIPSC compared to control mice. The role of preNMDAR-mediated inhibition in epileptogenesis during the chronic condition or in the juvenile stage warrants further investigation.
Methods: Inbred mice received saline, DMSO and amygdalin, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Amygdalin was administered 1 h before the TM challenge (Amy + TM group). Mice body and liver weights were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining from liver tissue, were performed. Alanin aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured.
Results: Histological evaluation revealed that amygdalin was unable to decrease the TM induced liver steatosis; however, ALT and AST levels decreased [ALT: 35.33(2.15) U/L versus 92.33(6.66) U/L; (57.000, (50.63, 63.36),P< 0.001) and AST: 93(5.09) U/L versus 345(97.3) U/L, (252, (163.37, 340.62),P< 0.001)]. Amygdalin also decreased triglyceride and cholesterol plasma levels in the Amy + TM group [TG: 42.66(2.15) versus 53.33(7.24) mg/dL; (10.67, (3.80, 17.54),P= 0.006) and TC: 9.33(3.55) versus 112.66(4.31) mg/dL, (103.33, (98.25, 108.40)P< 0.001)].
Conclusion: Amygdalin improved the ALT, AST, and lipid serum levels after the TM challenge; however, it could not attenuate hepatic steatosis.
Methods: A qualitative method was employed to explore the feedback-seeking behaviour of undergraduate medical students in the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Lampung. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with four student groups and each group consisted of 7-10 students from the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. Data triangulation was carried out through FGDs with teaching staff, and an interview with the Head of the Medical Education Unit.
Results: Study findings indicated that the motivation of students to seek feedback was underlain by the desire to obtain useful information and to control the impressions of others. Students will tend to seek feedback from someone to whom they have either a close relationship or whose credibility they value. The most common obstacle for students to seek feedback is the reluctance and fearfulness of receiving negative comments.
Conclusions: Through the identification of factors promoting and inhibiting feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education institutions are enabled to implement the appropriate and necessary measures to create a supportive feedback atmosphere in the learning process.
Methods: A two-way repeated measures study was conducted on 14 healthy older adults and 14 older adults with balance impairment, who were recruited from the community in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Their walking performance was assessed using a four-metre walking test at their preferred gait speed and while walking under two further gait conditions, in randomised order: dual task walking and dual task walking with a simulated traffic light. Each participant was tested individually, with the testing taking between 15 and 20 minutes to perform, including two-minute rest periods between walking conditions. Two Kinect cameras recorded the spatio-temporal parameters using MFU gait analysis software. Each participant was tested for each condition twice. The mean parameters for each condition were analysed using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with participant group and gait condition as factors.
Result: There was no significant between-group effect for walking speed, stride length and cadence. There were also no significant effects between gait condition and stride length or cadence. However, the effect between gait condition and walking speed was found to be significant [F(1.557, 40.485) = 4.568,P= 0.024, [Formula: see text]].
Conclusion: An audio-visual cue (simulated traffic light) was found to influence walking speed in both healthy older adults and in older adults with balance impairment. The results suggest that audio-visual cues could be incorporated into healthy lifestyle promotion in older adults with balance impairment.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 147 ACS patients aged less than 45 years were analysed.
Results: The mean age was 39.1 (4.9) years, the male to female ratio was 3:1; 21.2% of patients presented with unstable angina, 58.5% had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 20.4% had ST elevation myocardial infarction. The most frequent risk factor of ACS was dyslipidaemia (65.3%), followed by hypertension (43.5%). In total, 49.7% of patients had inpatient complication(s), with the most common being heart failure (35.4%), followed by arrhythmia (20.4%). The significant factors associated with ACS complications were current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 12.23;P-value = 0.014], diabetic mellitus [AOR 3.03; 95% CI: 1.19, 7.71;P-value = 0.020], treatments of fondaparinux [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.39;P-value < 0.001] and oral nitrates [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.42;P-value < 0.001].
Conclusions: Smoking status and diabetes mellitus were modifiable risk factors while pharmacological treatment was an important protective factor for ACS complications in young patients.