MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant, peer-reviewed, Englishlanguage articles on healthcare service quality in Malaysia were independently searched by the authors using the SCOPUS and EMERALD databases. Articles that do not directly address healthcare service quality within the Malaysian setting were excluded. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists of the selected articles and from Google search engine. A total of 43 out of 2,749 articles were selected.
RESULTS: Most of these studies (28 out of the 43 articles, 65.1%) in this scoping review used either the original or a modified version of SERVQUAL instrument to measure healthcare service quality. Significant positive relationships between tangibles, assurance and empathy with patient satisfaction were identified. As SERVQUAL primarily measures the functional dimension of service quality, this suggests that past studies on Malaysian healthcare services emphasised heavily on the functional dimension of healthcare service quality. Functional dimension refers to the expressive performance on how the healthcare service is rendered whereas technical dimension refers to the types of services rendered as well as its safety and efficacy.
CONCLUSION: A pertinent research gap identified in this review is the lack of studies that measure both technical and functional dimensions comprehensively. Future research should adopt a more holistic (incorporating both technical dimension and functional dimension) measurement of healthcare service quality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study employs a crosssectional study design and utilises self-reported data obtained from locally validated personal stress inventory questionnaires. The data collection period spanned from August 1 to 31, 2020. The study sample consisted of 163 healthcare drivers affiliated with the Negeri Sembilan State Health Department. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were the first used to determine the association between variables prior to conducting multiple logistic regression to predict the relationship between dependent and independent variables.
RESULTS: In COVID-19's first year, 7.4% (n = 12) of healthcare drivers reported perceived stress with ambulance drivers reporting more stress (10.6%; n = 5) than non-ambulance drivers (6.0%; n = 7). Simple statistical analysis identified perceived stress significantly associated with household income, smoking status and performing on-call. Further analysis by multiple logistic regression found that perceived stress was significantly related to smoking (aOR 19.9, 95% CI: 1.86-213.90), and performing on-call (aOR 8.69, 95% CI 1.21-62.28). Nevertheless, no association was found between perceived stress and age, ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, co-morbidities, driving assignment, employment duration, needing a part-time job or motor vehicle accident history.
CONCLUSION: The study found that the perceived stress amongst Malaysian healthcare drivers during the COVID-19 pandemic was relatively low. This could be due to fewer lifethreatening tasks, emergencies, assigned tasks and increase income due to overtime during the COVD-19 pandemic. The OSH team's efforts to provide consistent safety and health training, including stress management, may have contributed to the healthcare driver's ability to effectively manage the stressful circumstances encountered during the pandemic. In order to enhance salary competitiveness, employers should provide financial management education alongside subsidised housing and childcare provisions. Healthcare drivers who smoke should be taught different stress reduction techniques so that they can handle their stress in a healthy way.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-text articles on case-control and cohort studies published from 1st January 2010 to 1st October 2020 were searched using Google Scholar, PubMed and JSTOR. People of all age groups and Sg bacteraemia or colonisation were the type of participant and exposure used for the search strategy, respectively. Data collection was done by three reviewers and checked by two reviewers for discrepancies. All the papers were critically appraised using the STROBE statement. Qualitative synthesis was done by descriptive comparison, distribution of Sg according to stage comparison, method used for Sg detection comparison and risk of bias comparison.
RESULT: Seven out of 11 articles that fulfil the eligibility criteria were selected. Four papers have low overall risk of bias due to low confounding or selection bias. Sg is found to be a risk factor for CRC from three papers studied, whereas the other four papers did not include the strength of association. Only two papers studied the association between the distribution of Sg and stages of CRC, where the results were contradictory from each other, making it to be inconclusive. The most common method used for Sg detection is a culturing technique, followed by molecular and biochemical techniques.
CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to prove the association between Sg bacteraemia as the risk factor for CRC as well as the association between the Sg distribution and stages of CRC. Culturing technique is the most common method used for the detection of bacteria, but it requires subsequent investigations to confirm the presence of Sg. Thus, it is recommended that more studies need to be done using strong statistical analysis to control for most of the confounders with comprehensive explanation and use of more methods in the detection of Sg.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October 2018 among 479 adolescents aged 17-19 years old from seven institutions of higher learning in Kuantan. Body weight status was described as body mass index (BMI). Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Validated, self-administered Figure Rating Scale (FRS) questionnaires were used. Agreement between BMI and body weight perception was calculated using Kappa statistics. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association between body weight perception and sociodemographic variables.
RESULTS: More than one-third (35.3%) of the respondents misjudged their own body weight. More than one third of the respondents (38.7%) who were underweight, misperceived themselves as having normal weight whilst 31.7% of obese respondents identified themselves as overweight. The agreement between body weight perception and body mass index was moderate (k0.46, p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Body weight perception was in moderate agreement with actual weight in late adolescents. Accurate body weight perception is an important factor in late adolescent's weight management behaviour. Hence, health education related to body weight management should be emphasized among this age group.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 65 stroke survivors with UL dysfunction (mean (SD) age = 64.83 (8.05) years, mean (SD) post-stroke duration 41.62 (35.24) months) who attended community-based rehabilitation program. Upper limb functionality was assessed using the UL items of Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SSQOL), the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale and the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT). The stroke survivors' performance in completing JTHFT using their affected dominant hand was compared with standard norms.
RESULTS: The three most affected UL daily living tasks were writing (64.7%, n=42), opening a jar (63.1%, n=41) and putting on socks (58.5%, n=38). As for IADL, the mean (SD) score of Lawton scale was 3.26 (2.41), with more than 50% unable to handle finance, do the laundry and prepare meals for themselves. Performances of stroke survivors were much slower than normal population in all tasks of JTHFT (p<0.05), with largest speed difference demonstrated for 'stacking objects' task (mean difference 43.24 secs (p=0.003) and 24.57 (p<0.001) in males and females, respectively.
CONCLUSION: UL functions are significantly impaired among stroke survivors despite undergoing rehabilitation. Rehabilitation professionals should prioritize highly problematic tasks when retraining UL for greater post-stroke functionality.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-centre cohort study involving 5 PSCs and 7 ASRHs in Malaysia. Through review of medical records of AIS patients who received IVT from 01 January 2014 to 30 June 2021, real-world data was extracted for analysis. Univariate and multivariate regression models were employed to evaluate the role of PSCs versus ASRHs in post-IVT outcomes and complications. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 313 multi-ethnic Asians, namely 231 from PSCs and 82 from ASRHs, were included. Both groups were comparable in baseline demographic, clinical, and stroke characteristics. The efficiency of IVT delivery (door-toneedle time), functional outcomes (mRS at 3 months post- IVT), and rates of adverse events (intracranial haemorrhages and mortality) following IVT were comparable between the 2 groups. Notably, 46.8% and 48.8% of patients in PSCs and ASRHs group respectively (p=0.752) achieved favourable functional outcome (mRS≤1 at 3 months post-IVT). Regression analyses demonstrated that post-IVT functional outcomes and adverse events were independent of the role of PSCs or ASRHs.
CONCLUSION: Our study provides real-world evidence which suggests that IVT can be equally safe, effective, and efficiently delivered in ASRHs. This may encourage the establishment of more ASRHs to extend the benefits of IVT to a greater proportion of stroke populations and enhance the regional stroke care.