Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 666 in total

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  1. Yong R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Oct;20(5):1-4.
    PMID: 24643391
    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.
  2. López-Muñoz F, Povedano-Montero FJ, Chee KY, Shen WW, Fernández-Martín P, García-Pacios J, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 May;25(3):40-55.
    PMID: 30899186 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.3.5
    Objective: We carried out a bibliometric study on the scientific papers related to second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) in Malaysia.

    Methods: With the SCOPUS database, we selected those documents made in Malaysia whose title included descriptors related to SGAs. We applied bibliometric indicators of production and dispersion, as Price's law and Bradford's law, respectively. We also calculated the participation index of the different countries. The bibliometric data were also been correlated with some social and health data from Malaysia (total per capita expenditure on health and gross domestic expenditure on R&D).

    Results: We found 105 original documents published between 2004 and 2016. Our results fulfilled Price's law, with scientific production on SGAs showing exponential growth (r = 0.401, vs. r = 0.260 after linear adjustment). The drugs most studied are olanzapine (9 documents), clozapine (7), and risperidone (7). Division into Bradford zones yields a nucleus occupied by the Medical Journal of Malaysia, Singapore Medical Journal, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, and Pharmacogenomics. Totally, 63 different journals were used, but only one in the top four journals had an impact factor being greater than 3.

    Conclusion: The publications on SGAs in Malaysia have undergone exponential growth, without evidence a saturation point.

  3. Raveendran S, Sarojam S, Vijay S, Prem S, Sreedharan H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Sep;22(5):93-97.
    PMID: 28239274
    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is one of the fatal haematological malignancies as a consequence of its genetic heterogeneity. At present, the prediction of the clinical response to treatment for AML is based not only on detection of cytogenetic aberrations but also by analysing certain molecular genetic alterations. There are limited in sights into the contribution, disease progression, treatment outcome, and characterisation with respect to the uncommon chromosomal abnormalities leading to AML. Here, we describe the clinical, morphological, cytogenetic, and mutational findings of a 52-year-old female patient with AML without maturation (AML-M1). Conventional karyotyping and spectral karyotyping (SKY) were done on metaphase chromosomes from bone marrow cells at the time of diagnosis. A mutation analysis was performed on the hotspot regions of various genes, including FLT3, CEBPA, NPM1, RAS, c-KIT, IDH1 and IDH2. Cytogenetic and mutation analyses revealed a novel translocation, t(X;2)(q28;p22), with both NPM1 and IDH1 mutations. To the best of our knowledge, the presence of both NPM1 and IDH1 mutations in t(X;2)(q28;p22) is a novel finding in AML.
  4. Singhvi A, Joshi A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Sep;22(5):89-92.
    PMID: 28239273
    Melanoma of the sinonasal cavity has a high incidence of amelanotic presentation. Its diagnosis is difficult for clinicians and pathologists because of its hidden location and lack of pigmentation at the microscopic level. We reported a case of amelanotic melanoma of the maxillary sinus that showed aggressive extension to the oral cavity after extraction of the maxillary tooth. Histologically, the lesion resembled a plasmacytoid tumour. Diagnosis was made through the positive immunohistochemical staining for S100 and HMB-45.
  5. Ismail N, Zam Z, Hassan SA, Rahman ZA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):21-27.
    PMID: 28894400 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.3
    BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections. Treatment is difficult because it is resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the treatment options. The aims of this study were to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and synergistic effect of selected antimicrobial combinations against S. maltophilia isolates.

    METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2011 to March 2012. S. maltophilia isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the epsilometer test (E-test) and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In the synergy test, the isolates were tested against six different antimicrobial combinations.

    RESULTS: In total, 84 S. maltophilia isolates were collected and analysed. According to the E-test, the antimicrobial susceptibility of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin was 100%, 91.1%, and 88.9% respectively. The antimicrobial combination of TMP-SMX and ceftazidime showed the highest synergistic effect.

    CONCLUSION: TMP-SMX remains the antimicrobial of choice to treat S. maltophilia infection. TMP-SMX and ceftazidime was the most effective combination in vitro.

  6. Genesan P, Haspani MSM, Noor SRM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):59-67.
    PMID: 30914863 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.6
    Background: Many different conventional approaches such as the frontal and pterional approaches are used to access anterior circulation aneurysms. Recently, the supraorbital approach has been widely applied to the treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms. This study was done to evaluate which approach (pterional or supraorbital) has better outcomes in terms of residual neck post-clipping, cosmetic satisfaction, scar tenderness, complications and functional outcomes.

    Methodology: A total of 123 patients were recruited into this study, comprising 82 patients who underwent a pterional approach and 41 patients who underwent a supraorbital approach. Computed tomography angiograms, the modified Rankin Scale, and the visual analogue scale were administered at 6 months to look for residual aneurysm, functional outcomes, scar tenderness, and cosmetic satisfaction. Complication data were collected from patients' case notes.

    Results: The mean operating time for the pterional group was 226 min, compared to supraorbital group, which was 192 min (P = 0.07). Cosmetic satisfaction was significantly higher (P = 0.001) in the supraorbital group. There was no significant difference between the supraorbital and pterional groups' scar tenderness (P = 0.719), residual aneurysm (P = 0.719), or functional outcomes (P = 0.137), and there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of intra-operative and post-operative complications.

    Conclusions: The supraorbital group had better cosmetic outcomes and shorter operating times compared to the pterional group.

  7. Albayrak E, Sonmezgoz F, Ozmen Z, Aktas F, Altunkas A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):112-118.
    PMID: 29386979 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.13
    A 26-year-old female patient with Type 1 Gaucher's disease (GD) was admitted to our clinic with complaints of stomachache and signs of anemia. The patient underwent ultrasonography (US), computerised tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Imaging studies revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly, choledocolithiasis, and six nodules in the spleen with a mean size of 14 mm. The nodules appeared hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and of mixed echogenicity on the US and hypodense on the CT. While the nodules were observed to be iso-hypointense in T1-weighted (T1WI) images, they appeared to be hyperintense in the T2-weighted (T2WI) images. There were no diffusion restrictions in these nodules that appeared on the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). A nodule located at the lower pole was observed to be hypointense in the T2WI images. The nodule located at the lower pole, which appeared hypointense in T2WI series, had restricted diffusion upon DWI. In this study, we aimed to present the properties of splenic GD nodules using US, CT, and conventional MRI, together with DWI. This case report is the first to apply US, CT, and conventional MRI, together with DWI, to the splenic nodules associated with Gaucher's disease.
  8. Zahari Z, Salleh MR, Zahri Johari MK, Musa N, Ismail R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):44-57.
    PMID: 22589672 MyJurnal
    The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) plays a role in many diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and addictive behaviour. Methods currently available for the detection of DRD2 polymorphisms are costly and cannot detect all 8 polymorphisms of our research interest simultaneously (Val96Ala, Leu141Leu, Val154Ile, Pro310Ser, Ser311Cys, TaqI A, A-241G, and -141C Ins/Del). Therefore, we developed a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of these polymorphisms.
  9. Mohamed M, Winn T, Rampal GL, Abdul Rashid A, Mustaffa B
    Malays J Med Sci, 2005 Jan;12(1):20-5.
    PMID: 22605943
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death since the last three decades in Malaysia and diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered as major risk factors. A study to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the community (PIKOM) through education and lifestyle changes was undertaken. The study population was from four different areas in Peninsular Malaysia - Kota Bharu and Bachok in Kelantan ; Raub in Pahang; Gunung Besout in Perak and Felda Palong in Negri Sembilan. The subjects invited to participate in this study ware aged between 30 - 65 years, did not have any debilitating illnesses and no known history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Subjects were asked to come to the local clinic in a fasting state and after physical examination, blood was taken for plasma glucose and lipids. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was then performed. A total of 4,121 subjects participated in the study. The proportion of subjects with diabetes mellitus was highest in Felda Palong area (20.3%) and lowest in Raub area (7.1%). The proportion of subjects with hypertension was also highest in Felda Palong area (38.6%) and lowest in Raub area (29.1%). This could be attributable to the subjects in Felda Palong having the highest mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR). There were significant associations between diabetes and hypertension with age and obesity. Subjects with diabetes mellitus and hypertension also had the highest mean age, BMI, WHR and plasma cholesterol.In conclusion, the proportion of patients with risk factors for CVD was high and intervention studies through education and lifestyle changes were being carried out to see their effectiveness.
  10. Baharuddin A, Musa MN, Salleh SS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):1-3.
    PMID: 27540319 MyJurnal
    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes.
  11. Rahman AA, Mohamad N, Imran MK, Ibrahim WP, Othman A, Aziz AA, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):63-8.
    PMID: 22589674 MyJurnal
    No previous study has assessed the impact of childhood disability on parents and family in the context of Malaysia, and no instrument to measure this impact has previously been available. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the reliability of a Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module that measures the impact of children with disabilities (CWD) on their parents and family in a Malaysian context.
  12. Irniza R, Emilia ZA, Muhammad Saliluddin S, Nizam Isha AS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Jul;21(4):42-50.
    PMID: 25977621 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ.

    METHODS: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component.

    CONCLUSION: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police.

  13. Sharifudin MA, Zakaria Z, Awang MS, Mohamed Amin MA, Abd Aziz A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):82-6.
    PMID: 27540330 MyJurnal
    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the vertebra is a rare entity. A case of a 53-year-old lady who presented with an 8 months history of pain in the thoracic spine region with paraparesis is discussed. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and had undergone total thyroidectomy one year prior to her current problem. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed isolated osteolytic lesion over the posterior element of the T12 vertebra with narrowing of the spinal canal causing compression of the cord. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was made histologically. Fibrous dysplasia rarely occurs in axial bones compared with peripheral bones. This case illustrates that osteolytic lesion of the vertebrae should be evaluated with detailed radiological and histopathological examination before an empirical diagnosis of spinal metastasis is made in an adult with a background history of primary malignancy well-known to spread to the bone.
  14. Ralot T, Bafna C, Singh S, Sharma S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Dec;24(6):103-106.
    PMID: 29379393 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.6.13
    Persistent neutrophilic meningitis is an atypical form of chronic meningitis defined as clinical meningitis with a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis suggestive of neutrophilic pleocytosis that persists for more than one week despite giving empirical antimicrobial therapy. The predominant presentation of tubercular meningitis is with CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis and even if early phase of the disease presents with neutrophilic pleocytosis, no persistence is usually observed for more than one week. We hereby report the case of an immunocompetent man aged 25 years with tubercular meningitis manifesting as persistent neutrophilic meningitis which is very rare as an entity in tubercular meningitis (TBM). Patient was started on anti-tubercular therapy based on the granulomas in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain after which there was a reduction in total cell count in CSF but persisting neutrophilic predominance. Patient improved clinically and was given a full course of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) thereafter.
  15. Saber H, Jasni AS, Jamaluddin TZMT, Ibrahim R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):7-18.
    PMID: 29386968 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.2
    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCCmec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCCmec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCCmec types among CoNS species.
  16. Bujang MA, Omar ED, Baharum NA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Nov;25(6):85-99.
    PMID: 30914882 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.6.9
    Background: Reliability studies are commonly used in questionnaire development studies and questionnaire validation studies. This study reviews the sample size guideline for Cronbach's alpha test.

    Methods: Manual sample size calculation using Microsoft Excel software and sample size tables were tabulated based on a single coefficient alpha and the comparison of two coefficients alpha.

    Results: For a single coefficient alpha test, the approach by assuming the Cronbach's alpha coefficient equals to zero in the null hypothesis will yield a smaller sample size of less than 30 to achieve a minimum desired effect size of 0.7. However, setting the coefficient of Cronbach's alpha larger than zero in the null hypothesis could be necessary and this will yield larger sample size. For comparison of two coefficients of Cronbach's alpha, a larger sample size is needed when testing for smaller effect sizes.

    Conclusions: In the assessment of the internal consistency of an instrument, the present study proposed the Cronbach's alpha's coefficient to be set at 0.5 in the null hypothesis and hence larger sample size is needed. For comparison of two coefficients' of Cronbach's alpha, justification is needed whether testing for extremely low and extremely large effect sizes are scientifically necessary.

  17. Man MY, Ong MS, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Sulong G, Yunus J, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Dec;22(Spec Issue):9-19.
    PMID: 27006633 MyJurnal
    Neuroimaging is a new technique used to create images of the structure and function of the nervous system in the human brain. Currently, it is crucial in scientific fields. Neuroimaging data are becoming of more interest among the circle of neuroimaging experts. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a large amount of neuroimaging tools. This paper gives an overview of the tools that have been used to image the structure and function of the nervous system. This information can help developers, experts, and users gain insight and a better understanding of the neuroimaging tools available, enabling better decision making in choosing tools of particular research interest. Sources, links, and descriptions of the application of each tool are provided in this paper as well. Lastly, this paper presents the language implemented, system requirements, strengths, and weaknesses of the tools that have been widely used to image the structure and function of the nervous system.
  18. Yusoff MS, Rahim AF, Baba AA, Ismail SB, Esa AR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jul;19(3):29-35.
    PMID: 23610547 MyJurnal
    Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%-50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes.
  19. Hamzah AA, Rahman MN, Daud MA, Mahamood Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2007 Jul;14(2):67-71.
    PMID: 22993495 MyJurnal
    Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) commonly presents with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which can be of obstructive symptoms such as hesitancy, incomplete voiding, post void dribbling or of irritative symptoms such as urgency, frequency and nocturia. Various recent studies indicate that nocturia is a very important and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom especially among patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The aims of the study was to determine the frequency of common urinary symptoms among patients with BPH in HUSM as well as to evaluate the extent of bothersomeness of each and every symptom to these patients. This study too was aimed at evaluating the success of TURP in resolving pre operative LUTS. This was a questionnaire-based survey using a validated ICSBPH model whereby patients with BPH were selected and quizzed personally by an investigator. A subset of patients who had undergone TURP were further questioned regarding their satisfaction with the procedure. When nocturia is defined as waking up at night once or more to pass urine, the prevalence of nocturia was about 90%, but only 1 in 6 patients considered this is a very serious symptom. Even if the definition was changed to waking up twice or more, the prevalence is still quite high at over 80%. Urgency were noted in half of the patients, but only a quarter of them consider it a serious problem. 1 in 5 patients experienced significant leak and almost all consider it serious. About one third of the studied population had to be catheterized due to urinary obstruction and interestingly only about half of them considered it as a very serious event. Overall, a great majority of these patients considered suffering from these urinary symptoms for the rest of their life as very devastating. This study conclude that although the prevalence of nocturia was high among BPH patients, but it was not considered serious by majority of them. In fact, LUTS in our BPH patients did not differ much from BPH patients elsewhere. On the whole, TURP resolved most of the LUTS effectively.
  20. Mawaddah A, Marina MB, Halimuddin S, Mohd Razif MY, Abdullah S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jul;23(4):65-70.
    PMID: 27660547 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.4.9
    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
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