AIM: To review the existing literature to definitively examine sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension, in both treated and untreated subjects.
METHODS: We performed a systematic search for published literature of 3 electronic databases (Scopus, EBSCOhost Medline Complete, and Cochrane Library) in August 2018. The search terms with relevant truncation and Boolean were developed according to a population exposure-comparator-outcome model combining pilot searches. The quality of included studies was assessed with the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. Initial search, limited to the English language, included a total of 2,198 studies. 31 studies (18,260 subjects) met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Sexual dysfunction in these studies was measured using different tools. We extracted information of study setting, country, number of subjects, participants' age and blood pressure, comparators, and outcome. We ran a meta-analysis on the presence of sexual dysfunction as an outcome from the following comparisons: (i) hypertensive vs normotensive (ii) treated vs untreated hypertension, and (iii) exposure vs absence of specific class of anti-hypertensive drug.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with sexual dysfunction and hypertension were included.
RESULTS: We found significant sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension compared with the normotensive group (pooled odds ratio [OR] = 2.789, 95% CI = 1.452-5.357, P = .002). However, there was no statistical difference of sexual dysfunction in women with treated or untreated hypertension (OR = 1.229, 95% CI = 0.675-2.236, P = .5). Treatment with alpha-/beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics resulted in no statistical difference in sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Because sexual dysfunction is prevalent in women with hypertension, it is imperative to address the underlying medical condition to manage this important clinical problem.
STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: Many studies had to be excluded from the meta-analysis, due to unavailability and incompleteness of data. Nevertheless, results of the review are useful to derive recommendations for alerting physicians of the need to routinely assess the sexual functioning of women with hypertension.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that women with hypertension are at increased risk for sexual dysfunction, and our findings imply that evaluation for sexual dysfunction needs to be part of the clinical management guidelines for women with hypertension. Choy CL, Sidi H, Koon CS, et al. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis for Sexual Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension. J Sex Med 2019;16:1029-1048.
AIM: To review the prevalence and factors associated with sexual abstinence in young (10-24 years) and middle-aged (25-59 years) men.
METHODS: Studies were retrieved from Science Direct, PubMed, and EBSCOhost published from 2008 to 2019. The selection criteria were original population- or community-based articles, published in the English language, on sexual abstinence, and in young and middle-aged men.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: This article reviewed the literature on the proportions of and factors associated with sexual abstinence in young and middle-aged men.
RESULTS: A total of 13,154 studies were retrieved, from which data were extracted for 37 population- or community-based studies. The prevalence of sexual abstinence varied from 0% to 83.6% in men younger than 60 years. The prevalence of primary sexual abstinence was 3.4%-83.3% for young men and 12.5%-15.5% for middle-aged men. The prevalence of secondary abstinence for young men ranged from 1.3% to 83.6%, while for middle-aged men, it was from 1.2% to 67.7%. The prevalence of sexual abstinence decreased with increasing age in young men but increased with increasing age in middle-aged men. The significant factors reported were age, single status, poor relationships, low socioeconomic status, sex education, religious practices, caring and monitoring parents, and not using alcohol, cigarettes, or drugs. Although the variations in findings from different studies can be explained by different regions and cultures, the information cannot be generalized worldwide because of a lack of studies in Asian and Australian populations.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The studies on sexual abstinence in the future should use a consistent and standard definition, cover all sexual behaviors, and investigate all related factors.
STRENGTH & LIMITATIONS: The restricted timeframe (2008-2019), English language, availability of full text, and variability in definition and time duration may be the sources of bias.
CONCLUSION: Young men had higher proportions of sexual abstinence than middle-aged men, and age, unavailability of a partner, lower educational levels, low socioeconomic status, conservative and religious conditions, and no or less knowledge about sexually transmitted infections were common predictors of sexual abstinence in most of the men. Although determinants of sexual abstinence were identified, further investigation of biological factors in men younger than 60 years is needed. Irfan M, Hussain NHN, Noor NM, et al. Sexual Abstinence and Associated Factors Among Young and Middle-Aged Men: A Systematic Review. J Sex Med 2020;17:412-430.
AIM: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments.
METHODS: Relevant studies published from inception until December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, OVID, and Embase. Studies were selected using prior defined criteria. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and odds ratio were assessed thoroughly.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine the prevalence and odds ratio of sexual dysfunctions among the methadone and buprenorphine groups.
RESULTS: A total of 1,570 participants from 16 eligible studies were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (OR = 4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P = 0.0049).
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence showed that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was higher among the users of methadone compared with buprenorphine. Patients with sexual difficulty while on methadone treatment were advised to switch to buprenorphine.
AIM: To assess plasma testosterone and sexual function in Southeast Asian men on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT).
METHODS: 76 sexually active men on MMT (mean age = 43.30 ± 10.32 years) and 31 men on BMT (mean age = 41.87 ± 9.76 years) from a Southeast Asian community were evaluated using plasma total testosterone (TT) and prolactin levels, body mass index, social demographics, substance use measures, and depression severity scale.
OUTCOMES: Prevalence and associated factors of TT level lower than the reference range in men on MMT or BMT.
RESULTS: More than 1 third of men (40.8%, n = 31) on MMT had TT levels lower than the reference range, whereas 1 fourth of men (22.6%, n = 7) on BMT did. At univariate analysis, MMT vs BMT (β = 0.298, adjusted R2 = 0.08, P = .02) and body mass index (β = -0.23, adjusted R2 = 0.12, P = .02) were associated with changes in TT after stepwise regression. There were no significant associations with age; Opiate Treatment Index Q scores for alcohol, heroin, stimulant, tobacco, or cannabis use and social functioning domain; education levels; hepatitis C status; and severity of depression. Prolactin level did not differ between the MMT and BMT groups.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The sex hormonal assay should be used regularly to check men on MMT.
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study conducted in the Southeast Asian community. Our study was limited by the lack of a healthy group as the reference for serum levels of testosterone and prolactin.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that plasma testosterone levels are lower in MMT than in BMT users. Hence, men who are receiving MMT should be screened for hypogonadism routinely in the clinical setting. Yee A, Loh HS, Danaee M, et al. Plasma Testosterone and Sexual Function in Southeast Asian Men Receiving Methadone and Buprenorphine Maintenance Treatment. J Sex Med 2018;15:159-166.