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  1. Trépanier P, Minocha HC, Ibrahim AL, Sheikh-Omar AR, Montpetit C, Lecomte J, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 1988 Dec;18(3-4):219-31.
    PMID: 2852870
    Hemagglutination activity, structural protein profiles and neutralization assays were used in a comparative study of bovine herpesvirus 1 strains from the U.S.A., Canada, Great Britain, Denmark and Malaysia with equine, feline and human herpesviruses in order to further characterize the bovine herpesvirus 1 hemagglutinin. Bovine herpesvirus 1 strains of different geographical origins all showed hemagglutinating activity for mouse erythrocytes; furthermore, feline herpesvirus 1 was also shown to hemagglutinate mouse erythrocytes. Analyses of partly purified viruses showed that a distinctive and specific polypeptides profile is associated with each species of herpesviruses used in our study; strains of bovine herpesvirus 1 from North America, Europe and Southeast Asia however, presented a remarkable similarity as to their electrophoretic protein patterns. A protein similar to the 97-kDa bovine viral hemagglutinin was not identified with the hemagglutinating feline herpesvirus. An important neutralization epitope on the bovine viral hemagglutinin was also not found on feline, equine and human herpesviruses but was identified on all bovine strains tested from North America, Europe and Southeast Asia stressing the importance of the bovine hemagglutinin for eventual prophylactic purposes.
  2. Ismail G, Mohamed R, Rohana S, Sharifah HS, Embi N
    Vet. Microbiol., 1991 May;27(3-4):277-82.
    PMID: 1882505
    Specific antibody to Pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin was detected in sheep sera exposed to natural infection. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Serum antitoxin was present in 49.3% of sera obtained from a flock of sheep naturally exposed to P. pseudomallei infection. Among these sera, 17.0% gave titers of 10,000. In contrast, serum antitoxin was present in only 6.0% of sera collected from sheep kept on a melioidosis-free farm. The ELISA reactivity of all positive sera could be completely absorbed with purified P. pseudomallei exotoxin. Similarly, preincubation of the exotoxin-coated wells with specific antiserum inhibited the ELISA reactivity of sheep sera. The results indicate that exotoxin is produced in vivo during infection by P. pseudomallei.
  3. Chandrasekaran S, Kennett L, Yeap PC, Muniandy N, Rani B, Mukkur TK
    Vet. Microbiol., 1994 Aug 01;41(3):213-9.
    PMID: 7975147
    Two of the three buffaloes immunized with a non-adjuvanted broth bacterin were found to be protected against experimental challenge at 6 weeks but not at 3 months post-challenge. Similarly all buffaloes (4/4) immunized with alum-precipitated vaccine were protected at 6 months but only 1 of the 2 vaccinated animals were protected at 12 months post-immunization. On the other hand, buffaloes immunized with an oil adjuvant and a double emulsion vaccine were completely protected at 12 months post-immunization. Statistically significant differences between immunized versus non-immune animals became evident at 3 months post-immunization, although analysis of cumulative antibody titres of pre-challenge sera of vaccinated buffaloes surviving versus those succumbing to experimental challenge revealed significant by higher antibody titres in the former as compared to the latter group. These results suggested that there was a relationship between ELISA antibody titres and active protection in buffaloes. There also appeared to be a relationship between cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and active protection in buffaloes. Preliminary analysis of the antibody isotype distribution in the pre-challenge sera of 2 buffaloes vaccinated with the oil adjuvant vaccine revealed predominance of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses whose role in protection against haemorrhagic septicaemia was not eludicated.
  4. Chandrasekaran S, Kennett L, Yeap PC, Muniandy N, Rani B, Mukkur TK
    Vet. Microbiol., 1994 Aug 15;41(4):303-9.
    PMID: 7801530
    The relationship between the standard passive mouse protection test or serum antibody titres measured by indirect haemagglutination or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and active protection in buffaloes immunized with different types of haemorrhagic septicaemia bacterins was investigated. Groups of 2-3 buffaloes were immunized with the bacterins currently in use in Asia, viz., broth bacterin (BB), alum precipitated vaccine (APV) and oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV) either subcutaneously (BB, APV) or intramuscularly (OAV) and challenged subcutaneously with virulent organisms at different periods post-immunization. Although the passive mouse protection and indirect haemagglutination tests carried out with the pre-challenge sera from vaccinated buffaloes revealed no relationship with active protection in buffaloes, a relationship was observed between the ELISA antibody titres and protection. In contrast, a dose-response relationship was observed between the homologous active and passive mouse protection test.
  5. Zakaria Z, Radu S, Sheikh-Omar AR, Mutalib AR, Joseph PG, Rusul G
    Vet. Microbiol., 1998 Jul;62(3):243-50.
    PMID: 9791871
    Pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA was used to investigate genetic diversity among Dichelobacter nodosus from footrot in sheep in Malaysia. Twelve Dichelobacter nodosus strains isolated from lesion materials from infected sheep were confirmed as Dichelobacter nodosus by polymerase chain reaction technique using the species-specific Dichelobacter nodosus 16S RNA sequence Ac and C as primers. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis banding profiles using restriction enzymes ApaI (5'GGGCCC3'), SfiI (5'GGCCNNNNNGGCC3') and SmaI ('5CCCGGG3') enabled the 12 Dichelobacter nodosus strains to be differentiated into eight different PFGE patterns and thus genome-types, with F (coefficient of similarity) values ranging from 0.17 to 1.0 (ApaI), 0.14 to 1.0 (SfiI) and 0.22 to 1.0 (SmaI). Strains with origin in different farms were shown to have different PFGE patterns (two strains, M7 and M8 were the only exception). On the basis of their PFGE, all field strains used in the study differed from the reference strains. Our data revealed that there are several clonal types of Dichelobacter nodosus isolates and indicated that there is probably more than one source of this pathogen on the farms studied. The study showed that strains of D. nodosus exhibited considerable genetic diversity using this method and that genomic analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was useful in discriminating the D. nodosus strains.
  6. Zamri-Saad M, Effendy AW, Israf DA, Azmi ML
    Vet. Microbiol., 1999 Mar 12;65(3):233-40.
    PMID: 10189198
    A study to determine the immunoglobulin and cellular responses in the respiratory tract of goats following intranasal exposures to formalin-killed Pasteurella haemolytica A2 was carried out. Forty-two goats were divided into two groups. Goats in Group 1 were subjected to double intranasal exposures to formalin-killed P. haemolytica A2 while goats in Group 2 were the unexposed control. Prior to and at weekly intervals post-exposure, three goats from each group were killed, serum samples were collected while the lungs were flushed with 50 ml normal saline before the right apical lobes were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Both serum and lung lavage fluid were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of IgA, IgM and IgG while the formalin-fixed tissues were examined histologically. IgA levels in the lung lavage fluid increased rapidly to reach a significantly (p < 0.05) high level as early as Week 2 post-exposure and remained significantly (p < 0.05) high throughout the study period. The IgM levels increased at an intermediate rate to reach a significantly (p < 0.05) high level at Week 3 post-exposure before they decreased to an insignificant (p > 0.05) level the following week and the weeks thereafter. IgG levels increased gradually and only reached a significantly (p < 0.01) high level at Weeks 5 and 6 of the study. The size of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and the number of lymphocytes in BALT increased significantly from Week 2 and remained high thereafter. However, differences in the numbers of BALT were insignificant (p > 0.05) initially before becoming significantly (p < 0.05) high at Weeks 5 and 6. The BALT responses were parallel to those of imunoglobulins in the lung lavage fluid.
  7. Sabri MY, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Israf DA, Muniandy N
    Vet. Microbiol., 2000 Apr 04;73(1):13-23.
    PMID: 10731614
    The outer membrane proteins (OMP) were extracted from the P. haemolytica A2, A7 and A9 to determine their potential as immunogens and their capability for cross-protection. Sixty lambs of approximately 9 months old were divided into four main groups. Animals in Group 1 were vaccinated with 2ml vaccine containing 100microg/ml of the outer membrane proteins of P. haemolytica A2. Animals in Group 2 were similarly vaccinated with the OMPs of P. haemolytica A7 while Group 3 with OMPs of P. haemolytica A9. Animals in Group 4 were unvaccinated control. During the course of the study, serum was collected to evaluate the antibody levels toward each OMP. There appeared to be good immune responses. However, high antibody levels did not necessarily result in good protection of the animals, particularly against cross-infection with P. haemolytica A9 in animals vaccinated with the OMPs of P. haemolytica A2. It seemed that the antibody responses were more specific toward the homologous challenge but generally did not cross-protect against heterologous serotype challenge. However, the OMPs of P. haemolytica A7 produced good in vivo cross-protection and excellent correlations when good antibody responses against all serotypes led to successful reductions of the extent of lung lesions following homologous and heterologous challenge exposures. Thus, the OMPs of P. haemolytica A7 was effective in protecting animals against homologous and heterologous infection by live P. haemolytica A2, A7 and A9.
  8. Wekesa SN, Inoshima Y, Murakami K, Sentsui H
    Vet. Microbiol., 2001 Nov 08;83(2):137-46.
    PMID: 11557154
    Using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and direct sequencing, capsid protein and non-structural protein 1 (nsP1) regions of Sagiyama virus and eight Getah virus strains were analysed. The viruses were isolated from Malaysia and various areas of Japan over a period of 30 years. Based on the available published sequence data, oligonucleotide primers were designed for RT-PCR and the sequences were determined. Our findings showed that though there were differences in the nucleotide sequences in the nsP1 region, there was 100% amino acid homology. On the other hand, in the capsid region, the nucleotide differences caused a major difference in the amino acid sequence. Therefore, the difference in the capsid region is one of the useful markers in the genetic classification between Sagiyama virus and strains of Getah virus, and might be responsible for the serological difference in complement fixation test. The genomic differences among the Getah virus strains are due to time factor rather than geographical distribution.
  9. Le VP, Nguyen T, Lee KN, Ko YJ, Lee HS, Nguyen VC, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2010 Jul 29;144(1-2):58-66.
    PMID: 20097490 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2009.12.033
    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major cause of endemic outbreaks in Vietnam in recent years. In this work, six serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV), collected from endemic outbreaks during January and February of 2009 in four different provinces in Vietnam, were genetically characterized for their complete genome sequences. Genetic analysis based on the complete viral genome sequence indicated that they were closely related to each other and shared 99.0-99.8% amino acid (aa) identity. Genetic and deduced aa analysis of the capsid coding gene VP1 showed that the six Vietnamese strains were all classified into the genotype IX from a total of 10 major genotypes worldwide, sharing 98.1-100% aa identity each other. They were most closely related to the type A strains recently isolated in Laos (A/LAO/36/2003, A/LAO/1/2006, A/LAO/6/2006, A/LAO/7/2006, and A/LAO/8/2006), Thailand (A/TAI/2/1997 and A/TAI/118/1987), and Malaysia (A/MAY/2/2002), sharing 88.3-95.5% nucleotide (nt) identities. In contrast, Vietnamese type A strains showed low nt identities with the two old type A FMDVs, isolated in 1960 in Thailand (a15thailand iso43) and in 1975 in the Philippines (aphilippines iso50), ranging from 77.3 to 80.9% nt identity. A multiple alignment based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the capsid VP1 coding gene of type A FMDV revealed three amino acid substitutions between Vietnamese strains and the strains of other Southeast Asian countries (Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). Alanine was replaced by valine at residue 24, asparagine by arginine at residue 85, and serine by threonine at residue 196. Furthermore, type A FMDV strains recently isolated in Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Malaysia all have one amino acid deletion at residue 140 of the capsid VP1 protein compared with the two old type A FMDV strains from Thailand and the Philippines as well as most other type A representatives worldwide. This article is the first to report on the comprehensive genetic characterization of type A FMDV circulating in Vietnam.
  10. Atyah MA, Zamri-Saad M, Siti-Zahrah A
    Vet. Microbiol., 2010 Aug 26;144(3-4):502-4.
    PMID: 20189324 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.02.004
    Swabs from the brain, eyes and kidneys of tilapia from 11 farms were collected for a period of 2 years. They were grown on blood agar before cultures of suspected Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to ABI STAPH Detection Kit and PCR for identification. They were then grown on oxacillin resistance screening agar base (ORSAB) and subjected to PCR using the MRSA 17 kb forward and reverse primers to identify the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). A total of 559 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained, from which 198 (35%) isolates were identified as S. aureus. Of the 198 S. aureus isolated from tilapias, 98 (50%) were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Since global spread of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has increased in the past decade, this new finding in fish should be of concern.
  11. Ransangan J, Manin BO
    Vet. Microbiol., 2010 Sep 28;145(1-2):153-7.
    PMID: 20427132 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.03.016
    Culture of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch) is a popular aquaculture activity in Malaysia. This fish is in high demand and fetches a good price in the local market. The seed for this fish is commercially produced by induced spawning in hatcheries. However, the seed supply is affected by frequent mass mortality of larvae aged between 15 and 60 dph. The clinical signs shown by the affected larvae include lethargy, loss of appetite, uncoordinated swimming, unusual spiral movement pattern and dark coloration. Histological examination of brain and eye of the affected specimens revealed extensive cell vacuolation in larvae aged 15-25 dph. Partial nucleotide sequence of the nervous necrosis virus coat protein gene of the affected larvae showed 94.0-96.1% homology to the nucleotide sequences of coat protein gene from nervous necrosis virus isolated from other countries in the Southeast Asia and Australia. This study provides scientific evidence based on molecular technique that many episodes of mass mortality in seabass larvae in Sabah is associated with the viral nervous necrosis. Because no effective treatment has been reported for this infection, stringent biosecurity measures must be adopted for exclusion of the pathogen from the culture system.
  12. Ransangan J, Manin BO
    Vet. Microbiol., 2012 Apr 23;156(1-2):16-44.
    PMID: 22051446 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.10.002
    Betanodavirus is the causative agent of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) or viral encephalopathy and retinopathy disease in marine fish. This disease is responsible for most of the mass mortalities that occurred in marine fish hatcheries in Malaysia. The genome of this virus consists of two positive-sense RNA molecules which are the RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 molecule contains the RdRp gene which encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA2 molecule contains the Cp gene which encodes for the viral coat protein. In this study, total RNAs were extracted from 32 fish specimens representing the four most cultured marine fish species in Malaysia. The fish specimens were collected from different hatcheries and aquaculture farms in Malaysia. The RNA1 was successfully amplified using three pairs of overlapping PCR primers whereas the RNA2 was amplified using a pair of primers. The nucleotide analysis of RdRp gene revealed that the Betanodavirus in Malaysia were 94.5-99.7% similar to the RGNNV genotype, 79.8-82.1% similar to SJNNV genotype, 81.5-82.4% similar to BFNNV genotype and 79.8-80.7% similar to TPNNV genotype. However, they showed lower similarities to FHV (9.4-14.2%) and BBV (7.2-15.7%), respectively. Similarly, the Cp gene revealed that the viruses showed high nucleotide similarity to RGNNV (95.9-99.8%), SJNNV (72.2-77.4%), BFNNV (80.9-83.5%), TPNNV (77.2-78.1%) and TNV (75.1-76.5%). However, as in the RdRp gene, the coat protein gene was highly dissimilar to FHV (3.0%) and BBV (2.6-4.1%), respectively. Based on the genome analysis, the Betanodavirus infecting cultured marine fish species in Malaysia belong to the RGNNV genotype. However, the phylogenetic analysis of the genes revealed that the viruses can be further divided into nine sub-groups. This has been expected since various marine fish species of different origins are cultured in Malaysia.
  13. Shah AH, Saleha AA, Zunita Z, Cheah YK, Murugaiyah M, Korejo NA
    Vet. Microbiol., 2012 Dec 7;160(3-4):355-61.
    PMID: 22739058 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.05.037
    Arcobacter is getting more attention due to its detection from wide host-range and foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in various sources at farm level and beef retailed in markets in Malaysia and to assess the genetic relatedness among them. A total of 273 samples from dairy cattle including cattle (n=120), floor (n=30), water (n=18) and milk (n=105) as well as 148 beef samples collected from retail markets were studied. The overall prevalence of Arcobacter in various sources was 15% (63/421). However, source-wise detection rate of Arcobacter spp. was recorded as 26.66% (8/30) in floor, 26.3% (39/148) in beef, 11.11% (2/18) in water, 7.6% (8/105) in milk and 6.66% (8/120) in cattle. Arcobacter butzleri was the frequently isolated species however, a total of 75%, 66.7%, 53.8%, 50% and 12.5%% samples from floor, milk, beef, water and cattle, respectively, were carrying more than one species simultaneously. One (12.5%) cattle and beef sample (2.5%) found to be carrying one Arcobacter spp., A. skirrowii, only. Typing of Arcobacter isolates was done though pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digested with Eag1 restriction endonuclease (RE). Digestion of genomic DNA of Arcobacter from various sources yielded 12 major clusters (≥ 50% similarity) which included 29 different band patterns. A number of closely related A. butzleri isolates were found from beef samples which indicate cross contamination of common type of Arcobacter. Fecal shedding of Arcobacter by healthy animals can contaminate water and milk which may act as source of infection in humans.
  14. Aklilu E, Zunita Z, Hassan L, Cheng CH
    Vet. Microbiol., 2013 Jun 28;164(3-4):352-8.
    PMID: 23523336 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.02.030
    In this study, we report the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among veterinary students and personnel in Malaysia. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from 103 veterinary medicine students and 28 personnel from a veterinary hospital. Antibiotic sensitivity test (AST), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test, and PCR amplifications of nucA and mecA gene were performed. Molecular characterization of the isolates was conducted using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results from MLST show the presence of the pandemic and widespread MRSA clones, ST5 and ST59. Spa gene typing revealed spa type t267 which has a wide geographical distribution. A new spa type, t5697 was found in this study. Fingerprint analysis by using PFGE show heterogeneity of the isolates. These findings affirm the importance of MRSA in veterinary settings and underscore the need for further extensive research to devise contextual control and prevention strategies.
  15. Lei W, Guo X, Fu S, Feng Y, Tao X, Gao X, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2017 Mar;201:32-41.
    PMID: 28284620 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.01.003
    BACKGROUND: Since the turn of the 21st century, there have been several epidemic outbreaks of poultry diseases caused by Tembusu virus (TMUV). Although multiple mosquito and poultry-derived strains of TMUV have been isolated, no data exist about their comparative study, origin, evolution, and dissemination.

    METHODOLOGY: Parallel virology was used to investigate the phenotypes of duck and mosquito-derived isolates of TMUV. Molecular biology and bioinformatics methods were employed to investigate the genetic characteristics and evolution of TMUV.

    PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The plaque diameter of duck-derived isolates of TMUV was larger than that of mosquito-derived isolates. The cytopathic effect (CPE) in mammalian cells occurred more rapidly induced by duck-derived isolates than by mosquito-derived isolates. Furthermore, duck-derived isolates required less time to reach maximum titer, and exhibited higher viral titer. These findings suggested that poultry-derived TMUV isolates were more invasive and had greater expansion capability than the mosquito-derived isolates in mammalian cells. Variations in amino acid loci in TMUV E gene sequence revealed two mutated amino acid loci in strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, and Chinese mainland compared with the prototypical strain of the virus (MM1775). Furthermore, TMUV isolates from the Chinese mainland had six common variations in the E gene loci that differed from the Southeast Asian strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that TMUV did not exhibit a species barrier in avian species and consisted of two lineages: the Southeast Asian and the Chinese mainland lineages. Molecular traceability studies revealed that the recent common evolutionary ancestor of TMUV might have appeared before 1934 and that Malaysia, Thailand and Shandong Province of China represent the three main sources related to TMUV spread.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current broad distribution of TMUV strains in Southeast Asia and Chinese mainland exhibited longer-range diffusion and larger-scale propagation. Therefore, in addition to China, other Asian and European countries linked to Asia have used improved measures to detect and monitor TMUV related diseases to prevent epidemics in poultry.

  16. Mohd Isa NH, Selvarajah GT, Khor KH, Tan SW, Manoraj H, Omar NH, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2019 Sep;236:108382.
    PMID: 31500720 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.08.005
    Feline morbillivirus (FeMV), a novel virus from the family of Paramyxoviridae, was first identified in stray cat populations. The objectives of the current study were to (i) determine the molecular prevalence of FeMV in Malaysia; (ii) identify risk factors associated with FeMV infection; and (iii) characterise any FeMV isolates by phylogenetic analyses. Molecular analysis utilising nested RT-PCR assay targeting the L gene of FeMV performed on either urine, blood and/or kidney samples collected from 208 cats in this study revealed 82 (39.4%) positive cats. FeMV-positive samples were obtained from 63/124 (50.8%) urine and 20/25 (80.0%) kidneys while all blood samples were negative for FeMV. In addition, from the 35 cats that had more than one type of samples collected (blood and urine; blood and kidney; blood, urine and kidney), only one cat had FeMV RNA in the urine and kidney samples. Risk factors such as gender, presence of kidney-associated symptoms and cat source were also investigated. Male cats had a higher risk (p = 0.031) of FeMV infection than females. In addition, no significant association (p = 0.083) was observed between the presence of kidney-associated symptoms with FeMV status. From the 82 positive samples, FeMV RNA was detected from 48/82 (58.5%) pet cats and 34/126 (27.0%) shelter cats (p 
  17. Putsathit P, Neela VK, Joseph NMS, Ooi PT, Ngamwongsatit B, Knight DR, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2019 Oct;237:108408.
    PMID: 31585650 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108408
    Information on the epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in South-East Asian countries is limited, as is data on possible animal reservoirs of C. difficile in the region. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in piglets and the piggery environment in Thailand and Malaysia. Piglet rectal swabs (n = 224) and piggery environmental specimens (n = 23) were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 11 farms located in Thailand and Malaysia. All specimens were tested for the presence of C. difficile with toxigenic culture. PCR assays were performed on isolates to determine the ribotype (RT), and the presence of toxin genes. Whole genome sequencing was used on a subset of isolates to determine the evolutionary relatedness of RT038 (the most prevalent RT identified) common to pigs and humans from Thailand and Indonesia. C. difficile was recovered from 35% (58/165) and 92% (54/59) of the piglets, and 89% (8/9) and 93% (13/14) of the environmental specimens from Thailand and Malaysia, respectively. All strains from Thailand, and 30 strains from Malaysia (23 piglet and 7 environmental isolates) were non-toxigenic. To our knowledge, this is the first and only report with a complete lack of toxigenic C. difficile among piglets, a feature which could have a protective effect on the host. The most common strain belonged to RT038 (ST48), accounting for 88% (51/58) of piglet and 78% (7/9) of environmental isolates from Thailand, and all 30 isolates tested from Malaysia. Piglet RT038 isolates from Thailand and Malaysia differed by only 18 core-genome single nucleotide variants (cgSNVs) and both were, on average, 30 cgSNVs different from the human strains from Thailand and Indonesia, indicating a common ancestor in the last two decades.
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