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  1. Zarizal S, Yeo CC, Faizal GM, Chew CH, Zakaria ZA, Jamil Al-Obaidi MM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 08;23(8):905-913.
    PMID: 29873865 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13090
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to profile the antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance and virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage, by means of genotypic analyses, in students of a tertiary institution in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 370 agricultural biotechnology students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in Besut, Terengganu, were enrolled in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated by standard methods. PCR detection of resistance and virulence genes was performed on S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB )-positive phenotype and/or positive for the leukocidin (pvl) gene followed by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), staphylococcal protein A (spa) and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing.

    RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen of 370 students carried S. aureus (32%); 18 of the isolates were MRSA (15%). Erythromycin resistance was detected in 20% (24/119) of which 15% (18/119) were MRSA and 5% (6/119) MSSA. Among the 24 erythromycin-resistant isolates, D-test was positive in 29% (7/24) displaying inducible MLSB , whereas the remaining 71% (17/24) showed constitutive MLSB phenotypes. Nine (7.6%) of 119 isolates were pvl positive: 44% MRSA (4/9) and 56% MSSA (5/9). Staphylococcal surface protein sasX gene was present in 92% of MRSA and 8% of MSSA isolates. The majority of MRSA isolates were agr type I (15/18; 83%). Five spa types identified with spa t037 were predominant, followed by spa types (t304 and t8696) as newly reported Malaysian MRSA in a community setting.

    CONCLUSION: The presence of MRSA with SCCmec of hospital-associated features and globally recognised spa types in community setting is worrisome. Furthermore, the presence of MLSB strains among multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus with sasX as well as pvl-positive isolates highlights the potential risk of a community setting in facilitating the dissemination of both virulence and resistance determinants.

  2. Yap KP, Thong KL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 08;22(8):918-925.
    PMID: 28544285 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12899
    Next-generation whole-genome sequencing has revolutionised the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of Salmonella Typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S. Typhi and other pathogens. Important new insights acquired from the genome sequencing of S. Typhi, pertaining to genomic variations, evolution, population structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence, pathogenesis, disease surveillance/investigation and disease control are discussed. As the numbers of sequenced genomes are increasing at an unprecedented rate, fine variations in the gene pool of S. Typhi are captured in high resolution, allowing deeper understanding of the pathogen's evolutionary trends and its pathogenesis, paving the way to bringing us closer to eradication of typhoid through effective vaccine/treatment development.
  3. Wong SC, Ooi MH, Abdullah AR, Wong SY, Krishnan S, Tio PH, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2008 Jan;13(1):52-5.
    PMID: 18291002 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01967.x
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an important encephalitis virus in Asia, but there are few data on Malaysia. A hospital-based surveillance system for Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been in operation in Sarawak, Malaysia, for the last 10 years. JEV is endemic in Sarawak, with cases occurring throughout the year and a seasonal peak in the last quarter (one-way anova, P < 0.0001). Ninety-two per cent of 133 cases were children aged 12 years or younger; the introduction of JE vaccination in July 2001 reduced the number of JE cases (84 in the four seasons prior to vs. 49 in the six seasons after, McNemar's test, P = 0.0001). After implementation of the programme, the mean age of infected children increased from 6.3 to 8.0 years (Student's t-test, P = 0.0037), suggesting the need for a catch-up programme.
  4. Wang J, Jamison DT, Bos E, Vu MT
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1997 Oct;2(10):1001-10.
    PMID: 9357491
    This paper analyses the effect of income and education on life expectancy and mortality rates among the elderly in 33 countries for the period 1960-92 and assesses how that relationship has changed over time as a result of technical progress. Our outcome variables are life expectancy at age 60 and the probability of dying between age 60 and age 80 for both males and females. The data are from vital-registration based life tables published by national statistical offices for several years during this period. We estimate regressions with determinants that include GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power), education and time (as a proxy for technical progress). As the available measure of education failed to account for variation in life expectancy or mortality at age 60, our reported analyses focus on a simplified model with only income and time as predictors. The results indicate that, controlling for income, mortality rates among the elderly have declined considerably over the past three decades. We also find that poverty (as measured by low average income levels) explains some of the variation in both life expectancy at age 60 and mortality rates among the elderly across the countries in the sample. The explained amount of variation is more substantial for females than for males. While poverty does adversely affect mortality rates among the elderly (and the strength of this effect is estimated to be increasing over time), technical progress appears far more important in the period following 1960. Predicted female life expectancy (at age 60) in 1960 at the mean income level in 1960 was, for example 18.8 years; income growth to 1992 increased this by an estimated 0.7 years, whereas technical progress increased it by 2.0 years. We then use the estimated regression results to compare country performance on life expectancy of the elderly, controlling for levels of poverty (or income), and to assess how performance has varied over time. High performing countries, on female life expectancy at age 60, for the period around 1990, included Chile (1.0 years longer life expectancy), China (1.7 years longer), France (2.0 years longer), Japan (1.9 years longer), and Switzerland (1.3 years longer). Poorly performing countries included Denmark (1.1 years shorter life expectancy than predicted from income), Hungary (1.4 years shorter), Iceland (1.2 years shorter), Malaysia (1.6 years shorter), and Trinidad and Tobago (3.9 years shorter). Chile and Switzerland registered major improvements in relative performance over this period; Norway, Taiwan and the USA, in contrast showed major declines in performance between 1980 and the early 1990s.
  5. Vythilingam I, Phetsouvanh R, Keokenchanh K, Yengmala V, Vanisaveth V, Phompida S, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Jun;8(6):525-35.
    PMID: 12791058
    A longitudinal study was conducted on the prevalence of Anopheles in three malaria endemic villages in Sekong province, in the southern region of Lao PDR, from August 2000 to October 2001. All night, human landing collections took place in August and October 2000 and April and October 2001, and blood smears were taken for malaria parasites during the same period. Mosquitoes were tested for sporozoite antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In August 2000 (wet season) and April 2001 (dry season) the ovaries of the mosquitoes were examined for parity. A total of 16 species of Anopheles were caught in the study sites of which An. dirus A, An. maculatus sl and An. jeyporiensis were positive for sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) ranged from 0.06 to 0.25. There was a good correlation between EIR and vectorial capacity in the wet season, especially in Pai Mai where the prevalence of malaria was also high during the wet seasons (11.8 and 10.53). An. dirus A showed ambivalence in their choice of feeding as approximately 50% attacked man indoors and an equal proportion outdoors. An dirus A was the main vector in Pai Mai. The parous rate did not significantly differ between the wet and dry season, although it was higher in the dry season. In Takaio the parasite prevalence ranged from 8.7% (dry season) to 37.1% (wet season) and An. jeyporiensis was the vector, and the risk of infection was 0.85 in the dry season while 0.99 in the wet season. In Toumgno An. maculatus sl was the vector and infection was found only in August and October 2000. However, malaria prevalence ranged from 9.69 to 20.4% and was equally high in the dry season. Cattle were also present close to the houses in all the villages and this might be a contributory factor in the prevalence of malaria.
  6. Vythilingam I, Tan SB, Krishnasamy M
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2002 Jun;7(6):539-40.
    PMID: 12031077
    The susceptibility of Culex sitiens to Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus was examined in the laboratory. Cx. sitiens became infected with JE virus on day 8 and subsequently it is able to transmit the virus when it takes a blood meal. Both parts of the experiment were carried out using artificial membrane feeding technique.
  7. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Drasar BS, Dance DA, Pitt TL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Jul;3(7):518-21.
    PMID: 9705184
    The constancy of strain genotypes of multiple isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from 13 patients with melioidosis was examined by BamHI ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digests of DNA. Seven of 8 patients with single episodes of melioidosis each yielded genetically identical isolates and only one of five patients with recurrent episodes was infected with a new strain clearly distinct from the original primary strain. Variation was observed in PFGE patterns of primary and relapse isolates of another patient but this was insufficient to define genetically distinct strains. We conclude that most patients with single or multiple episodes of melioidosis retain a single strain.
  8. Tengku-Idris TIN, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 12;23(12):1374-1383.
    PMID: 30286271 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13160
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystosis in the local communities of Pangkor and Tioman islands, Malaysia, by using antigenic recombinant surface antigens 2 and 3 from Sarcocystis falcatula (rSfSAG2 and rSfSAG3) as the target proteins via Western blot and ELISA assays.

    METHODS: SfSAG2 and SfSAG3 genes were isolated from S. falcatula and expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 348 serum samples [volunteers from both islands (n = 100), non-Sarcocystis parasitic infections patients (n = 50) and healthy donors (n = 100)] were collected and tested with purified SfSAGs in Western blot and ELISA assays to measure the seroprevalence of human sarcocystosis.

    RESULTS: None of the sera in this study reacted with rSfSAG2 by Western blot and ELISA. For rSfSAG3, relatively high prevalence of sarcocystosis was observed in Tioman Island (75.5%) than in Pangkor Island (34%) by Western blot. In ELISA, the different prevalence rate was observed between Tioman Island (43.8%) and Pangkor Island (37%). The prevalence rate in other parasitic infections (amoebiasis, cysticercosis, filariasis, malaria, toxocariasis and toxoplasmosis) was 30% by Western blot and 26% by ELISA. Only 8% (by Western blot) and 10% (by ELISA) of healthy donors showed reactivity towards rSfSAG3.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in Pangkor and Tioman Islands, Malaysia. The combination of Western blot and ELISA is suitable to be used for serodiagnosis of sarcocystosis. With further evaluations, SfSAG3 can potentially be used to confirm infection, asymptomatic screening, surveillance and epidemiological studies.

  9. Samsudin S, Sakinah SNS, Malina O, Norliza BA, Noh MA, Fairuz A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 03;23(3):327-333.
    PMID: 29356240 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13033
    OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia. Respondents' background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for leptospiral antibodies using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

    RESULTS: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among healthy workers was 46.3%. Detection of seropositivity was higher by MAT (46%) than ELISA (15%). We observed high seropositivity among local workers (49%), food handlers (49.5%), females (60.8%) and those aged 34 years and older (46.3%). Local strain LEP175 was the predominant serovar, followed by WHO strain Patoc.

    CONCLUSION: Overall seroprevalence among healthy food handlers and market workers was high in this study. The workplace places susceptible individuals at risk of leptospirosis.

  10. Rosenberger KD, Lum L, Alexander N, Junghanss T, Wills B, Jaenisch T, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Mar;21(3):445-53.
    PMID: 26752720 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12666
    OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of dengue relies on careful monitoring of fluid balance combined with judicious intravenous (IV) fluid therapy. However, in patients with significant vascular leakage, IV fluids may aggravate serosal fluid accumulation and result in respiratory distress.
    METHODS: Trained physicians followed suspected dengue cases prospectively at seven hospitals across Asia and Latin America, using a comprehensive case report form that included daily clinical assessment and detailed documentation of parenteral fluid therapy. Applying Cox regression, we evaluated risk factors for the development of shock or respiratory distress with fluid accumulation.
    RESULTS: Most confirmed dengue patients (1524/1734, 88%) never experienced dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Among those with DSS, 176/210 (84%) had fluid accumulation, and in the majority (83%), this was detectable clinically. Among all cases with clinically detectable fluid accumulation, 179/447 (40%) were diagnosed with shock or respiratory distress. The risk for respiratory distress with fluid accumulation increased significantly as the infused volume over the preceding 24 h increased (hazard ratio 1.18 per 10 ml/kg increase; P < 0.001). Longer duration of IV therapy, use of a fluid bolus in the preceding 24 h, female gender and poor nutrition also constituted independent risk factors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Shock and respiratory distress are relatively rare manifestations of dengue, but some evidence of fluid accumulation is seen in around 50% of cases. IV fluids play a crucial role in management, but they must be administered with caution. Clinically and/or radiologically detectable fluid accumulations have potential as intermediate severity endpoints for therapeutic intervention trials and/or pathogenesis studies.
    KEYWORDS: IV fluid therapy; clinical spectrum; dengue; espectro clínico; fluidothérapie IV; fuga vascular; fuite vasculaire; prospectif; prospective; prospectivo; spectre clinique; terapia IV de fluidos; vascular leakage
  11. Rahmah N, Shenoy RK, Nutman TB, Weiss N, Gilmour K, Maizels RM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Oct;8(10):895-900.
    PMID: 14516300
    A multicentre evaluation of the Brugia Rapid dipstick test was performed using 1263 serum samples in four international laboratories, i.e. T.D. Medical College (TDMC, India), National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), Swiss Tropical Institute (STI, Switzerland) and Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Netherlands). In comparison with microscopy, the dipstick demonstrated sensitivities of 97.2% (70 of 72) at TDMC, 91.6% (175 of 191) at LUMC and 100% (six of six) at STI. Sera of chronic patients showed a positivity rate of 11.3% (19 of 168) and 61.2% (71of 116) at TDMC and LUMC, respectively. All 266 sera of non-endemic normals from STI, NIH and LUMC tested negative with the dipstick. At LUMC, sera of 'endemic normals' (amicrofilaraemics with no clinical disease) from an area with approximately 35% microfilaria positivity showed 60.8% positive results (31 of 51), thus demonstrating the likelihood of many cryptic infections occurring in this population. Specificities of the test with Onchocerca volvulus sera were 98.8% (80 of 81) and 100% (10 of 10) at the NIH and STI, respectively; while specificity with Loa loa sera at the NIH was 84.6% (44 of 52). At the STI, the dipstick test also demonstrated 100% specificity when tested with 75 sera from various protozoan and helminthic infections.
  12. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
  13. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Ariff RH, Zurainee MN, A'shikin AN, Fadzillah A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Mar;3(3):184-8.
    PMID: 9593356
    To evaluate the usefulness of antifilarial IgG4 antibody assay in detecting B. malayi infection in a filaria endemic area in Malaysia.
  14. Ng KP, Kuan CS, Kaur H, Na SL, Atiya N, Velayuthan RD
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Nov;20(11):1447-1453.
    PMID: 26216479 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12577
    To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
  15. Low GKK, Kagize J, Faull KJ, Azahar A
    PMID: 31373098 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13294
    OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnostic test accuracy and predictive value of statistical models in differentiating the severity of dengue infection.

    METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (complete), PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies to be included in this review were cohort studies with participants confirmed by laboratory test for dengue infection and comparison among the different severity of dengue infection by using statistical models. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by independent reviewers using QUADAS-2.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six studies published from 1994 to 2017 were included. Most diagnostic models produced an accuracy of 75% to 80% except one with 86%. Two models predicting severe dengue according to the WHO 2009 classification have 86% accuracy. Both of these logistic regression models were applied during the first three days of illness, and their sensitivity and specificity were 91-100% and 79.3-86%, respectively. Another model which evaluated the 30-day mortality of dengue infection had an accuracy of 98.5%.

    CONCLUSION: Although there are several potential predictive or diagnostic models for dengue infection, their limitations could affect their validity. It is recommended that these models be revalidated in other clinical settings and their methods be improved and standardised in future.

  16. Loganathan T, Jit M, Hutubessy R, Ng CW, Lee WS, Verguet S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Nov;21(11):1458-1467.
    PMID: 27503549 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12766
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rotavirus vaccination in Malaysia from the household's perspective. The extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) framework quantifies the broader value of universal vaccination starting with non-health benefits such as financial risk protection and equity. These dimensions better enable decision-makers to evaluate policy on the public finance of health programmes.

    METHODS: The incidence, health service utilisation and household expenditure related to rotavirus gastroenteritis according to national income quintiles were obtained from local data sources. Multiple birth cohorts were distributed into income quintiles and followed from birth over the first five years of life in a multicohort, static model.

    RESULTS: We found that the rich pay more out of pocket (OOP) than the poor, as the rich use more expensive private care. OOP payments among the poorest although small are high as a proportion of household income. Rotavirus vaccination results in substantial reduction in rotavirus episodes and expenditure and provides financial risk protection to all income groups. Poverty reduction benefits are concentrated amongst the poorest two income quintiles.

    CONCLUSION: We propose that universal vaccination complements health financing reforms in strengthening Universal Health Coverage (UHC). ECEA provides an important tool to understand the implications of vaccination for UHC, beyond traditional considerations of economic efficiency.

  17. Lewthwaite P, Shankar MV, Tio PH, Daly J, Last A, Ravikumar R, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2010 Jul;15(7):811-8.
    PMID: 20487425 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02537.x
    OBJECTIVE: To compare two commercially available kits, Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA (Panbio Diagnostics) and JEV-CheX IgM capture ELISA (XCyton Diagnostics Limited), to a reference standard (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak - Venture Technologies VT ELISA).

    METHODS: Samples were obtained from 172/192 children presenting to a site in rural India with acute encephalitis syndrome.

    RESULTS: Using the reference VT ELISA, infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was confirmed in 44 (26%) patients, with central nervous system infection confirmed in 27 of these; seven patients were dengue seropositive. Of the 121 remaining patients, 37 (31%) were JEV negative and 84 (69%) were JEV unknown because timing of the last sample tested was <10 day of illness or unknown. For patient classification with XCyton, using cerebrospinal fluid alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 77.8% (59.2-89.4) with specificity of 97.3% (90.6-99.2). For Panbio ELISA, using serum alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 72.5% (57.2-83.9) with specificity of 97.5% (92.8-99.1). Using all available samples for patient classification, sensitivity and specificity were 63.6% (95% CI: 48.9-76.2) and 98.4% (94.5-99.6), respectively, for XCyton ELISA and 75.0% (59.3-85.4) and 97.7% (93.3-99.2) for Panbio ELISA.

    CONCLUSION: The two commercially available ELISAs had reasonable sensitivities and excellent specificities for diagnosing JEV.

  18. Lee BW
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Nov;3(11):886-90.
    PMID: 9855401
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) predominantly affects children in temperate countries, with near-universal seroconversion occurring by late childhood. However, in tropical regions, VZV infection is common in adolescents and adults. This review identifies age-related VZV seroprevalence patterns in a number of Asian countries which indicate that seroconversion in tropical countries occurs at a later age than in temperate countries. Seasonal and regional variations in acute disease within some Asian countries suggest that temperate climates might favour transmission of the varicella virus, with incidence peaking during cooler months and in cooler, more temperate regions. VZV infection is often more severe in adults than in children, suggesting that tropical countries may be at risk of greater morbidity and mortality as a result of later-age seroconversion. Susceptibility of pregnant women and their infants, and of people infected with HIV/AIDS is also cause for concern. Vaccination may be beneficial in reducing the impact of VZV in Asian populations.
  19. Lau SM, Vythilingam I, Doss JI, Sekaran SD, Chua TH, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Oct;20(10):1271-80.
    PMID: 26094839 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12555
    To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control.
  20. Joanne S, Vythilingam I, Teoh BT, Leong CS, Tan KK, Wong ML, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 09;22(9):1154-1165.
    PMID: 28653334 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12918
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus with and without Wolbachia to the four dengue virus serotypes.

    METHODS: Two newly colonised colonies of Ae. albopictus from the wild were used for the study. One colony was naturally infected with Wolbachia while in the other Wolbachia was removed by tetracycline treatment. Both colonies were orally infected with dengue virus-infected fresh blood meal. Dengue virus load was measured using quantitative RT-PCR at four-time intervals in the salivary glands, midguts and ovaries.

    RESULTS: Wolbachia did not significantly affect Malaysian Ae. albopictus dengue infection or the dissemination rate for all four dengue virus serotypes. Malaysian Ae. albopictus had the highest replication kinetics for DENV-1 and the highest salivary gland and midgut infection rate for DENV-4.

    CONCLUSION: Wolbachia, which naturally exists in Malaysian Ae. albopictus, does not significantly affect dengue virus replication. Malaysian Ae. albopictus is susceptible to dengue virus infections and capable of transmitting dengue virus, especially DENV-1 and DENV-4. Removal of Wolbachia from Malaysian Ae. albopictus would not reduce their susceptibility status.

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