Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

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  1. Wang J, Jamison DT, Bos E, Vu MT
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1997 Oct;2(10):1001-10.
    PMID: 9357491
    This paper analyses the effect of income and education on life expectancy and mortality rates among the elderly in 33 countries for the period 1960-92 and assesses how that relationship has changed over time as a result of technical progress. Our outcome variables are life expectancy at age 60 and the probability of dying between age 60 and age 80 for both males and females. The data are from vital-registration based life tables published by national statistical offices for several years during this period. We estimate regressions with determinants that include GDP per capita (adjusted for purchasing power), education and time (as a proxy for technical progress). As the available measure of education failed to account for variation in life expectancy or mortality at age 60, our reported analyses focus on a simplified model with only income and time as predictors. The results indicate that, controlling for income, mortality rates among the elderly have declined considerably over the past three decades. We also find that poverty (as measured by low average income levels) explains some of the variation in both life expectancy at age 60 and mortality rates among the elderly across the countries in the sample. The explained amount of variation is more substantial for females than for males. While poverty does adversely affect mortality rates among the elderly (and the strength of this effect is estimated to be increasing over time), technical progress appears far more important in the period following 1960. Predicted female life expectancy (at age 60) in 1960 at the mean income level in 1960 was, for example 18.8 years; income growth to 1992 increased this by an estimated 0.7 years, whereas technical progress increased it by 2.0 years. We then use the estimated regression results to compare country performance on life expectancy of the elderly, controlling for levels of poverty (or income), and to assess how performance has varied over time. High performing countries, on female life expectancy at age 60, for the period around 1990, included Chile (1.0 years longer life expectancy), China (1.7 years longer), France (2.0 years longer), Japan (1.9 years longer), and Switzerland (1.3 years longer). Poorly performing countries included Denmark (1.1 years shorter life expectancy than predicted from income), Hungary (1.4 years shorter), Iceland (1.2 years shorter), Malaysia (1.6 years shorter), and Trinidad and Tobago (3.9 years shorter). Chile and Switzerland registered major improvements in relative performance over this period; Norway, Taiwan and the USA, in contrast showed major declines in performance between 1980 and the early 1990s.
  2. Loganathan T, Jit M, Hutubessy R, Ng CW, Lee WS, Verguet S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 Nov;21(11):1458-1467.
    PMID: 27503549 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12766
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rotavirus vaccination in Malaysia from the household's perspective. The extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) framework quantifies the broader value of universal vaccination starting with non-health benefits such as financial risk protection and equity. These dimensions better enable decision-makers to evaluate policy on the public finance of health programmes.

    METHODS: The incidence, health service utilisation and household expenditure related to rotavirus gastroenteritis according to national income quintiles were obtained from local data sources. Multiple birth cohorts were distributed into income quintiles and followed from birth over the first five years of life in a multicohort, static model.

    RESULTS: We found that the rich pay more out of pocket (OOP) than the poor, as the rich use more expensive private care. OOP payments among the poorest although small are high as a proportion of household income. Rotavirus vaccination results in substantial reduction in rotavirus episodes and expenditure and provides financial risk protection to all income groups. Poverty reduction benefits are concentrated amongst the poorest two income quintiles.

    CONCLUSION: We propose that universal vaccination complements health financing reforms in strengthening Universal Health Coverage (UHC). ECEA provides an important tool to understand the implications of vaccination for UHC, beyond traditional considerations of economic efficiency.

  3. Lau SM, Vythilingam I, Doss JI, Sekaran SD, Chua TH, Wan Sulaiman WY, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Oct;20(10):1271-80.
    PMID: 26094839 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12555
    To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control.
  4. Ng KP, Kuan CS, Kaur H, Na SL, Atiya N, Velayuthan RD
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2015 Nov;20(11):1447-1453.
    PMID: 26216479 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12577
    To describe a prospective laboratory-based surveillance of Candida species that were collected from different anatomical sites of patients admitted to the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, from the year 2000 to 2013.
  5. Yap KP, Thong KL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 08;22(8):918-925.
    PMID: 28544285 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12899
    Next-generation whole-genome sequencing has revolutionised the study of infectious diseases in recent years. The availability of genome sequences and its understanding have transformed the field of molecular microbiology, epidemiology, infection treatments and vaccine developments. We review the key findings of the publicly accessible genomes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi since the first complete genome to the most recent release of thousands of Salmonella Typhi genomes, which remarkably shape the genomic research of S. Typhi and other pathogens. Important new insights acquired from the genome sequencing of S. Typhi, pertaining to genomic variations, evolution, population structure, antibiotic resistance, virulence, pathogenesis, disease surveillance/investigation and disease control are discussed. As the numbers of sequenced genomes are increasing at an unprecedented rate, fine variations in the gene pool of S. Typhi are captured in high resolution, allowing deeper understanding of the pathogen's evolutionary trends and its pathogenesis, paving the way to bringing us closer to eradication of typhoid through effective vaccine/treatment development.
  6. Jiamsakul A, Kerr SJ, Ng OT, Lee MP, Chaiwarith R, Yunihastuti E, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2016 May;21(5):662-74.
    PMID: 26950901 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12690
    OBJECTIVES: Treatment interruptions (TIs) of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are known to lead to unfavourable treatment outcomes but do still occur in resource-limited settings. We investigated the effects of TI associated with adverse events (AEs) and non-AE-related reasons, including their durations, on treatment failure after cART resumption in HIV-infected individuals in Asia.

    METHODS: Patients initiating cART between 2006 and 2013 were included. TI was defined as stopping cART for >1 day. Treatment failure was defined as confirmed virological, immunological or clinical failure. Time to treatment failure during cART was analysed using Cox regression, not including periods off treatment. Covariables with P < 0.10 in univariable analyses were included in multivariable analyses, where P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: Of 4549 patients from 13 countries in Asia, 3176 (69.8%) were male and the median age was 34 years. A total of 111 (2.4%) had TIs due to AEs and 135 (3.0%) had TIs for other reasons. Median interruption times were 22 days for AE and 148 days for non-AE TIs. In multivariable analyses, interruptions >30 days were associated with failure (31-180 days HR = 2.66, 95%CI (1.70-4.16); 181-365 days HR = 6.22, 95%CI (3.26-11.86); and >365 days HR = 9.10, 95% CI (4.27-19.38), all P < 0.001, compared to 0-14 days). Reasons for previous TI were not statistically significant (P = 0.158).

    CONCLUSIONS: Duration of interruptions of more than 30 days was the key factor associated with large increases in subsequent risk of treatment failure. If TI is unavoidable, its duration should be minimised to reduce the risk of failure after treatment resumption.

  7. Al-Areeqi MA, Sady H, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Anuar TS, Al-Adhroey AH, Atroosh WM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2017 04;22(4):493-504.
    PMID: 28151567 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12848
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii infections among rural communities in Yemen.

    METHODS: In a community-based study, faecal samples were collected from 605 participants and examined by wet mount, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining and nested multiplex PCR techniques. Demographic, socio-economic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Overall, 324 (53.6%) of the samples were positive for Entamoeba cysts and/or trophozoites by microscopic examination. Molecular analysis revealed that 20.2%, 15.7% and 18.2% of the samples were positive for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed different sets of species-specific risk factors among these communities. Educational level was identified as the significant risk factor for E. histolytica; age and gender were the significant risk factors for E. moshkovskii; and sources of drinking water and consumption of unwashed vegetables were the significant risk factors for E. dispar. Moreover, living in coastal/foothill areas and presence of other infected family members were risk factors for both E. histolytica and E. moshkovskii infections.

    CONCLUSION: The study reveals that Entamoeba spp. infection is highly prevalent among rural communities in Yemen, with E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii differentiated for the first time. Identifying and treating infected family members, providing health education pertinent to good personal and food hygiene practices and providing clean drinking water should be considered in developing a strategy to control intestinal parasitic infections in these communities, particularly in the coastal/foothill areas of the country.

  8. Lewthwaite P, Shankar MV, Tio PH, Daly J, Last A, Ravikumar R, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2010 Jul;15(7):811-8.
    PMID: 20487425 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02537.x
    OBJECTIVE: To compare two commercially available kits, Japanese Encephalitis-Dengue IgM Combo ELISA (Panbio Diagnostics) and JEV-CheX IgM capture ELISA (XCyton Diagnostics Limited), to a reference standard (Universiti Malaysia Sarawak - Venture Technologies VT ELISA).

    METHODS: Samples were obtained from 172/192 children presenting to a site in rural India with acute encephalitis syndrome.

    RESULTS: Using the reference VT ELISA, infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was confirmed in 44 (26%) patients, with central nervous system infection confirmed in 27 of these; seven patients were dengue seropositive. Of the 121 remaining patients, 37 (31%) were JEV negative and 84 (69%) were JEV unknown because timing of the last sample tested was <10 day of illness or unknown. For patient classification with XCyton, using cerebrospinal fluid alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 77.8% (59.2-89.4) with specificity of 97.3% (90.6-99.2). For Panbio ELISA, using serum alone (the recommended sample), sensitivity was 72.5% (57.2-83.9) with specificity of 97.5% (92.8-99.1). Using all available samples for patient classification, sensitivity and specificity were 63.6% (95% CI: 48.9-76.2) and 98.4% (94.5-99.6), respectively, for XCyton ELISA and 75.0% (59.3-85.4) and 97.7% (93.3-99.2) for Panbio ELISA.

    CONCLUSION: The two commercially available ELISAs had reasonable sensitivities and excellent specificities for diagnosing JEV.

  9. Rahmah N, Shenoy RK, Nutman TB, Weiss N, Gilmour K, Maizels RM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Oct;8(10):895-900.
    PMID: 14516300
    A multicentre evaluation of the Brugia Rapid dipstick test was performed using 1263 serum samples in four international laboratories, i.e. T.D. Medical College (TDMC, India), National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), Swiss Tropical Institute (STI, Switzerland) and Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC, Netherlands). In comparison with microscopy, the dipstick demonstrated sensitivities of 97.2% (70 of 72) at TDMC, 91.6% (175 of 191) at LUMC and 100% (six of six) at STI. Sera of chronic patients showed a positivity rate of 11.3% (19 of 168) and 61.2% (71of 116) at TDMC and LUMC, respectively. All 266 sera of non-endemic normals from STI, NIH and LUMC tested negative with the dipstick. At LUMC, sera of 'endemic normals' (amicrofilaraemics with no clinical disease) from an area with approximately 35% microfilaria positivity showed 60.8% positive results (31 of 51), thus demonstrating the likelihood of many cryptic infections occurring in this population. Specificities of the test with Onchocerca volvulus sera were 98.8% (80 of 81) and 100% (10 of 10) at the NIH and STI, respectively; while specificity with Loa loa sera at the NIH was 84.6% (44 of 52). At the STI, the dipstick test also demonstrated 100% specificity when tested with 75 sera from various protozoan and helminthic infections.
  10. Haresh K, Suresh K, Khairul Anus A, Saminathan S
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1999 Apr;4(4):274-7.
    PMID: 10357863
    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.
  11. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
  12. Hamidah A, Sham Marina M, Tamil AM, Loh CK, Zarina LA, Jamal R, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2014 Oct;19(10):1177-84.
    PMID: 25047756 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.12358
    To determine the behavioural impact of chemotherapy in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) treated with chemotherapy only and to identify treatment-related or sociodemography-related factors that might be associated with behavioural outcome.
  13. Jamail M, Andrew K, Junaidi D, Krishnan AK, Faizal M, Rahmah N
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2005 Jan;10(1):99-104.
    PMID: 15655019
    We conducted a field study of a rapid test (Brugia Rapid) for detection of Brugia malayi infection to validate its sensitivity and specificity under operational conditions. Seven districts in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, which are endemic for brugian filariasis, were used to determine the test sensitivity. Determination of specificity was performed in another state in Malaysia (Bachok, Kelantan) which is non-endemic for filariasis but endemic for soil-transmitted helminths. In Sarawak both the rapid test and thick blood smear preparation were performed in the field. The rapid test was interpreted on site, whereas blood smears were taken to the district health centres for staining and microscopic examination. Sensitivity of Brugia Rapid dipstick as compared with microscopy of thick blood smears was 87% (20/23; 95% CI: 66.4-97.2) whereas the specificity was 100% (512/512). The lower sensitivity of the test in the field than in laboratory evaluations (> or =95%), was probably due to the small number of microfilaraemic individuals, in addition to difficulties in performing the test in remote villages by field personnel. The overall prevalence of brugian filariasis as determined by the dipstick is 9.4% (95% CI: 8.2-0.5) while that determined by microscopy is 0.90% (95% CI: 0.5-1.3) thus the dipstick detected about 10 times more cases than microscopy. Equal percentages of adults and children were found to be positive by the dipstick whereas microscopy showed that the number of infected children was seven times less than infected adults. The rapid dipstick test was useful as a diagnostic tool for mapping and certification phases of the lymphatic filariasis elimination programme in B. malayi-endemic areas.
  14. Vadivelu J, Puthucheary SD, Drasar BS, Dance DA, Pitt TL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Jul;3(7):518-21.
    PMID: 9705184
    The constancy of strain genotypes of multiple isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei from 13 patients with melioidosis was examined by BamHI ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digests of DNA. Seven of 8 patients with single episodes of melioidosis each yielded genetically identical isolates and only one of five patients with recurrent episodes was infected with a new strain clearly distinct from the original primary strain. Variation was observed in PFGE patterns of primary and relapse isolates of another patient but this was insufficient to define genetically distinct strains. We conclude that most patients with single or multiple episodes of melioidosis retain a single strain.
  15. Zarizal S, Yeo CC, Faizal GM, Chew CH, Zakaria ZA, Jamil Al-Obaidi MM, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 08;23(8):905-913.
    PMID: 29873865 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13090
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to profile the antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance and virulence genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage, by means of genotypic analyses, in students of a tertiary institution in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 370 agricultural biotechnology students from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in Besut, Terengganu, were enrolled in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were evaluated by standard methods. PCR detection of resistance and virulence genes was performed on S. aureus that were methicillin-resistant, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB )-positive phenotype and/or positive for the leukocidin (pvl) gene followed by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), staphylococcal protein A (spa) and accessory gene regulator (agr) typing.

    RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen of 370 students carried S. aureus (32%); 18 of the isolates were MRSA (15%). Erythromycin resistance was detected in 20% (24/119) of which 15% (18/119) were MRSA and 5% (6/119) MSSA. Among the 24 erythromycin-resistant isolates, D-test was positive in 29% (7/24) displaying inducible MLSB , whereas the remaining 71% (17/24) showed constitutive MLSB phenotypes. Nine (7.6%) of 119 isolates were pvl positive: 44% MRSA (4/9) and 56% MSSA (5/9). Staphylococcal surface protein sasX gene was present in 92% of MRSA and 8% of MSSA isolates. The majority of MRSA isolates were agr type I (15/18; 83%). Five spa types identified with spa t037 were predominant, followed by spa types (t304 and t8696) as newly reported Malaysian MRSA in a community setting.

    CONCLUSION: The presence of MRSA with SCCmec of hospital-associated features and globally recognised spa types in community setting is worrisome. Furthermore, the presence of MLSB strains among multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus with sasX as well as pvl-positive isolates highlights the potential risk of a community setting in facilitating the dissemination of both virulence and resistance determinants.

  16. Samsudin S, Sakinah SNS, Malina O, Norliza BA, Noh MA, Fairuz A, et al.
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 03;23(3):327-333.
    PMID: 29356240 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13033
    OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia. Respondents' background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for leptospiral antibodies using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT).

    RESULTS: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among healthy workers was 46.3%. Detection of seropositivity was higher by MAT (46%) than ELISA (15%). We observed high seropositivity among local workers (49%), food handlers (49.5%), females (60.8%) and those aged 34 years and older (46.3%). Local strain LEP175 was the predominant serovar, followed by WHO strain Patoc.

    CONCLUSION: Overall seroprevalence among healthy food handlers and market workers was high in this study. The workplace places susceptible individuals at risk of leptospirosis.

  17. Lee BW
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1998 Nov;3(11):886-90.
    PMID: 9855401
    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) predominantly affects children in temperate countries, with near-universal seroconversion occurring by late childhood. However, in tropical regions, VZV infection is common in adolescents and adults. This review identifies age-related VZV seroprevalence patterns in a number of Asian countries which indicate that seroconversion in tropical countries occurs at a later age than in temperate countries. Seasonal and regional variations in acute disease within some Asian countries suggest that temperate climates might favour transmission of the varicella virus, with incidence peaking during cooler months and in cooler, more temperate regions. VZV infection is often more severe in adults than in children, suggesting that tropical countries may be at risk of greater morbidity and mortality as a result of later-age seroconversion. Susceptibility of pregnant women and their infants, and of people infected with HIV/AIDS is also cause for concern. Vaccination may be beneficial in reducing the impact of VZV in Asian populations.
  18. Tengku-Idris TIN, Fong MY, Lau YL
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2018 12;23(12):1374-1383.
    PMID: 30286271 DOI: 10.1111/tmi.13160
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the seroprevalence of Sarcocystosis in the local communities of Pangkor and Tioman islands, Malaysia, by using antigenic recombinant surface antigens 2 and 3 from Sarcocystis falcatula (rSfSAG2 and rSfSAG3) as the target proteins via Western blot and ELISA assays.

    METHODS: SfSAG2 and SfSAG3 genes were isolated from S. falcatula and expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 348 serum samples [volunteers from both islands (n = 100), non-Sarcocystis parasitic infections patients (n = 50) and healthy donors (n = 100)] were collected and tested with purified SfSAGs in Western blot and ELISA assays to measure the seroprevalence of human sarcocystosis.

    RESULTS: None of the sera in this study reacted with rSfSAG2 by Western blot and ELISA. For rSfSAG3, relatively high prevalence of sarcocystosis was observed in Tioman Island (75.5%) than in Pangkor Island (34%) by Western blot. In ELISA, the different prevalence rate was observed between Tioman Island (43.8%) and Pangkor Island (37%). The prevalence rate in other parasitic infections (amoebiasis, cysticercosis, filariasis, malaria, toxocariasis and toxoplasmosis) was 30% by Western blot and 26% by ELISA. Only 8% (by Western blot) and 10% (by ELISA) of healthy donors showed reactivity towards rSfSAG3.

    CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in Pangkor and Tioman Islands, Malaysia. The combination of Western blot and ELISA is suitable to be used for serodiagnosis of sarcocystosis. With further evaluations, SfSAG3 can potentially be used to confirm infection, asymptomatic screening, surveillance and epidemiological studies.

  19. Bandyopadhyay S, Lum LC, Kroeger A
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2006 Aug;11(8):1238-55.
    PMID: 16903887 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01678.x
    BACKGROUND: The current World Health Organisation (WHO) classification of dengue includes two distinct entities: dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF)/dengue shock syndrome; it is largely based on pediatric cases in Southeast Asia. Dengue has extended to different tropical areas and older age groups. Variations from the original description of dengue manifestations are being reported.
    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experience of clinicians in using the dengue case classification and identify challenges in applying the criteria in routine clinical practice.
    METHOD: Systematic literature review of post-1975 English-language publications on dengue classification.
    RESULTS: Thirty-seven papers were reviewed. Several studies had strictly applied all four WHO criteria in DHF cases; however, most clinicians reported difficulties in meeting all four criteria and used a modified classification. The positive tourniquet test representing the minimum requirement of a haemorrhagic manifestation did not distinguish between DHF and DF. In cases of DHF thrombocytopenia was observed in 8.6-96%, plasma leakage in 6-95% and haemorrhagic manifestations in 22-93%. The low sensitivity of classifying DHF could be due to failure to repeat the tests or physical examinations at the appropriate time, early intravenous fluid therapy, and lack of adequate resources in an epidemic situation and perhaps a considerable overlap of clinical manifestations in the different dengue entities.
    CONCLUSION: A prospective multi-centre study across dengue endemic regions, age groups and the health care system is required which describes the clinical presentation of dengue including simple laboratory parameters in order to review and if necessary modify the current dengue classification.
  20. Vythilingam I, Tan SB, Krishnasamy M
    Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2002 Jun;7(6):539-40.
    PMID: 12031077
    The susceptibility of Culex sitiens to Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus was examined in the laboratory. Cx. sitiens became infected with JE virus on day 8 and subsequently it is able to transmit the virus when it takes a blood meal. Both parts of the experiment were carried out using artificial membrane feeding technique.
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