Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 571 in total

  1. Yong R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2013 Oct;20(5):1-4.
    PMID: 24643391
    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.
  2. Ismail N, Zam Z, Hassan SA, Rahman ZA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):21-27.
    PMID: 28894400 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.3
    BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, capable of causing a wide spectrum of infections. Treatment is difficult because it is resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the treatment options. The aims of this study were to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and synergistic effect of selected antimicrobial combinations against S. maltophilia isolates.

    METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study undertaken in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2011 to March 2012. S. maltophilia isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using the epsilometer test (E-test) and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In the synergy test, the isolates were tested against six different antimicrobial combinations.

    RESULTS: In total, 84 S. maltophilia isolates were collected and analysed. According to the E-test, the antimicrobial susceptibility of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin was 100%, 91.1%, and 88.9% respectively. The antimicrobial combination of TMP-SMX and ceftazidime showed the highest synergistic effect.

    CONCLUSION: TMP-SMX remains the antimicrobial of choice to treat S. maltophilia infection. TMP-SMX and ceftazidime was the most effective combination in vitro.

  3. Zahari Z, Salleh MR, Zahri Johari MK, Musa N, Ismail R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):44-57.
    PMID: 22589672 MyJurnal
    The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) plays a role in many diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and addictive behaviour. Methods currently available for the detection of DRD2 polymorphisms are costly and cannot detect all 8 polymorphisms of our research interest simultaneously (Val96Ala, Leu141Leu, Val154Ile, Pro310Ser, Ser311Cys, TaqI A, A-241G, and -141C Ins/Del). Therefore, we developed a nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for simultaneous detection of these polymorphisms.
  4. Mohamed M, Winn T, Rampal GL, Abdul Rashid A, Mustaffa B
    Malays J Med Sci, 2005 Jan;12(1):20-5.
    PMID: 22605943
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death since the last three decades in Malaysia and diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered as major risk factors. A study to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the community (PIKOM) through education and lifestyle changes was undertaken. The study population was from four different areas in Peninsular Malaysia - Kota Bharu and Bachok in Kelantan ; Raub in Pahang; Gunung Besout in Perak and Felda Palong in Negri Sembilan. The subjects invited to participate in this study ware aged between 30 - 65 years, did not have any debilitating illnesses and no known history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension or cardiovascular disease. Subjects were asked to come to the local clinic in a fasting state and after physical examination, blood was taken for plasma glucose and lipids. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was then performed. A total of 4,121 subjects participated in the study. The proportion of subjects with diabetes mellitus was highest in Felda Palong area (20.3%) and lowest in Raub area (7.1%). The proportion of subjects with hypertension was also highest in Felda Palong area (38.6%) and lowest in Raub area (29.1%). This could be attributable to the subjects in Felda Palong having the highest mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR). There were significant associations between diabetes and hypertension with age and obesity. Subjects with diabetes mellitus and hypertension also had the highest mean age, BMI, WHR and plasma cholesterol.In conclusion, the proportion of patients with risk factors for CVD was high and intervention studies through education and lifestyle changes were being carried out to see their effectiveness.
  5. Baharuddin A, Musa MN, Salleh SS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):1-3.
    PMID: 27540319 MyJurnal
    Muslim relies on the structure or guideline of shari'ah or the maqasid al-shariah, which consist of five essential values, namely preservation/protection of faith, life, intellect, property, and dignity/lineage - to guide them in discovering guiding principles for new concerns such as posed by neuroscience. Like in the case of brain imaging technology, there is in need for proper explanation within Islamic and among the Muslim scientists/scholars on how Islamic beliefs, values, and practices might cumulatively provide 'different' meanings to the practice and application of this technology, or whether it is in line with the shari'ah - in the context of preservation of health and protection of disease. This paper highlights the Islamic mechanism for neuroethics as basis for a holistic ethical framework of neuroscience to cope with its new, modern, and emerging technologies in the globalised world, and how Muslim should response to such changes.
  6. Rahman AA, Mohamad N, Imran MK, Ibrahim WP, Othman A, Aziz AA, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Oct;18(4):63-8.
    PMID: 22589674 MyJurnal
    No previous study has assessed the impact of childhood disability on parents and family in the context of Malaysia, and no instrument to measure this impact has previously been available. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the reliability of a Malay version of the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module that measures the impact of children with disabilities (CWD) on their parents and family in a Malaysian context.
  7. Irniza R, Emilia ZA, Muhammad Saliluddin S, Nizam Isha AS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2014 Jul;21(4):42-50.
    PMID: 25977621 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ.

    METHODS: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component.

    CONCLUSION: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police.

  8. Sharifudin MA, Zakaria Z, Awang MS, Mohamed Amin MA, Abd Aziz A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):82-6.
    PMID: 27540330 MyJurnal
    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the vertebra is a rare entity. A case of a 53-year-old lady who presented with an 8 months history of pain in the thoracic spine region with paraparesis is discussed. She had a history of papillary thyroid carcinoma and had undergone total thyroidectomy one year prior to her current problem. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed isolated osteolytic lesion over the posterior element of the T12 vertebra with narrowing of the spinal canal causing compression of the cord. The diagnosis of fibrous dysplasia was made histologically. Fibrous dysplasia rarely occurs in axial bones compared with peripheral bones. This case illustrates that osteolytic lesion of the vertebrae should be evaluated with detailed radiological and histopathological examination before an empirical diagnosis of spinal metastasis is made in an adult with a background history of primary malignancy well-known to spread to the bone.
  9. Saber H, Jasni AS, Jamaluddin TZMT, Ibrahim R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Oct;24(5):7-18.
    PMID: 29386968 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.5.2
    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are considered low pathogenic organisms. However, they are progressively causing more serious infections with time because they have adapted well to various antibiotics owing to their ability to form biofilms. Few studies have been conducted on CoNS in both, hospital and community-acquired settings, especially in Malaysia. Thus, it is important to study their species and gene distributions. A mobile genetic element, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), plays an important role in staphylococci pathogenesis. Among CoNS, SCCmec has been studied less frequently than Staphylococcus aureus (coagulase-positive staphylococci). A recent study (8) conducted in Malaysia successfully detected SCCmec type I to VIII as well as several new combination patterns in CoNS species, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, data are still limited, and further research is warranted. This paper provides a review on SCCmec types among CoNS species.
  10. Man MY, Ong MS, Mohamad MS, Deris S, Sulong G, Yunus J, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Dec;22(Spec Issue):9-19.
    PMID: 27006633 MyJurnal
    Neuroimaging is a new technique used to create images of the structure and function of the nervous system in the human brain. Currently, it is crucial in scientific fields. Neuroimaging data are becoming of more interest among the circle of neuroimaging experts. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a large amount of neuroimaging tools. This paper gives an overview of the tools that have been used to image the structure and function of the nervous system. This information can help developers, experts, and users gain insight and a better understanding of the neuroimaging tools available, enabling better decision making in choosing tools of particular research interest. Sources, links, and descriptions of the application of each tool are provided in this paper as well. Lastly, this paper presents the language implemented, system requirements, strengths, and weaknesses of the tools that have been widely used to image the structure and function of the nervous system.
  11. Yusoff MS, Rahim AF, Baba AA, Ismail SB, Esa AR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Jul;19(3):29-35.
    PMID: 23610547 MyJurnal
    Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%-50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes.
  12. Hamzah AA, Rahman MN, Daud MA, Mahamood Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2007 Jul;14(2):67-71.
    PMID: 22993495 MyJurnal
    Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) commonly presents with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which can be of obstructive symptoms such as hesitancy, incomplete voiding, post void dribbling or of irritative symptoms such as urgency, frequency and nocturia. Various recent studies indicate that nocturia is a very important and bothersome lower urinary tract symptom especially among patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The aims of the study was to determine the frequency of common urinary symptoms among patients with BPH in HUSM as well as to evaluate the extent of bothersomeness of each and every symptom to these patients. This study too was aimed at evaluating the success of TURP in resolving pre operative LUTS. This was a questionnaire-based survey using a validated ICSBPH model whereby patients with BPH were selected and quizzed personally by an investigator. A subset of patients who had undergone TURP were further questioned regarding their satisfaction with the procedure. When nocturia is defined as waking up at night once or more to pass urine, the prevalence of nocturia was about 90%, but only 1 in 6 patients considered this is a very serious symptom. Even if the definition was changed to waking up twice or more, the prevalence is still quite high at over 80%. Urgency were noted in half of the patients, but only a quarter of them consider it a serious problem. 1 in 5 patients experienced significant leak and almost all consider it serious. About one third of the studied population had to be catheterized due to urinary obstruction and interestingly only about half of them considered it as a very serious event. Overall, a great majority of these patients considered suffering from these urinary symptoms for the rest of their life as very devastating. This study conclude that although the prevalence of nocturia was high among BPH patients, but it was not considered serious by majority of them. In fact, LUTS in our BPH patients did not differ much from BPH patients elsewhere. On the whole, TURP resolved most of the LUTS effectively.
  13. Mawaddah A, Marina MB, Halimuddin S, Mohd Razif MY, Abdullah S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jul;23(4):65-70.
    PMID: 27660547 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.4.9
    Bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) is commonly caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and leads to stridor and dyspnea of varying onsets. A retrospective study was done at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre on laser microsurgical posterior cordectomy for BVFI. The objectives were to identify the average duration of onset of stridor from the time of insult and to evaluate the outcome of laser posterior cordectomy as a surgical option. From 1997 to 2007, a total of 31 patients with BVFI were referred for surgery. Twelve patients had tracheostomy done prior to the procedure, whereas 19 patients were without tracheostomy. Ten patients were successfully decannulated, and only 4 patients had complications related to the procedure. The minimum onset of stridor was 7 months, maximum onset of stridor was 28 years, and the mean onset of stridor was 8.7 years. The commonest complication observed was posterior glottic adhesion following bilateral posterior cordectomy. Laser endolaryngeal posterior cordectomy is an excellent surgical option as it enables successful decannulation or avoidance of tracheostomy in patients with BVFI. The onset of stridor took years after the insult to the recurrent laryngeal nerves.
  14. Chan KH, Mohammed Haspani MS, Tan YC, Kassim F
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jul;18(3):82-6.
    PMID: 22135607 MyJurnal
    Primary central nervous system atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumour (ATRT) is a rare and highly malignant tumour that tends to occur in infancy and early childhood. The majority of tumours (approximately two-third) arise in the posterior fossa. The optimal treatment for ATRT remains unclear. Options of treatment include surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Each of their role is still not clearly defined until now. The prognosis of the disease is generally unfavourable. This is a case report of ATRT in an atypical site in a 9-year-old girl.
  15. Mohamed AL, Nee CC, Azzad A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2004 Jul;11(2):59-64.
    PMID: 22973128
    Our purpose is to report on the epidemiological variables and their association with the results of the exercise tolerance test (ETT) in the series of patients referred for standard diagnostic ETT at Seremban Hospital during the year 2001. ETT is widely performed, but, in Malaysia, an analysis of the associations between the epidemiological data and the results of the ETT has not been presented. All patients referred for ETT at Seremban Hospital who underwent exercise treadmill tests for the year 2001 were taken as the study population. Demographic details and patients with established heart disease (i.e. prior coronary bypass surgery, myocardial infarction, or congestive heart failure) were noted. Clinical and ETT variables were collected retrospectively from the hospital records. Testing and data management were performed in a standardized fashion with a computer-assisted protocol. This study showed that there was no significant predictive epidemiological variable on the results of the ETT. However, it was found that there was statistically significant difference between the peak exercise time of males and females undergoing the ETT.
  16. Ibrahim ZA, Lung WS, Long PK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Jan;16(1):48-50.
    PMID: 22589649 MyJurnal
    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disease primarily affects the bone. More than 50 percent of the disease occurs between the age of 1 and 15. We reported a case of a 2 year old boy who presented with a gluteal mass. Radiographic imaging showed an osteolytic lesion suspicious of malignancy. However, the histological diagnosis was Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  17. Omar J, Jaafar Z, Abdullah MR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2009 Jan;16(1):44-7.
    PMID: 22589648 MyJurnal
    A cross sectional pilot study was carried out to look into the usefulness of percent free prostate specific antigen (fPSA) in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer in HUSM patients. All patients who attended surgical clinic and admitted to surgical wards with signs and symptoms of prostate problems during the study period were taken as the study subjects. Total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) was estimated by immunoassay technique and those values of 4 ng/mL or more were proceeded for estimation of fPSA. Using the cut-off value of less than 25% fPSA for diagnosing patients with prostate cancer, our study showed that majority of the prostate cancer patients have a ratio of fPSA:tPSA more than 25% and a significantly higher level of total prostate specific antigen (P<0.005) when compared with patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Unexpectedly, the fPSA values were high in patients diagnosed as prostate cancer compared to BPH. Ratio of percent fPSA to tPSA was found not to be sensitive and specific, in diagnosing prostate cancer at the cut-off value of 25%. In conclusion, total PSA is a more useful biochemical test for diagnosing prostate cancer in our patients.
  18. Cheah WL, Lee PY, Khatijah Y, Rasidah AW
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Apr;18(2):58-65.
    PMID: 22135588 MyJurnal
    It is important to understand the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially in a rural setting.
  19. Theophilus SC, Adnan JS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jan;18(1):30-7.
    PMID: 22135571
    A double-blind randomised control study was conducted on all patients who were admitted or referred to the Department of Neurosurgery, Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was indicated.
  20. Rasalingam K, Abdullah JM, Idris Z, Pal HK, Wahab N, Omar E, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Jan;15(1):44-8.
    PMID: 22589615
    We describe rare case of a 9-year old boy who presented with a two-week history of right ear discharge and mild fever. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the brain showed a lesion in the right cerebellopontine angle with mild enhancement mimicking early abscess formation. Involvement of the mastoid air cells pointing towards a radiological diagnosis of mastoiditis reinforced the diagnosis of an abscess. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was planned for the patient but his conscious level deteriorated and patient slipped into coma warranting immediate surgical intervention. Intraoperatively, about 90% of the tumour was removed and the appearance of the tumour resembled that of an acoustic schwannoma but histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). MRI done post operatively showed lesion in the pons confirming the diagnosis of an exophytic pontine glioblastoma multiforme.
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