MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among parents of 145 children in the year 2020. Participants were selected using multistage randomisation technique from 10 of the 75 registered government kindergartens in Kota Setar District, Kedah. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and the association between parent's demographic characteristics and the overall perception of digital media use by their preschool children was tested using Chi-square test.
RESULTS: A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed, and 145 were returned (96.7% response rate) out of which 139 were complete. We found that parent's overall perception of their preschool children using digital devices was mixed, where about one-third of them perceived that digital device use was a risk, one-third perceived it as beneficial while onethird were unsure. The common perception of risk was that digital devices impaired children's physical (71.9-90.6%) and intellectual domains (71.9-86.3%) especially causing damage to eyesight (90.6%), causing addiction (86.3%) and exposed to radiation (81.3%). The perceived benefits of using digital device were mainly in the social domain, promoting technology awareness (64.8%), easily accessible and portable (63.3%) and entertaining (64.0%). They also perceived that digital devices promoted creative and interactive learning (62.6%). Parent's overall perception of digital media use was associated with their employment status (p=0.028).
CONCLUSION: Parent's overall perception regarding digital device use among their preschool children was mixed. They perceived that digital devices commonly cause risk to the physical and intellectual aspects of their children while there are some benefits to the social aspects. There is an association between parent's overall perception and employment status.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a 6-year retrospective cross-sectional study from the 1st January 2016 until 31st December 2021. Clinical, demographic characteristics, perioperative parameters, operative indications, blood loss, maternal/neonatal outcomes and complications were analysed. Patients were subdivided, analysed and studied in two subgroups- emergency hysterectomy (EH) and planned hysterectomy (PH).
RESULTS: There were 65 cases of peripartum hysterectomy out of total 100,567 deliveries, with a prevalence rate of 0.06%. Overall, the majority of patients were multiparous (96.9%), having previous caesarean scar (73.8%) or diagnosed with placenta praevia (75.4%). More than half of the total patients (61.5%) have both previous caesarean scar and concomitant placenta praevia. EH was carried out in 39(60%) patients while 26(40%) patients underwent PH. The only indication for surgery in the PH group (100%) was abnormal placentation while the most common indication for surgery in the EH group (53.8%) was postpartum haemorrhage related to abnormal placentation. Patients who underwent EH were more likely to have massive blood loss (p=0.001), require ICU admissions (p=0.001), have DIVC cycles transfused (mean [SD] regime: 1.35 [0.95] vs 0.54 [0.99]; p=0.002), have lower postoperative haemoglobin level (mean [standard deviation, SD] haemoglobin: 9.23g/l [SD1.8] vs. 10.8 g/l [SD1.86]; p=0.001) and have higher difference between pre/post operative haemoglobin level (mean [SD] haemoglobin difference: 1.78g/l [SD6.34] vs 0.32g/l [SD1.7]; p=0.008) compared to patients with PH. Red blood cell transfusion, operating time, length of stay, weight of babies and Apgar score between two groups showed no significant differences. A significant reduction of blood loss between the first and the second half duration of the study (mean [SD] blood loss: 6978 ml [SD 4999.45] vs. 4100ml [SD2569.48]; p=0.004) was also observed. In the emergency group, 'non-placental cause' EH required significantly more red blood cell transfusion than 'placental cause' (p<0.05) while in the PH group, no significant difference was observed between the occlusive internal iliac artery 'balloon' and 'no balloon' subgroup in terms of operating time, total blood loss or blood transfusion. Overall complications showed more cases of post operative fever and relaparotomy in the EH group (18.4% vs. 7.6%) while urinary tract injuries including injuries to bladder and ureter occurred only in the PH group (9.4% vs. 0%).
CONCLUSION: The majority of peripartum hysterectomy cases are due to placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Planned peripartum hysterectomies have a lower morbidity rate compared to emergency hysterectomies. Therefore, early identification of placenta accreta spectrum disorders and timely planning for elective procedures are crucial to minimise the need for emergency surgery.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled patients who underwent the procedure from January 2018 to April 2022. Under real time ultrasound (Hitachi Medical ProSound F37), thoracic lesions adjacent to the chest wall were sampled with a full-core biopsy needle (CT Core Single Action Biopsy Device, 18G × 15 cm, Vigeo, Italy). Chest x-ray was performed 30 minutes post procedure ruling out pneumothorax. Patients were discharged home 1-2 hours post biopsy. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 26.
RESULTS: A total of 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) underwent USLB for lung tumours. Biopsies were histologically deemed adequate with an overall diagnostic yield of 77.8% (14/18). A total of 57% were positive for thoracic malignancy (21% squamous cell carcinoma, 21% adenocarcinoma, 15% small cell carcinoma) and another 43% were positive for extra thoracic malignancy (1 hepatocellular carcinoma, 2 DLBCL, 1 Hodgkin's lymphoma, 1 seminoma, 1 thymoma). Four patients had inconclusive results but managed to get positive results from surgical or lymph node biopsy (thymoma and adenocarcinoma). Statistical analysis showed more than two passes are needed to achieve a positive HPE yield (p value<0.05). There were nil complications to all the cases done.
CONCLUSIONS: USLB can safely and effectively be performed by trained pulmonologists with excellent accuracy and low complication rate in outpatients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study done in Baghdad on 112 patients who attended Al-Zahraa Allergic Center. Their demographic characteristics, total IgE, eosinophil counts and PCR result for COVID-19 were determined.
RESULTS: The means for IgE and eosinophils were 245.7±260.1IU/ml and 444.5±117.1cells/microliter sequentially. Around 32.1% had high IgE level (i.e., atopic) and 11.6% had COVID-19. Among the atopic patients, 33.3%, 30.5% and 36.2% had atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma respectively. More than half (58.3%) of them were male, 55.5% aged <45 years, 36.2% were retired or had no job, 69.5% were graduated from secondary school or more and 88.8% lived in urban areas. There is no significant association in IgE level between those with and without COVID-19, which means that exposure to SARS Cov2 virus could not be a trigger or exacerbation for atopic diseases. Also, there was no association between atopic patients with COVID-19 and those without it regarding type of atopy, age, sex, occupation, education, type of living area.
CONCLUSIONS: Atopy is not a risk factor for COVID-19.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomised prospective crossover study was designed to compare the AR Gynae endotrainer versus Karl Storz SZABO-BERCI-SACKIER laparoscopic trainer as a tool for training gynaecology laparoscopic skills. Participants were assigned to perform two specially designed tasks used for laparoscopic training using both endotrainers. All subjects evaluated both simulators concerning their performance by the use of a questionnaire comparing: design, ports placement, visibility, ergonomics, triangulation of movement, fulcrum effect, depth perception, ambidexterity, resources for training, and resources for teaching. The overall score was defined as the median value obtained. The ability and time taken for participants to complete the tasks using both endotrainers were also compared. A total of 26 participants were enrolled in this study, including 13 Masters's students from the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology and 13 Masters's students from the Department of Surgery, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia.
RESULTS: A better performance was observed with AR Gynae as compared to Karl Storz endotrainer in five out of ten items evaluated in the questionnaire. Additionally, the overall score of AR Gynae endotrainer (median of 3.98) was comparable to that of Karl Storz endotrainer (median of 3.91) with p=0.519. For the items design and resources for teaching, the evaluation for AR Gynae endotrainer was significantly higher with p-values of 0.003 and 0.032, respectively. All participants were able to complete both tasks using both endotrainers. The time taken to complete both tasks was comparable on both endotrainers. Also, the AR Gynae endotrainer was cheaper.
CONCLUSIONS: The AR Gynae endotrainer was found to be a convenient and cost-effective laparoscopic simulator for gynaecology laparoscopic training and was comparable to the established Karl Storz SZABO-BERCI-SACKIER laparoscopic trainer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-text articles of case report, case control, cohort and cross-sectional studies that were published from 1st January 2012 until 30th June 2022, were searched using PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. Periodontal related diseases were excluded in this review due to its wellknown associated disease with P. gingivalis. A comparison studies of detection methods were also excluded in this review.
RESULTS: Out of 612 articles that were screened, only 106 met the eligibility criteria to be selected for further review. Risk of bias was performed using FEAT principles and reviewers' discussion. A total of 21 final articles that were reviewed showed significant correlation with P. gingivalis and were classified into several clinical domains. Twelve out of 13 detection methods showed high sensitivity and specificity with short duration analysis.
CONCLUSION: Due to asymptomatic periodontal disease and the high prevalence of P. gingivalis-associated clinical diseases, this review suggests the need for oral public health awareness and early screening for the bacterium detection especially among elderly groups to maintain their quality of life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research instruments used included The McMaster Family Assessment Device Adaptation, IEXPAC, and S.N.Q. 22, F.Q., P.S.Q., Social Support Questionnaire shortened version, The Family Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire and extraversion personality questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to caregivers with a population of 175 individuals. The sample size of this study was 133 individuals selected through proportional random sampling. The data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) with Amos software v.26.0.
RESULTS: The phase one research showed that intention and satisfaction are the leading indicators of family acceptance that can influence family roles. At the same time, family acceptance is influenced by personal character (p≤0.001), care experience (p≤0.001), social support (p≤0.001), social norms (p=0.004), symptom severity (p≤0.001), and stigma (p≤0.001). Additionally, family acceptance significantly impacted the family's caregiving role (CR=6.573, p≤0.001).
CONCLUSION: It was found that the family acceptance model to improve the family's role in the care of patients with severe mental disorders focuses on the acceptance that the family has to be able to carry out its role well in patients. To improve family acceptance, families still lack the personal character expected in caring for patients with severe mental disorders at home. It is necessary to increase commitment to care and positive values in life.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data on 130 patients who underwent primary ACL reconstructions was analysed. Their preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRI) were reviewed for the presence of posterolateral tibial bone bruise. The presence of meniscal injuries was recorded based on the arthroscopic findings from the operative records.
RESULTS: 95 patients were recruited into the study. The prevalence of posterolateral bone bruise in this study was 41%. There was a statistically significant difference when comparing the prevalence of bone bruising to the time of injury to MRI (p<0.001). The prevalence of an injury to at least one meniscus at the time of ACLR surgery was 83.2%. The prevalence of lateral meniscus injuries in patients with bone bruise was found to be 53.9%. The crude odds ratio of a patient having a lateral meniscal tear in the presence of bone bruising was 1.56 (0.68, 3.54). This figure was even higher when it was adjusted for time to MRI and was 2.06 (0.77, 5.46).
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of posterolateral tibial bone bruising in our study was 41%, and the prevalence of meniscal injury to either meniscus at the point of surgery was 83.2%, out of which the lateral meniscus tears were identified during ACLR surgery in 47.3% of the patients. We found there was no association between posterolateral tibial bone bruising to sex, age and mode of injury, but was sensitive to the interval between time of injury and MRI. The overall prevalence of lateral meniscal tears was higher in patients with posterolateral bone bruising but was not statistically significant with a P value of 0.31; however, the Crude odd ratio was 1.56 (0.68, 3.54) and was higher when adjusted to time of injury to MRI 2.06 (0.77, 5.46). We suggest for MRI to be done as soon as possible after injury in regard to bone bruising identification. We should be vigilant to look for lateral meniscal tears and anticipate for its repair in ACL injuries, especially so when we identify posterolateral tibial bruising on the preoperative MRI.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomised control clinical trial was conducted at the Central Surgery Installation and Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung and Dr. Mohammad Husein Hospital Palembang from December 2022 to June 2023. A total of 40 participants were divided into two groups using block randomisation. Group I receives bupivacaine 0.25% and clonidine 2 μg/kg, and group II receives bupivacaine 0.25% and dexamethasone 8 mg. The plasma cortisol levels of the patient will be assessed at (T0, T1 and T2). All the patient were intubated under general anesthaesia and received the drug for scalp block based on the group being randomised. Haemodynamic monitoring was carried out.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference in administering bupivacaine 0.25% and clonidine 2μg/kg compared to administering bupivacaine 0.25% and dexamethasone 8 mg/kg as analgesia for scalp block in tumour craniotomy patients on cortisol levels at 12 hours post-operatively (T1) (p=0.048) and 24 hours post-surgery (T2) (p=0.027), while post-intubation cortisol levels (T0) found no significant difference (p=0.756). There is a significant difference in Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at post-intubation (T0) (p=0.003), 12 hours post-operatively (T1) (p=0.002) and 24 hours post-surgery (T2) (p=0.004), There were no postprocedure scalp block side effects in both groups.
CONCLUSION: The study found that scalp block with 0.25% bupivacaine and 2μg/kg clonidine is more effective in reducing NRS scores and cortisol levels compared bupivacaine 0.25% and dexamethasone 8mg in tumour craniotomy patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective cohort study comprising patients admitted to a state hospital in Selangor, Malaysia, between August and October 2021. The demographic data, clinical characteristics, presenting complaints, laboratory tests, organ dysfunction, use of invasive ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, length of hospitalisation and mortality were collected and analysed.
RESULTS: The analysis involved a total of 195 cases. More than a quarter of the cases (52 [26.7%]) were related to the initial COVID-19 infection. Nine cases (4.6%) required mechanical ventilation, while eight cases (4.1%) were admitted to the ICU. The overall mortality was 17 cases (8.7%). Surviving patients were younger (49.5 vs. 58.4 years), less likely to have diabetes mellitus (48.3% vs. 82.4%), or chronic kidney disease (12.9% vs. 41.2%); had higher levels of admission haemoglobin (12.6 vs. 9.1g/dL) and albumin (33.0 vs. 21.0g/L); lower white blood cells (10.2 vs. 13.0 × 109/L), creatinine (81.2 vs. 151.9μmol/L) and C-reactive protein (18.2 vs. 135.0mg/L) at admission; less likely to have MI (6.7% vs. 23.5%), sepsis (3.4% vs. 47.1%), or acute kidney injury (3.4% vs. 17.6%) and organ dysfunction (25.3% vs. 94.1%).
CONCLUSION: Approximately a quarter of patients were admitted or readmitted due to direct COVID-19 complications between 21 and 90 days of illness. The baseline oxygen requirements at admission were independently associated with mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation and ICU admissions. Further research is needed to establish a risk model for patients returning to a hospital to predict their risk of post-COVID complications.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CKD-CHECK (CKD-CHECK EGFR Chart in Kidney disease) is a toolkit that was developed to auto-generate patients' eGFR trend using a line graph, displaying the trend visually over a year. It identifies patients with rapid CKD progression, triggers the doctors to order appropriate tests (proteinuria quantification or renal imaging) and helps in decision making (continued monitoring at primary care level or referral to nephrologist). The toolkit was piloted among medical officers practising in a hospital-based primary care clinic treating patients with eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 using an interventional before-after study design from February to May 2022. In the preintervention period, the CKD patients were managed based on standard practice. The doctors then used the CKDCHECK toolkit on the same group of CKD patients during the intervention period. The feasibility and acceptability of the toolkit was assessed at the end of the study period using the Acceptability of Intervention Measure (AIM) and Feasibility of Intervention Measure (FIM) questionnaires. All patients' clinical data and referral rate were collected retrospectively through medical files and electronic data systems. Comparison between the pre- and post-intervention group were analysed using paired t-test and McNemar test, with statistical significance p value of <0.05.
RESULTS: A total of 25 medical officers used the toolkit on 60 CKD patients. The medical officers found the CKD-CHECK toolkit to be highly acceptable and feasible in primary care setting. The baseline characteristics of the patients were a mean age of 72 years old, predominantly females and Chinese ethnicity. Majority of the CKD patients had diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The numbers of CKD rapid progressors was similar (26.7% in the preintervention group vs 33.3% in the post-intervention group). There were no significant differences in terms of proteinuria assessment and ultrasound kidney for CKD rapid progressors before and after the intervention. However, a significant number of CKD rapid progressors were referred to nephrologists after the use of CKD-CHECK toolkit (p=0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: CKD-CHECK toolkit is acceptable and feasible to be used in primary care. Preliminary findings show that the CKD-CHECK toolkit improved the primary care doctor's referral of rapid CKD progressors to nephrologists.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among vitiligo patients aged 18 years and older in Hospital Klang, Selangor between October 2021 and June 2022. Assessment instruments used were Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Demographic data and clinical characteristics of vitiligo patients were recorded.
RESULTS: Of the 100 participants, 12 (12%) and 21 (21%) had depression and anxiety, respectively. The mean depression score (HADS-depression component) was 3.4 (SD 3.4) and mean anxiety score (HADS-anxiety component) was 4.7 (SD 3.9). There were significantly higher number of patients with abnormal HADS-D score in the age group of 35-51 years (p=0.029), single status (p=0.001), with employment (p=0.014) and disease duration <2 years (p=0.004). Patients in the divorced/widowed group had a significant association with anxiety (p=0.011).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression was 12% while anxiety was 21% in our cohort. Vitiligo has a significant psychosocial impact, thus clinicians should actively evaluate the mental health of these patients with the use of screening tools such as HADS and provide appropriate referrals and management.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study is a retrospective cohort study using hospital medical records (patient files) from October 2019 to November 2021 (for 2 years). This study was performed in Malaysian women (n=53) suffering from advanced stages of POP, in which Gellhorn pessaries of diameter (44-76mm) were inserted by trained personnel. Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) were used to measure patients' symptoms and quality of life before and after Gellhorn pessary fitting. Patients were reassessed every three months for two years and their satisfaction scores were recorded.
RESULTS: We observed a significant difference in pre-test (pre-fitting) and post-test (three months post-fitting) scores on all three subscales and the PFIQ-7 total score. Twentyeight (52.83%) patients continued the use of Gellhorn pessary for at least 24 months, whereas 25 (47.20%) patients discontinued during this period. A retrospective analysis of the patients who discontinued Gellhorn pessary showed that 13 (24.52%) patients gave up the use of pessary for definitive surgery. It is noteworthy to mention here that only one out of the 13 patients who were awaiting surgery, chose surgery and the remaining 12 changed their mind after being fitted with the Gellhorn pessary. Seven (13.20%) patients declined reinsertion due to discomfort and voiding difficulties and refused further intervention, whereas three (5.66%) patients requested a ring pessary. Two (3.77%) patients, requested the removal of pessary due to vesicovaginal fistula and rectovaginal fistula (caused by an impacted pessary). The rate of continued use was 79.24% (42 patients) after 1st year and 52.83% (28 patients) at the end of two years.
CONCLUSION: In the current study, the Gellhorn pessary was used to treat stage 3 and 4 POP with significant symptom reduction post-fitting. More than half of the patients continued to use the pessary after 24 months of fitting. Therefore, the Gellhorn pessary can be used as a treatment strategy for stage 3 and 4 POP with reasonable acceptance in the Malaysian population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving bereaved individuals in Palliative Care Unit Hospital Selayang. Participants (n=175) were recruited through telephone, and a validated tool Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale (PG-13) was asked to identify PGD. Further data collected were concomitant stressors in life and support system in the bereaved individual.
RESULTS: Prevalence of PGD was 2.9% (n=5), and subthreshold PGD was 4% (n=7). A model of multiple logistic regression calculated most of the traditional risk factors were not significant except having an increased responsibility as a single parent after passing of a spouse or loved one, had 10 times increased odds of PGD (Odds Ratios: 10.93; 95% Confidence Interval: 2.937, 40.661). Otherwise, immediate family support (80%), religion (60%) and community (40%) support were the top three coping mechanisms of our PGD cohort, although they were not significant in a multiple logistic regression model.
CONCLUSION: Our PGD percentage may not be as high as those of other countries, but nonetheless they exist and their needs are just as important. The authors hope that this paper may create an awareness among the healthcare clinicians about PGD in our society, for a greater access of service to understand them and better public awareness.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five participants underwent MRE as an initial investigation or follow-up for inflammatory bowel disease. A systematic sampling method was used to divide the participants into three different groups: group 1 received 6.7% mannitol concentration, group 2 received 3.3% mannitol concentration and group 3 received pineapple juice as an oral contrast agent during their MRE examination. The degree of bowel distension on MRE images was assessed by a radiologist by measuring the bowel diameter from inner wall to inner wall at specified levels, while qualitative analysis was evaluated based on the presence of artefacts. All patients were asked to score their acceptance of the oral contrast and were asked about side effects such as diarrhoea, abdominal discomfort and vomiting.
RESULTS: All patients were able to completely ingest 1.5L of oral contrast. The mean diameter of bowel distension was 2.1cm in patients who received 6.7% mannitol concentration, 2.0cm in patients who received 3.3% mannitol concentration and 1.6 cm in patients who received pineapple juice. Twothirds of patients who received 6.7% mannitol and 3.3% mannitol solutions had good-quality MRE images, but 68% of patients who received pineapple juice had poor-quality MRE images. Twenty-four patients (96%) who received pineapple juice rated it as slightly acceptable and acceptable but only 12 patients (48%) who received 6.7% mannitol solution rated it as slightly acceptable and acceptable. Eighty-eight percent of patients who received 6.7% mannitol solution experienced at least one form of side effect as compared to 44% of patients who received 3.3% mannitol solution and 18% of patients who received pineapple juice.
CONCLUSION: Optimum small bowel distension and good image quality can be achieved using 3.3% mannitol concentration as an oral contrast agent. Increase in mannitol concentration does not result in significant improvement of small bowel distension or image quality but is instead related to poorer patient acceptance and increased side effects. Pineapple juice is more palatable than mannitol and produces satisfactory small bowel distension. However, the small bowel distension is less uniform when using pineapple juice with a considerable presence of artefacts. Mannitol, 3.3% concentration, is therefore recommended as an endoluminal contrast agent for bowel in MRE.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children who received the COVID-19 vaccine between 3 February and 8 May 2022. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire filled out by the parent or legal guardian.
RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 9 years old and 43.1% were males. Out of the 195 participants in the study, 62 (31.8%) reported side effects after vaccination. The most frequently reported side effects were pain at the injection site (29.7%, n=58), fever (15.9%, n=31), localised inflammation (10.8%, n=21) and arthralgia/myalgia (9.2%, n=18). There were no reported severe adverse events such as anaphylaxis or myocarditis. Most side effects occurred within the first two days post-vaccination. There was a higher proportion of side effects among children with underlying co-morbidities. No significant differences were observed based on age, weight, ethnicity and the presence of allergies, or the use of premedication.
CONCLUSION: The BNT162b2 vaccine was generally welltolerated in children, with most side effects being mild and self-limiting. These findings support the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine and would guide healthcare professionals, parents and policy-makers in making informed decisions about COVID-19 vaccination, especially among high-risk groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Epidemiological data for selfreported bone fractures were obtained through direct interviews using a validated questionnaire from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.
RESULTS: Of 15,378 respondents, 6.63% (n=1019) reported bone fractures, with a higher proportion of men (65.8%, n=671) than women (34.2%, n=348). Higher odds of selfreporting bone fractures were seen in males (aOR, 2.12; 95%CI: 1.69, 2.65), those with a history of injury (aOR 5.01; 95%CI: 3.10, 6.32) and those who were obese (aOR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.89), highly active (aOR 1.25; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.53), smokers (aOR 1.35; 95%CI: 1.11, 1.65) and alcohol consumers (aOR 1.67; 95%CI: 1.20,2.32).
CONCLUSION: Adopting a healthier lifestyle that includes a balanced diet and moderate physical activity is critical for weight loss, increased muscle and bone mass and better stability, which reduces the likelihood of fractures following a fall.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicentre study in seven hospitals in West Malaysia. All the adults admitted in March 2017 fulfilling Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for AKI were included.
RESULTS: Of the 34,204 patients screened, 2,457 developed AKI (7.18%), 13.1% of which occurred in intensive care unit (ICU). There were 60.2% males with a mean age of 57.8 (±17.5) years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (55.0%), diabetes (46.6%), ischaemic heart disease (15.1%) and chronic kidney disease (12.0%). The commonest causes of AKI were sepsis (41.7%), pre-renal (24.2%) and cardiorenal syndrome (10.8%). Nephrotoxin exposure was reported in 31%. At diagnosis, the proportion of AKI stages 1, 2 and 3 were 79.1%, 9.7%, 11.2%, respectively. Referral to nephrologists was reported in 16.5%. Dialysis was required in 176 (7.2%) patients and 55.6% were performed in the ICU. Acidosis (46.2%), uraemia (31.6%) and electrolyte disturbance (11.1%) were the commonest indications. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was required in 14%. The average length of hospital stay was 9.5 days. In-hospital mortality was 16.4%. Among survivors, full and partial renal recovery was seen in 74.7% and 16.4% respectively while 8.9% failed to recover. After a mean follow-up of 13.7 months, 593 (30.2%) of survivors died and 38 (1.9%) initiated chronic dialysis. Mortality was highest among those with malignancies (Hazard Ratio, HR 2.14), chronic liver disease (HR 2.13), neurological disease (HR 1.56) and cardiovascular disease (HR 1.17).
CONCLUSION: AKI is common in hospitalised patients and is with associated high mortality during and after hospitalisation.