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  1. Chee LC, Siregar JA, Ghani ARI, Idris Z, Rahman Mohd NAA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):32-41.
    PMID: 29599633 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.5
    Background: Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent medical attention. In Malaysia, a prospective study by the Umum Sarawak Hospital, Neurosurgical Center, in the year 2000-2002 revealed an average of two cases of intracranial aneurysms per month with an operative mortality of 20% and management mortality of 25%. Failure to diagnose, delay in admission to a neurosurgical centre, and lack of facilities could have led to the poor surgical outcome in these patients. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that significantly predict the outcome of patients undergoing a surgical clipping of ruptured aneurysm in the local population.

    Material and Method: A single center retrospective study with a review of medical records was performed involving 105 patients, who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the Sultanah Aminah Hospital, in Johor Bahru, from July 2011 to January 2016. Information collected was the patient demographic data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) prior to surgery, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale (WFNS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grading system, and timing between SAH ictus and surgery. A good clinical grade was defined as WFNS grade I-III, whereas, WFNS grades IV and V were considered to be poor grades. The outcomes at discharge and six months post surgery were assessed using the modified Rankin's Scale (mRS). The mRS scores of 0 to 2 were grouped into the "favourable" category and mRS scores of 3 to 6 were grouped into the "unfavourable" category. Only cases of proven ruptured aneurysmal SAH involving anterior circulation that underwent surgical clipping were included in the study. The data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and aP-value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

    Result: A total of 105 patients were included. The group was comprised of 42.9% male and 57.1% female patients. The mean GCS of the patients subjected to surgical clipping was 13, with the majority falling into the good clinical grade (78.1%). The mean timing of the surgery after SAH was 5.3 days and this was further categorised into early (day one to day three, 45.3%), intermediate (day four to day ten, 56.2%), and late (after day ten, 9.5%). The total favourable outcome achieved at discharge was 59.0% as compared to 41.0% of the unfavourable outcome, with an overall mortality rate of 10.5%. At the six-month post surgery review (n= 94), the patients with a favourable outcome constituted 71.3% as compared to 28.7% with an unfavourable outcome. The mortality, six months post surgery was 3.2%. On a univariate analysis of early surgical clipping, patients with a better GCS and good clinical grade had a significantly better outcome at discharge. Based on the univariate study, six months post surgery, the timing of the surgery and the clinical grade remained significant predictors of the outcome. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, male patients of younger age, with a good clinical grade, were associated with favourable outcomes, both at discharge and six months post surgery.

    Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that younger male patients with a good clinical grade were associated with a favourable outcome both at discharge and six months post surgery. We did not find the timing of the surgery, size of the aneurysm or duration of surgery to be associated with a patient's surgical outcome. Increasing age was not associated with the surgical outcome in a longer term of patient's follow up.

  2. Wan Hassan WMN, Tan HS, Mohamed Zaini RH
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):24-31.
    PMID: 29599632 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.4
    Background: The study aimed to determine the effects of dexmedetomidine on the induction of anaesthesia using different models (Marsh and Schnider) of propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI).

    Methods: Sixty-four patients aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II who underwent elective surgery were randomised to a Marsh group (n= 32) or Schnider group (n= 32). All the patients received a 1 μg/kg loading dose of dexmedetomidine, followed by TCI anaesthesia with remifentanil at 2 ng/mL. After the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil reached 2 ng/mL, propofol TCI induction was started. Anaesthesia induction commenced in the Marsh group at a target plasma concentration (Cpt) of 2 μg/mL, whereas it started in the Schnider group at a target effect-site concentration (Cet) of 2 μg/mL. If induction was delayed after 3 min, the target concentration (Ct) was gradually increased to 0.5 μg/mL every 30 sec until successful induction. The Ct at successful induction, induction time, Ce at successful induction and haemodynamic parameters were recorded.

    Results: The Ct for successful induction in the Schnider group was significantly lower than in the Marsh group (3.48 [0.90] versus 4.02 [0.67] μg/mL;P= 0.01). The induction time was also shorter in the Schnider group as compared with the Marsh group (134.96 [50.91] versus 161.59 [39.64]) sec;P= 0.02). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic parameters and Ce at successful induction.

    Conclusion: In the between-group comparison, dexmedetomidine reduced the Ct requirement for induction and shortened the induction time in the Schnider group. The inclusion of baseline groups without dexmedetomidine in a four-arm comparison of the two models would enhance the validity of the findings.

  3. Moslehi A, Farahabadi M, Chavoshzadeh SA, Barati A, Ababzadeh S, Mohammadbeigi A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):16-23.
    PMID: 29599631 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.3
    Background: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress creates abnormalities in the insulin action, inflammatory responses, lipoprotein B100 degradation, and hepatic lipogenesis. Hepatic steatosis leads to a broad spectrum of hepatic disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NASH. Amygdalin has beneficial effects on asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We designed this study to evaluate the effect of amygdalin on the ER stress induced hepatic steatosis.

    Methods: Inbred mice received saline, DMSO and amygdalin, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Amygdalin was administered 1 h before the TM challenge (Amy + TM group). Mice body and liver weights were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining from liver tissue, were performed. Alanin aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured.

    Results: Histological evaluation revealed that amygdalin was unable to decrease the TM induced liver steatosis; however, ALT and AST levels decreased [ALT: 35.33(2.15) U/L versus 92.33(6.66) U/L; (57.000, (50.63, 63.36),P< 0.001) and AST: 93(5.09) U/L versus 345(97.3) U/L, (252, (163.37, 340.62),P< 0.001)]. Amygdalin also decreased triglyceride and cholesterol plasma levels in the Amy + TM group [TG: 42.66(2.15) versus 53.33(7.24) mg/dL; (10.67, (3.80, 17.54),P= 0.006) and TC: 9.33(3.55) versus 112.66(4.31) mg/dL, (103.33, (98.25, 108.40)P< 0.001)].

    Conclusion: Amygdalin improved the ALT, AST, and lipid serum levels after the TM challenge; however, it could not attenuate hepatic steatosis.

  4. Jusoh Z, Tohid H, Omar K, Muhammad NA, Ahmad S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):84-95.
    PMID: 29599638 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.10
    Background: The quality of life (QoL) describes the multidimensional self-perceived well-being of a person, which is an important diabetes outcome. This study aimed to measure the QoL scores among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as their clinical and sociodemographic predictors.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 180 randomly sampled patients at a primary care clinic on the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire containing the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life-18 (ADDQoL-18) was used.

    Results: Most of the respondents (96.7%) were Malay, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 54.0 (14.0) years old. The majority of them were females (60.0%), married (81.1%) and from low-income families (63.3%), who attained a secondary education or lower (75.6%). Only 49.4% of them were employed. The mean (standard deviation, SD) ADDQoL-18 average weighted impact score was -4.58 (2.21) and all 18 domains were negatively affected, particularly the living condition, family life and working life. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the age (adjusted B = 0.05,P= 0.004) and insulin use (adjusted B = -0.84,P= 0.011) were QoL predictors.

    Conclusion: T2DM negatively impacts the patient's QoL in all aspects of their life. The QoL improvement with age suggests that the older patients had accepted and adapted to their illness. The need to improve the QoL among insulin users was also highlighted.
  5. Oktaria D, Soemantri D
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):75-83.
    PMID: 29599637 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.9
    Background: The concept of feedback-seeking behaviour has been widely studied, but there is still a lack of understanding of this phenomenon, specifically in an Indonesian medical education setting. The aim of this research was to investigate medical students' feedback-seeking behaviour in depth in one Indonesian medical school.

    Methods: A qualitative method was employed to explore the feedback-seeking behaviour of undergraduate medical students in the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Lampung. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with four student groups and each group consisted of 7-10 students from the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. Data triangulation was carried out through FGDs with teaching staff, and an interview with the Head of the Medical Education Unit.

    Results: Study findings indicated that the motivation of students to seek feedback was underlain by the desire to obtain useful information and to control the impressions of others. Students will tend to seek feedback from someone to whom they have either a close relationship or whose credibility they value. The most common obstacle for students to seek feedback is the reluctance and fearfulness of receiving negative comments.

    Conclusions: Through the identification of factors promoting and inhibiting feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education institutions are enabled to implement the appropriate and necessary measures to create a supportive feedback atmosphere in the learning process.

  6. Kaewkaen K, Wongsamud P, Ngaothanyaphat J, Supawarapong P, Uthama S, Ruengsirarak W, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):67-74.
    PMID: 29599636 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.8
    Background: The walking gait of older adults with balance impairment is affected by dual tasking. Several studies have shown that external cues can stimulate improvement in older adults' performance. There is, however, no current evidence to support the usefulness of external cues, such as audio-visual cueing, in dual task walking in older adults. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an audio-visual cue (simulated traffic light) on dual task walking in healthy older adults and in older adults with balance impairments.

    Methods: A two-way repeated measures study was conducted on 14 healthy older adults and 14 older adults with balance impairment, who were recruited from the community in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Their walking performance was assessed using a four-metre walking test at their preferred gait speed and while walking under two further gait conditions, in randomised order: dual task walking and dual task walking with a simulated traffic light. Each participant was tested individually, with the testing taking between 15 and 20 minutes to perform, including two-minute rest periods between walking conditions. Two Kinect cameras recorded the spatio-temporal parameters using MFU gait analysis software. Each participant was tested for each condition twice. The mean parameters for each condition were analysed using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with participant group and gait condition as factors.

    Result: There was no significant between-group effect for walking speed, stride length and cadence. There were also no significant effects between gait condition and stride length or cadence. However, the effect between gait condition and walking speed was found to be significant [F(1.557, 40.485) = 4.568,P= 0.024, [Formula: see text]].

    Conclusion: An audio-visual cue (simulated traffic light) was found to influence walking speed in both healthy older adults and in older adults with balance impairment. The results suggest that audio-visual cues could be incorporated into healthy lifestyle promotion in older adults with balance impairment.

  7. Zhang J, Mohamad FH, Wong JH, Mohamad H, Ismail AH, Mohamed Yusoff AA, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):101-113.
    PMID: 29599640 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.12
    Background: Bamboo shoot has been used as a treatment for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine for generations to treat neuronal disorders such as convulsive, dizziness and headaches. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-hba) is a non-flavonoid phenol found abundantly inDendrocalamus aspershoots (bamboo), fruits (strawberries and apples) and flowers. Kv1.4 is a rapidly inactivatingShaker-related member of the voltage-gated potassium channels with two inactivation mechanisms; the fast N-type and slow C-type. It plays vital roles in repolarisation, hyperpolarisation and signaling the restoration of resting membrane potential through the regulation of the movement of K+across the cellular membrane.

    Methods: Chemical compounds fromDendrocalamus asperbamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted fromXenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from -80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels withn≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.

    Results: All concentration showed statistically significant results withP< 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play any significant roles.

    Conclusion: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be able to enhance the inactivation of Kv1.4 by lowering the membrane potential so that the abnormal neuronal firing can be inhibited. With IC50 slightly higher than 10 μM, increasing concentrations (100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) had shown to exhibit toxicity effects. The best concentration from this study is 10 μM with Hill slope of 0.1799.

  8. Sahoo S, Thevi T, Soe HHK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):96-100.
    PMID: 29599639 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.11
    The purpose of this study was to determine the association of well-being and cognitive impairment with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients attending a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. Fifty-four individuals were recruited for study as cases were matched with 60 individuals as the control subjects, and data were collected using the WHO well-being index and the validated 6-item cognitive impairment test dementia test. The results showed that there was no significant association between gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and POAG. Patients with POAG had significantly lower well-being index scores (mean 67.93) than the control group (mean 81.60) withP-value < 0.001. Similarly, patients with POAG had a significantly higher score of cognitive impairment (CIT test) (mean 6.15) compared to the control group (mean 0.40) withP-value < 0.001. Consequently, POAG is likely to be associated with higher cognitive impairment and lower well-being index.
  9. Rosuzeita F, Che Rabiaah M, Rohani I, Mohd Shukri O
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):53-66.
    PMID: 29599635 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.7
    Background: In Malaysia, the rates of mothers practising breastfeeding exclusively among babies at six months of age still do not achieve the Global Nutritional Targets 2025 which is 50%.

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of breastfeeding intervention in improving breastfeeding outcomes.

    Method: A quasi-experimental design was used involving a purposive sample of 96 primigravidas (intervention group (IG) = 48, control group (CG) = 48) recruited at Hospital USM. Data were collected using the Breastfeeding Assessment Questionnaire. Mothers in IG received the current usual care and two hours of an additional education programme on breastfeeding, breastfeeding booklet, notes from the module, and postnatal breastfeeding support in the first week of postpartum. Mothers in CG received the current usual care only. The mothers were assessed on the first and sixth week and then the fourth and sixth month of postpartum.

    Results: The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups on the fourth month postpartum (X2= 5.671,P= 0.017) in practicing full breastfeeding. The breastfeeding duration rates of the IG were longer than those of the CG. However, the results showed only two follow-up weeks that were significant (week 6,X2= 5.414,P= 0.020, month 4,X2= 7.515,P= 0.006). There was a statistically significant difference between IG and CG as determined by one-way ANCOVA on the breastfeeding duration after controlling age and occupation, F (3, 82) = 6.7,P= 0.011. The test revealed that the breastfeeding duration among IG was significantly higher (20.80 ± 6.31) compared to CG (16.98 ± 8.97).

    Conclusions: Breastfeeding intervention can effectively increase breastfeeding duration and exclusivity outcomes among primiparous mothers.

  10. Norsa'adah B, Che-Muzaini CM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):42-52.
    PMID: 29599634 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.6
    Background: Approximately 5%-10% of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases occur in people younger than 45 years of age. This study aimed to identify complications of ACS and the associated factors in young patients.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 147 ACS patients aged less than 45 years were analysed.

    Results: The mean age was 39.1 (4.9) years, the male to female ratio was 3:1; 21.2% of patients presented with unstable angina, 58.5% had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 20.4% had ST elevation myocardial infarction. The most frequent risk factor of ACS was dyslipidaemia (65.3%), followed by hypertension (43.5%). In total, 49.7% of patients had inpatient complication(s), with the most common being heart failure (35.4%), followed by arrhythmia (20.4%). The significant factors associated with ACS complications were current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 12.23;P-value = 0.014], diabetic mellitus [AOR 3.03; 95% CI: 1.19, 7.71;P-value = 0.020], treatments of fondaparinux [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.39;P-value < 0.001] and oral nitrates [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.42;P-value < 0.001].

    Conclusions: Smoking status and diabetes mellitus were modifiable risk factors while pharmacological treatment was an important protective factor for ACS complications in young patients.

  11. Yajid AI, Ab Rahman HS, Wong MPK, Wan Zain WZ
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):5-15.
    PMID: 29599630 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.2
    The incidence of cancer is increasing each year, which generates concerns regarding the efficacy of the current treatment options. This has caused patients to seek alternatives to complement or to replace surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Annona muricataand other plants have been shown to have promising compounds that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer. Native to the tropical and subtropical parts of the world,A. muricataplant extracts contain compounds that are particularly effective against cancer cells. In light of increasing concerns regarding the limitations of cancer treatment in hospitals, this review attempts to highlight the benefits ofA. muricataand its potential to be integrated as one of the treatment options against cancer.
  12. Idris Z, Kandasamy R, Neoh YY, Abdullah JM, Wan Hassan WMN, Mat Hassan ME
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):1-4.
    PMID: 29599629 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.1
    World-renowned neurosurgeon, Professor Saleem Abdulrauf, has been featured in several medical journals for his successful "Awake Brain Aneurysm Surgery". Regarded as a "world first", this surgery, involves clipping un-ruptured brain aneurysms while patients are awake. Only one or two neurosurgery centres worldwide are capable of this. Performing the surgery while the patient is awake lowers risks of brain ischemia with neurological deficits and ventilator associated morbidities. The technique has been viewed as the start of a new era in brain surgery. Physicians from the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) School of Medical Sciences, at the Health Campus in Kelantan, headed by Professor Dr Zamzuri Idris (neurosurgeon) and Dr Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan (neuroanaesthetist), recently performed a similar procedure, the first such surgery in Malaysia and Southeast Asia. The USM team can therefore be considered to be among the first few to have done this brain surgery and achieved successful patient outcomes.
  13. Anandpara KM, Aswani Y, Hira P
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Feb;25(1):114-118.
    PMID: 29599641 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.1.13
    Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening mycosis typically seen in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary cryptococcosis generally presents as multiple or solitary nodular opacities. Cryptococcal infection presenting as a destructing cavernoma (cryptococcoma) without diffuse infiltration of the lung is an extremely rare presentation, even in immunocompromised patients. This report presents a healthy, HIV negative, immunocompetent patient who presented with a large solitary lung mass provisionally diagnosed as a lung malignancy on radiological imaging that proved to be a large cryptococcoma after biopsy. The patient was treated with liposomal Amphotericin B and fluconazole, and the lesion showed regression on serial imaging. This case report thus highlights an unconventional presentation of pulmonary cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent individual.
  14. Sriram PR, Sellamuthu P, Ghani ARI
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):58-67.
    PMID: 29379387 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.7
    Background: Despite the broad category of differentials for sellar region, most of them present with similar clinical signs and symptoms. Headache and visual disturbance are among the frequently seen as presenting symptom. Visual field (VF) assessment is one of the crucial component of neuroophtalmologic assessment and mean deviation (MD) value from automated perimetry allows quantification of the visual field defect. We formulated a study to look into the factors that affect the visual field outcome after surgery.

    Methods: All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value.

    Results: Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted.

    Conclusion: Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.

  15. Budin SB, Kho JH, Lee JH, Ramalingam A, Jubaidi FF, Latif ES, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):50-57.
    PMID: 29379386 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.6
    Background: Nicotine is a major toxic and hazardous component of cigarette smoke, and it has been widely used in nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of chronic low-dose nicotine on sperm characteristics and reproductive organ integrity in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Methods: Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups. Group I received normal saline, and group II received 0.6 mg/kg body weight nicotine intraperitoneally for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experimental period, sperm was collected for sperm characteristic evaluation, and the testes and prostate were isolated for biochemical and morphological analysis. The effects of nicotine on the body and reproductive organ weights of the animals were evaluated.

    Results: Chronic nicotine treatment significantly (P < 0.05) altered the sperm count, motility, viability, and morphology, and remarkably increased the malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) and advanced oxidation protein product (P < 0.05) levels in the testes and prostate of nicotine-treated group compared to control group. Moreover, nicotine caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the superoxide dismutase activity of the testes. No significant differences were observed in the reduced glutathione level in both of the testes and prostate of nicotine group compared with control group. Nicotine also induced histopathological alteration in the testes.

    Conclusion: A low-dose nicotine exposure at 0.6 mg/kg caused detrimental effects on sperm characteristics and induced oxidative stress in the testes and prostate.

  16. Kassim MSA, Manaf MRA, Nor NSM, Ambak R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):83-91.
    PMID: 29379390 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.10
    Background: The obesity rate in Malaysia is the highest in Asia. Half its population is obese or overweight. The present study aims to determine the effects of lifestyle intervention on weight loss and blood pressure among Malaysian overweight and obese housewives in Klang Valley.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 328 obese and overweight low socio- economic status housewives aged 18-59 years old who met the screening criteria participated in the study. They were recruited into an intervention group (N = 169) or control group (N = 159). The intervention group received a lifestyle intervention consisting of a diet, physical activity and self-monitoring behavior package. The control group (delayed intervention group) received a women's health seminar package. Both groups were followed up for six months. Weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were evaluated both pre- and post-intervention.

    Results: A total of 124 participants from the intervention group and 93 participants from the control group completed the study. Mean weight loss was 1.13 ± 2.70 kg (P < 0.05) in the intervention group and 0.97 ± 2.60 kg (P < 0.05) in the control group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) reductions in the intervention group were 5.84 ± 18.10 mmHg (P < 0.05). The control group showed reduction in SBP 6.04 ± 14.52 mmHg (P < 0.05). Both group had non-significant DBP reduction. Multivariate analysis via General Linear Model Repeated Measures observed no significant differences in terms of parameter changes with time in both groups for all parameters.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the lifestyle interventions in this study resulted in modest weight loss and thus decreased BMI and blood pressure (SBP) within six months of intervention.

  17. Jalal TMT, Abdullah S, Wahab FA, Dir S, Naing NN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):75-82.
    PMID: 29379389 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.9
    Background: One of the six strategies developed by WHO, in order to stop Tuberculosis (TB) is addressing TB/HIV high-risk groups. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of successful TB treatment and factors associated with TB treatment success among TB/HIV co-infection patients in North-East Malaysia.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the a-year period from 2003 to 2012 by reviewing TB/HIV records in all hospitals and health clinics. The outcome of interest was treatment success as defined by Ministry of Health (MOH) when the patients was cured or completed TB treatment.

    Results: Out of 1510 total TB/HIV co-infection cases, 27.9% (95% CI: 25.2, 30.6) of the patients were having treatment success. A majority of TB/HIV co-infection cases were male (91.1%). Fifty-eight percent the patients were drug addicts and 6% were having positive tuberculin tests. The multiple logistic regression revealed that male (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.71) and positive tuberculin test result (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.63, 4.19) were significantly associated with the treatment success of TB/HIV co-infection patients. Other factors such as age, comorbid, sputum smear and x-ray findings were not significantly factors in this study.

    Conclusion: Female patients and those with negative tuberculin test should be emphasised for successful tuberculosis treatment.

  18. Ahmad MK, Tabana YM, Ahmed MA, Sandai DA, Mohamed R, Ismail IS, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):29-38.
    PMID: 29379384 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.4
    Background: A norovirus maintains its viability, infectivity and virulence by its ability to replicate. However, the biological mechanisms of the process remain to be explored. In this work, the NanoLuc™ Luciferase gene was used to develop a reporter-tagged replicon system to study norovirus replication.

    Methods: The NanoLuc™ Luciferase reporter protein was engineered to be expressed as a fusion protein for MNV-1 minor capsid protein, VP2. The foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (FMDV2A) sequence was inserted between the 3'end of the reporter gene and the VP2 start sequence to allow co-translational 'cleavage' of fusion proteins during intracellular transcript expression. Amplification of the fusion gene was performed using a series of standard and overlapping polymerase chain reactions. The resulting amplicon was then cloned into three readily available backbones of MNV-1 cDNA clones.

    Results: Restriction enzyme analysis indicated that the NanoLucTM Luciferase gene was successfully inserted into the parental MNV-1 cDNA clone. The insertion was further confirmed by using DNA sequencing.

    Conclusion: NanoLuc™ Luciferase-tagged MNV-1 cDNA clones were successfully engineered. Such clones can be exploited to develop robust experimental assays for in vitro assessments of viral RNA replication.

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