MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study employed 28 young female Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 grams. An experimental adhesion model was created in each rat using serosal abrasion and peritoneal excision. They were divided into four groups, each comprising seven rats: Group 1, adhesion induction only; Group 2, resveratrol administration only; Group 3, octreotide administration only; and Group 4, administration of resveratrol and octreotide combination. The rats were monitored under appropriate conditions for 14 days and then underwent laparotomy. Macroscopic intensity and extensiveness of adhesions and microscopic changes in the granulation tissue (cellular intensity, reticular and collagen fibers, capillaries, elastic and smooth muscle fibers, fibrosis) were evaluated and graded. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test were used in statistical analysis and the level of statistical significance was established as p <0.05.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the intensity and extensiveness of macroscopic adhesions (p=0.377 and p=0.319). There was a statistically significant difference between the microscopic scores of the groups according to Zühlke's classification (p=0.026). The Bonferroni correction used to test for the differences revealed that the rats in Group 1 achieved significantly higher scores than the rats in Group 3 (p=0.016).
CONCLUSION: Octreotide showed higher efficiency compared to the control group in microscopic classification; however, the two agents were not superior to each other or their combination was not superior in preventing intra-abdominal adhesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 107 cadavers that had undergone conventional autopsy and PMCT. We made 5 measurements from the PMCT that included cervical length (CL), thoracic length (TL), lumbosacral length (LS), total column length of the spine, excluding the sacrum and coccyx (TCL), and ellipse line measurement of the whole spine, excluding the sacrum and coccyx (EL). We compared these anthropometric PMCT measurements with AL and correlated them using linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: The results showed a significant linear relationship existed between TL and LS with AL, which was higher in comparison with the other parameters than the rest of the spine parameters. The linear regression formula derived was: 48.163 + 2.458 (TL) + 2.246 (LS).
CONCLUSIONS: The linear regression formula derived from PMCT spine length parameters particularly thoracic and lumbar spine gave a finer correlation with autopsy body length and can be used for accurate estimation of cadaveric height. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever linear regression formula for cadaveric height assessment using only post mortem CT spine length measurements.
OBJECTIVES: (1) Evaluate the four published equations' performance in estimating ionised calcium; (2) Determine the accuracy of calculated ionised and adjusted total calcium in classifying patients according to calcium states; and (3) Identify factors associated with hypocalcaemia in the critically ill population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 281 critically ill patients aged 18-80 years of both genders in a Malaysian tertiary intensive care unit. Performance of the four equations was analysed using Bland-Altman difference plot and Passing Bablok regression analysis. Crosstabulation was conducted to assess classification accuracy. Mann-Whitney U or Pearson Chi-Square tests were performed to identify variables associated with hypocalcaemia.
RESULTS: Calculated ionised calcium using all four equations significantly overestimated ionised calcium. Calculated ionised and adjusted total calcium had poor accuracies in classifying hypocalcaemic patients. pH was significantly higher in hypocalcaemics.
CONCLUSION: Calculated ionised and adjusted total calcium significantly overestimate ionised calcium in the critically ill. In this specific population, calcium status should only be confirmed with ionised calcium measured by direct ion-selective electrode (ISE).
CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of metastatic alveolar RMS from a nasal primary to cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in an elderly patient, diagnosed on the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Smears showed malignant round cells featuring focal rhabdoid appearance, with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation further supported by immunocytochemical stains. Diagnosis of alveolar RMS was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identifying FOXO1 gene involvement with dual colour break-apart probes at locus 13q14.
DISCUSSION: The differential diagnosis for a small round blue cell tumour in the elderly generally includes metastatic small cell carcinoma, lymphoma, malignant melanoma, RMS, desmoplastic small round cell tumour and Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour. Subtle morphological analysis and expression pattern of immunostaining for skeletal muscle differentiation led to the diagnosis of RMS. Cytogenetic testing on the FOXO1 gene rearrangement helps definite subtyping of alveolar RMS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 128 diabetic patients with foot ulcers were recruited and divided into two groups, consisting of 73 patients in the IDFU group and 55 in the non-infected diabetic foot ulcer (NIDFU). The severity of infection in IDFU patients was graded based on the Infectious Disease Society of America-International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot classification. Blood samples from all the patients were collected for measurement of PCT, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and white cell count (WBC). The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) were then constructed and analysed.
RESULTS: PCT, hs-CRP and WBC levels were significantly higher in the IDFU group compared to NIDFU with hs-CRP demonstrated the highest AUC (0.91; p <0.001) followed by PCT (0.814; p < 0.001) and lastly WBC (0.775; p < 0.001). The best cut off value, sensitivity and specificity for the presence of infection in diabetic foot, were 3.47 mg/dL, 80% and 89% for hs-CRP, 0.11 ng/ml, 70% and 87% for PCT and 11.8x109/L, 60% and 90% for WBC. All the infection markers showed significant positive correlations with infection severity of DFU.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that hs-CRP is a more sensitive marker for diagnosing IDFU. Although PCT is useful in differentiating IDFU from NIDFU, the use of PCT is not necessary as it adds little value to the current practice.
CASE REPORT: The patient presented with upper respiratory tract infection, fever, seizures and abdominal pain. An initial diagnosis of encephalitis was made. In view of the unexplained abdominal pain with other clinical findings such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome by CT brain, temporary blindness as well as hyponatraemia, acute intermittent porphyria was suspected. Urine delta aminolaevulinic acid (δ-ALA) and porphobilinogen were elevated confirming the diagnosis of AIP. Genetic studies were done for this patient. The patient had a complete resolution of her symptoms with carbohydrate loading and high caloric diet.
CONCLUSION: Although rare, AIP should be considered as a cause of hyponatraemia in a patient who presents with signs and/or symptoms that are characteristic of this disease.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of multiple reports and kit inserts on the diagnostic performance of rapid tests from various manufacturers that are commercially available were performed. Only preliminary data are available currently.
RESULTS: From a total of nine rapid detection test (RDT) kits, three kits offer total antibody detection, while six kits offer combination SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG detection in two separate test lines. All kits are based on colloidal gold-labeled immunochromatography principle and one-step method with results obtained within 15 minutes, using whole blood, serum or plasma samples. The sensitivity for both IgM and IgG tests ranges between 72.7% and 100%, while specificity ranges between 98.7% to 100%. Two immunochromatography using nasopharyngeal or throat swab for detection of COVID-19 specific antigen are also reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: There is much to determine regarding the value of serological testing in COVID-19 diagnosis and monitoring. More comprehensive evaluations of their performance are rapidly underway. The use of serology methods requires appropriate interpretations of the results and understanding the strengths and limitations of such tests.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was done from June 2019 to November 2019 with restrictions to the English language. The search was performed in ScienceDirect, PubMed, and EMBASE databases, using a combination of search terms related to drones, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), maternal, obstetric, healthcare, medical products transportation and Malaysia. A discourse analysis followed and a narrative review was provided on this subject.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The validated ability of drones in the delivery of blood products is highlighted as a possible application in improving maternal healthcare in Malaysia, particularly in the state of Sabah. Five key challenges are identified: infrastructure, technicalities, regulations, expertise, and social acceptance. Future predictions of drone technology in healthcare were outlined with the suggestion of three principle arms of application.
CONCLUSION: The usage of the medical drone in medical products transportation supports the objectives of WHO MDG 5 for Malaysian maternal health. A study on the impact of drones in reducing the maternal mortality ratio is recommended for further exploration.
METHOD: This cross-sectional study involved eighty-three (n=83) adults attending a health screening program at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Demographic data, anthropometric measurements and blood samples for fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting lipid profile (FSL), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and hsCRP were taken. Respondents were grouped according to FRS and the Joint Interim Statement into 10-year CVD risk categories (low, intermediate and high) and MetS, respectively.
RESULTS: hsCRP was significantly increased in patients with high body mass index (BMI) (p=0.001), at-risk waist circumference (WC) (p=0.001) and MetS (p=0.009). Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation between hsCRP level and total FRS score (r=0.26, p<0.05) and HDL-C score (r=0.22, p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The significant difference of hsCRP levels across obesity levels and MetS with its modest correlation with FRS scores supported the adjunctive role of hsCRP in CVD risk prediction, most likely capturing the inflammatory pathological aspect and thus partly accounting for the residual CVD risk.