Material and Method: A single center retrospective study with a review of medical records was performed involving 105 patients, who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the Sultanah Aminah Hospital, in Johor Bahru, from July 2011 to January 2016. Information collected was the patient demographic data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) prior to surgery, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Scale (WFNS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grading system, and timing between SAH ictus and surgery. A good clinical grade was defined as WFNS grade I-III, whereas, WFNS grades IV and V were considered to be poor grades. The outcomes at discharge and six months post surgery were assessed using the modified Rankin's Scale (mRS). The mRS scores of 0 to 2 were grouped into the "favourable" category and mRS scores of 3 to 6 were grouped into the "unfavourable" category. Only cases of proven ruptured aneurysmal SAH involving anterior circulation that underwent surgical clipping were included in the study. The data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and aP-value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Result: A total of 105 patients were included. The group was comprised of 42.9% male and 57.1% female patients. The mean GCS of the patients subjected to surgical clipping was 13, with the majority falling into the good clinical grade (78.1%). The mean timing of the surgery after SAH was 5.3 days and this was further categorised into early (day one to day three, 45.3%), intermediate (day four to day ten, 56.2%), and late (after day ten, 9.5%). The total favourable outcome achieved at discharge was 59.0% as compared to 41.0% of the unfavourable outcome, with an overall mortality rate of 10.5%. At the six-month post surgery review (n= 94), the patients with a favourable outcome constituted 71.3% as compared to 28.7% with an unfavourable outcome. The mortality, six months post surgery was 3.2%. On a univariate analysis of early surgical clipping, patients with a better GCS and good clinical grade had a significantly better outcome at discharge. Based on the univariate study, six months post surgery, the timing of the surgery and the clinical grade remained significant predictors of the outcome. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, male patients of younger age, with a good clinical grade, were associated with favourable outcomes, both at discharge and six months post surgery.
Conclusion: In this study, we concluded that younger male patients with a good clinical grade were associated with a favourable outcome both at discharge and six months post surgery. We did not find the timing of the surgery, size of the aneurysm or duration of surgery to be associated with a patient's surgical outcome. Increasing age was not associated with the surgical outcome in a longer term of patient's follow up.
Methods: Sixty-four patients aged 18-60 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) class I-II who underwent elective surgery were randomised to a Marsh group (n= 32) or Schnider group (n= 32). All the patients received a 1 μg/kg loading dose of dexmedetomidine, followed by TCI anaesthesia with remifentanil at 2 ng/mL. After the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil reached 2 ng/mL, propofol TCI induction was started. Anaesthesia induction commenced in the Marsh group at a target plasma concentration (Cpt) of 2 μg/mL, whereas it started in the Schnider group at a target effect-site concentration (Cet) of 2 μg/mL. If induction was delayed after 3 min, the target concentration (Ct) was gradually increased to 0.5 μg/mL every 30 sec until successful induction. The Ct at successful induction, induction time, Ce at successful induction and haemodynamic parameters were recorded.
Results: The Ct for successful induction in the Schnider group was significantly lower than in the Marsh group (3.48 [0.90] versus 4.02 [0.67] μg/mL;P= 0.01). The induction time was also shorter in the Schnider group as compared with the Marsh group (134.96 [50.91] versus 161.59 [39.64]) sec;P= 0.02). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic parameters and Ce at successful induction.
Conclusion: In the between-group comparison, dexmedetomidine reduced the Ct requirement for induction and shortened the induction time in the Schnider group. The inclusion of baseline groups without dexmedetomidine in a four-arm comparison of the two models would enhance the validity of the findings.
Methods: Inbred mice received saline, DMSO and amygdalin, as control groups. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin (TM) injection. Amygdalin was administered 1 h before the TM challenge (Amy + TM group). Mice body and liver weights were measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and oil red O staining from liver tissue, were performed. Alanin aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride and cholesterol levels were measured.
Results: Histological evaluation revealed that amygdalin was unable to decrease the TM induced liver steatosis; however, ALT and AST levels decreased [ALT: 35.33(2.15) U/L versus 92.33(6.66) U/L; (57.000, (50.63, 63.36),P< 0.001) and AST: 93(5.09) U/L versus 345(97.3) U/L, (252, (163.37, 340.62),P< 0.001)]. Amygdalin also decreased triglyceride and cholesterol plasma levels in the Amy + TM group [TG: 42.66(2.15) versus 53.33(7.24) mg/dL; (10.67, (3.80, 17.54),P= 0.006) and TC: 9.33(3.55) versus 112.66(4.31) mg/dL, (103.33, (98.25, 108.40)P< 0.001)].
Conclusion: Amygdalin improved the ALT, AST, and lipid serum levels after the TM challenge; however, it could not attenuate hepatic steatosis.
Methods: A qualitative method was employed to explore the feedback-seeking behaviour of undergraduate medical students in the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Lampung. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with four student groups and each group consisted of 7-10 students from the years 2012, 2013 and 2014. Data triangulation was carried out through FGDs with teaching staff, and an interview with the Head of the Medical Education Unit.
Results: Study findings indicated that the motivation of students to seek feedback was underlain by the desire to obtain useful information and to control the impressions of others. Students will tend to seek feedback from someone to whom they have either a close relationship or whose credibility they value. The most common obstacle for students to seek feedback is the reluctance and fearfulness of receiving negative comments.
Conclusions: Through the identification of factors promoting and inhibiting feedback-seeking behaviour, medical education institutions are enabled to implement the appropriate and necessary measures to create a supportive feedback atmosphere in the learning process.
Methods: A two-way repeated measures study was conducted on 14 healthy older adults and 14 older adults with balance impairment, who were recruited from the community in Chiang Rai, Thailand. Their walking performance was assessed using a four-metre walking test at their preferred gait speed and while walking under two further gait conditions, in randomised order: dual task walking and dual task walking with a simulated traffic light. Each participant was tested individually, with the testing taking between 15 and 20 minutes to perform, including two-minute rest periods between walking conditions. Two Kinect cameras recorded the spatio-temporal parameters using MFU gait analysis software. Each participant was tested for each condition twice. The mean parameters for each condition were analysed using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with participant group and gait condition as factors.
Result: There was no significant between-group effect for walking speed, stride length and cadence. There were also no significant effects between gait condition and stride length or cadence. However, the effect between gait condition and walking speed was found to be significant [F(1.557, 40.485) = 4.568,P= 0.024, [Formula: see text]].
Conclusion: An audio-visual cue (simulated traffic light) was found to influence walking speed in both healthy older adults and in older adults with balance impairment. The results suggest that audio-visual cues could be incorporated into healthy lifestyle promotion in older adults with balance impairment.
Methods: Chemical compounds fromDendrocalamus asperbamboo shoots were purified and identified as major palmitic acids mixed with other minor fatty acids, palmitic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, lauric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and cholest-4-ene-3-one. The response of synthetic 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was tested on Kv1.4 potassium channel which was injected into viable oocytes that was extracted fromXenopus laevis. The current were detected by the two-microelectrode voltage clamp, holding potential starting from -80 mV with 20 mV step-up until +80 mV. Readings of treatments with 0.1% DMSO, 4-hba concentrations and K channel blockers were taken at +60 mV. The ratio of tail/peak amplitude is the index of the activity of the Kv1.4 channels withn≥ 6 (number of oocytes tested). The decreases of the ratios of five different concentrations (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) were compared with 0.1% DMSO as the control.
Results: All concentration showed statistically significant results withP< 0.05 except for 100 μM. The normalised current of the 4-hba concentrations were compared with potassium channel blockers (TEA and 4-AP) and all groups showed statistically significant results. This study also showed that time taken for each concentration to affect Kv1.4 does not play any significant roles.
Conclusion: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was found to be able to enhance the inactivation of Kv1.4 by lowering the membrane potential so that the abnormal neuronal firing can be inhibited. With IC50 slightly higher than 10 μM, increasing concentrations (100 μM, 1 mM and 2.5 mM) had shown to exhibit toxicity effects. The best concentration from this study is 10 μM with Hill slope of 0.1799.
Objective: To determine the effectiveness of breastfeeding intervention in improving breastfeeding outcomes.
Method: A quasi-experimental design was used involving a purposive sample of 96 primigravidas (intervention group (IG) = 48, control group (CG) = 48) recruited at Hospital USM. Data were collected using the Breastfeeding Assessment Questionnaire. Mothers in IG received the current usual care and two hours of an additional education programme on breastfeeding, breastfeeding booklet, notes from the module, and postnatal breastfeeding support in the first week of postpartum. Mothers in CG received the current usual care only. The mothers were assessed on the first and sixth week and then the fourth and sixth month of postpartum.
Results: The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the groups on the fourth month postpartum (X2= 5.671,P= 0.017) in practicing full breastfeeding. The breastfeeding duration rates of the IG were longer than those of the CG. However, the results showed only two follow-up weeks that were significant (week 6,X2= 5.414,P= 0.020, month 4,X2= 7.515,P= 0.006). There was a statistically significant difference between IG and CG as determined by one-way ANCOVA on the breastfeeding duration after controlling age and occupation, F (3, 82) = 6.7,P= 0.011. The test revealed that the breastfeeding duration among IG was significantly higher (20.80 ± 6.31) compared to CG (16.98 ± 8.97).
Conclusions: Breastfeeding intervention can effectively increase breastfeeding duration and exclusivity outcomes among primiparous mothers.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 147 ACS patients aged less than 45 years were analysed.
Results: The mean age was 39.1 (4.9) years, the male to female ratio was 3:1; 21.2% of patients presented with unstable angina, 58.5% had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 20.4% had ST elevation myocardial infarction. The most frequent risk factor of ACS was dyslipidaemia (65.3%), followed by hypertension (43.5%). In total, 49.7% of patients had inpatient complication(s), with the most common being heart failure (35.4%), followed by arrhythmia (20.4%). The significant factors associated with ACS complications were current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33, 12.23;P-value = 0.014], diabetic mellitus [AOR 3.03; 95% CI: 1.19, 7.71;P-value = 0.020], treatments of fondaparinux [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.39;P-value < 0.001] and oral nitrates [AOR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.42;P-value < 0.001].
Conclusions: Smoking status and diabetes mellitus were modifiable risk factors while pharmacological treatment was an important protective factor for ACS complications in young patients.
Methods: All patients with sellar region tumor who has underwent surgery in Queen Elizabeth Hospital from July 2010 to July 2016 were retrospectively analysed through hospital notes. VF assessment via Humphrey visual assessment for these patient pre and post-surgery were reviewed for MD value.
Results: Eighty four patients were recruited and out of them, 151 eyes were taken into analysis after excluding eyes with missing data. Mean age of patients were 45.4 years with 70.2% of them were male. Visual disturbance is the commonest presenting symptom with mean duration of symptom prior to surgery is 9.7 months. Majority of them were pituitary adenomas (75%) followed by sellar meningioma (19%), craniopharyngioma (4.8%), and rathke cleft cyst (1.2%). 70.9% of patients showed improvement in VF based on MD outcome. Mean MD for pre surgery and post-surgery were -14.0 dB and -12.4 dB, respectively. Univariate analysis reveals younger age, female sex, shorter duration of symptom, pituitary adenoma, transsphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach favours improvement in VF. Multivariate analysis shows only shorter symptom duration, transphenoidal approach, and transcranial approach are significant for favourable VF outcome when other factors adjusted.
Conclusion: Symptom duration and surgical approach were independent factors that affects the visual field after surgery in patients with sellar region tumors.
Methods: Twelve rats were equally divided into two groups. Group I received normal saline, and group II received 0.6 mg/kg body weight nicotine intraperitoneally for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the experimental period, sperm was collected for sperm characteristic evaluation, and the testes and prostate were isolated for biochemical and morphological analysis. The effects of nicotine on the body and reproductive organ weights of the animals were evaluated.
Results: Chronic nicotine treatment significantly (P < 0.05) altered the sperm count, motility, viability, and morphology, and remarkably increased the malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) and advanced oxidation protein product (P < 0.05) levels in the testes and prostate of nicotine-treated group compared to control group. Moreover, nicotine caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the superoxide dismutase activity of the testes. No significant differences were observed in the reduced glutathione level in both of the testes and prostate of nicotine group compared with control group. Nicotine also induced histopathological alteration in the testes.
Conclusion: A low-dose nicotine exposure at 0.6 mg/kg caused detrimental effects on sperm characteristics and induced oxidative stress in the testes and prostate.
Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 328 obese and overweight low socio- economic status housewives aged 18-59 years old who met the screening criteria participated in the study. They were recruited into an intervention group (N = 169) or control group (N = 159). The intervention group received a lifestyle intervention consisting of a diet, physical activity and self-monitoring behavior package. The control group (delayed intervention group) received a women's health seminar package. Both groups were followed up for six months. Weight, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were evaluated both pre- and post-intervention.
Results: A total of 124 participants from the intervention group and 93 participants from the control group completed the study. Mean weight loss was 1.13 ± 2.70 kg (P < 0.05) in the intervention group and 0.97 ± 2.60 kg (P < 0.05) in the control group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) reductions in the intervention group were 5.84 ± 18.10 mmHg (P < 0.05). The control group showed reduction in SBP 6.04 ± 14.52 mmHg (P < 0.05). Both group had non-significant DBP reduction. Multivariate analysis via General Linear Model Repeated Measures observed no significant differences in terms of parameter changes with time in both groups for all parameters.
Conclusions: The results indicate that the lifestyle interventions in this study resulted in modest weight loss and thus decreased BMI and blood pressure (SBP) within six months of intervention.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the a-year period from 2003 to 2012 by reviewing TB/HIV records in all hospitals and health clinics. The outcome of interest was treatment success as defined by Ministry of Health (MOH) when the patients was cured or completed TB treatment.
Results: Out of 1510 total TB/HIV co-infection cases, 27.9% (95% CI: 25.2, 30.6) of the patients were having treatment success. A majority of TB/HIV co-infection cases were male (91.1%). Fifty-eight percent the patients were drug addicts and 6% were having positive tuberculin tests. The multiple logistic regression revealed that male (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.71) and positive tuberculin test result (OR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.63, 4.19) were significantly associated with the treatment success of TB/HIV co-infection patients. Other factors such as age, comorbid, sputum smear and x-ray findings were not significantly factors in this study.
Conclusion: Female patients and those with negative tuberculin test should be emphasised for successful tuberculosis treatment.
Methods: The NanoLuc™ Luciferase reporter protein was engineered to be expressed as a fusion protein for MNV-1 minor capsid protein, VP2. The foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (FMDV2A) sequence was inserted between the 3'end of the reporter gene and the VP2 start sequence to allow co-translational 'cleavage' of fusion proteins during intracellular transcript expression. Amplification of the fusion gene was performed using a series of standard and overlapping polymerase chain reactions. The resulting amplicon was then cloned into three readily available backbones of MNV-1 cDNA clones.
Results: Restriction enzyme analysis indicated that the NanoLucTM Luciferase gene was successfully inserted into the parental MNV-1 cDNA clone. The insertion was further confirmed by using DNA sequencing.
Conclusion: NanoLuc™ Luciferase-tagged MNV-1 cDNA clones were successfully engineered. Such clones can be exploited to develop robust experimental assays for in vitro assessments of viral RNA replication.