Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 297 in total

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  1. Chik Z, Basu RC, Pendek R, Lee TC, Mohamed Z
    Clin Ther, 2010 Sep;32(10):1822-31.
    PMID: 21194606 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2010.09.006
    Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin used worldwide for the treatment of various forms of tuberculosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  2. Leong LL
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1976 Mar;30(3):229-37.
    PMID: 1085401
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  3. Nakamoto H, Fujita T, Origasa H, Isono M, Kurumatani H, Okada K, et al.
    BMC Nephrol, 2014;15:153.
    PMID: 25233856 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-153
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is public health concern even in Asian countries. TRK-100STP, a sustained release tablet of an orally-active prostacyclin analogue, beraprost sodium, is suggested to suppress worsening of some parameters of renal filtration function, containing in slope of 1/serum creatinine (1/SCr) vs. time in a phase II clinical trial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  4. Ramanathan S, Karupiah S, Nair NK, Olliaro PL, Navaratnam V, Wernsdorfer WH, et al.
    PMID: 16046285
    A new approach using a simple solid-phase extraction technique has been developed for the determination of pyronaridine (PND), an antimalarial drug, in human plasma. After extraction with C18 solid-phase sorbent, PND was analyzed using a reverse phase chromatographic method with fluorescence detection (at lambda(ex)=267 nm and lambda(em)=443 nm). The mean extraction recovery for PND was 95.2%. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay precision, inter-assay precision and accuracy was less than 10%. The quantification limit with fluorescence detection was 0.010 microg/mL plasma. The method described herein has several advantages over other published methods since it is easy to perform and rapid. It also permits reducing both, solvent use and sample preparation time. The method has been used successfully to assay plasma samples from clinical pharmacokinetic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  5. Loo CS, Morad Z, Lim TO, Fan KS, Suleiman AB
    Transplant. Proc., 1996 Jun;28(3):1328-9.
    PMID: 8658680
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  6. Teh, C.C., Khoo, Z.Y., Khursiah, F., Rao, N.K., Chin, J.H.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different storage conditions of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in various organs of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effect of oral administration of star fruit on serum lipid profiles was also examined in this study. A total of 15 female rats were assigned into three groups with five animals per group (n=5). The first group served as control group and given only distilled water (vehicle) while the other two groups were given different star fruit preparations, i.e. freshly prepared star fruit juice and after 3 hours storage, respectively. From the results obtained, a significant decrease in the hepatic acetylcholinesterase activity was observed in rats treated with star fruit juice. In conclusion, the star fruit juice at different storage conditions is selectively targeted on the acetylcholinesterase activity in rat liver but not in kidney and heart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  7. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  8. Al-Afifi NA, Alabsi AM, Bakri MM, Ramanathan A
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Feb 05;18(1):50.
    PMID: 29402248 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2110-3
    BACKGROUND: Dracaena cinnabari (DC) is a perennial tree that located on the Southern coast of Yemen native to the Socotra Island. This tree produces a deep red resin known as the Dragon's blood, the Twobrother's Blood or Damm Alakhwain. The current study performed to evaluate the safety of the DC resin methanol extract after a single or 28 consecutive daily oral administrations.

    METHODS: In assessing the safety of DC resin methanol extract, acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests performed following OECD guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with slight modifications. In acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to female Sprague Dawley rats by oral gavage at a single dose of 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. Rats observed for toxic signs for 14 days. In sub-acute oral toxicity test, DC resin methanol extract administered to the rats by oral gavage at 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg body weight daily up to 28 days to male and female Spradgue Dawley rats. The control and high dose in satellite groups were also maintained and handled as the previous groups to determine the late onset toxicity of DC resin methanol extract. At the end of each test, hematological and biochemical analysis of the collected blood were performed as well as gross and microscopic pathology.

    RESULTS: In acute oral toxicity, no treatment-related death or toxic signs were observed. It revealed that the DC resin methanol extract could be well tolerated up to the dose 2000 mg/kg body weight and could be classified as Category 5. The sub-acute test observations indicated that there are no treatment-related changes up to the high dose level compared to the control. Food consumption, body weight, organ weight, hematological parameters, biochemical parameters and histopathological examination (liver, kidney, heart, spleen and lung) revealed no abnormalities. Water intake was significantly higher in the DC resin methanol extract treated groups compared to the control.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates tolerability of DC resin methanol extract administered daily for 28 days up to 1500 mg/kg dose.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  9. Budin SB, Siti Nor Ain SM, Omar B, Taib IS, Hidayatulfathi O
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2012 Oct;13(10):783-90.
    PMID: 23024045
    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecutive days. In the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality. The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg. The subacute toxicity study of L. elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight, and food and water consumptions. The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined, except for the hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, serum albumin, and serum sodium. However, these differences were still within the normal range. No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver, pancreatic islet of Langerhans, and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups. In conclusion, L. elliptica essential oil can be classified in the U group, which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  10. Hor SY, Ahmad M, Farsi E, Lim CP, Asmawi MZ, Yam MF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1067-76.
    PMID: 21767625 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.07.007
    Coriolus versicolor, which is known as Yun Zhi, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Recent studies have demonstrated its antitumor activities on cancer cells which led to its widespread use in cancer patient. However, little toxicological information is available regarding its safety. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of Coriolus versicolor standardized water extract after acute and subchronic administration in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  11. Salga MS, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Abdelwahab SI
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(2):1393-404.
    PMID: 22408397 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13021393
    The current study described the synthesis and the in vivo acute oral toxicity evaluations in Sprague Dawley rats. The compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, LC-MS, FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and UV-visible spectroscopy. In the acute toxicity study, a single administration of the compounds was performed orally to the rats at the single doses of 2000 mg/kg and they were then monitored for possible side effects, mortality or behavioral changes up to 14 days. The serum level of aspartate (AST), alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphate (ALP), triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), immunoglobulins (GAM) and the C-reactive proteins did not significantly change. The hematological indices white blood cells (WBC), haematocrit (HCT), red blood cells (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) were within the normal range. The renal function indices examined were also within the reference range. Generally, the compounds exhibited low toxic effects as required for further in vivo therapeutic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  12. Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 Jun 23;16(6):5268-82.
    PMID: 21701437 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16065268
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cassia fistula is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The evaluation of toxic properties of C. fistula is crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts can result in undesirable effects on consumers. Hence, in this study the acute oral toxicity of C. fistula seeds extract was investigated in mice.

    RESULTS: Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that C. fistula in nontoxic. Throughout 14 days of the treatment no changes in behavioural pattern, clinical sign and body weight of mice in both control and treatment groups. Also there were no any significant elevations observed in the biochemical analysis of the blood serum. Further, histopathological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects observed on the kidney, heart, liver, lung and spleen.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that, the oral administration of C. fistula methanolic seeds extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  13. Moorthy M, Khoo JJ, Palanisamy UD
    Heliyon, 2019 Aug;5(8):e02333.
    PMID: 31508523 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02333
    Despite the lack of its toxicity evaluation, traditional herbal products are being widely used for various health indications. Geraniin, an ellagitannin, is a bioactive compound found in many traditional herbal medicines. In spite its numerous health benefits ranging from anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, hepatoprotective, anti-cancer and anti-microbial, no toxicity data on geraniin is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of geraniin and an enriched geraniin-extract of Nephelium lappaceum L rind. This study followed the guidelines of the OECD 423 acute oral toxicity test. Subsequent to a single oral administration of the test compounds, the rats were observed for 14 days for signs of toxicity and mortality. Following euthanasia, full blood count, biochemistry of blood and histopathology assessment of organs were carried out. All parameters analysed indicated insignificant difference compared to control. The LD50 cut-off values for both geraniin and geraniin-enriched extract was established to be 2000 mg/kg b. w., following a single oral dose. It was however observed that the hepatocytes of three geraniin-administered rats exhibited a 'foamy appearance'. As such, the no-observed-adverse-effect level of geraniin is below 2000 mg/kg, while that of geraniin-enriched extract is up to 2000 mg/kg. Further detailed toxicity studies are required to establish geraniin or its enriched extract from Nephelium lappaceum L rind safe for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  14. Barkia I, Ketata Bouaziz H, Sellami Boudawara T, Aleya L, Gargouri AF, Saari N
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2020 Jun;27(16):19087-19094.
    PMID: 30612348 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-4007-6
    Protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from various protein sources have demonstrated their effectiveness for the prevention of illness and the improvement of symptoms from several diseases. In particular, the use of microalgae to generate bioactive peptides has received a growing interest because of their potential to be cultivated on non-arable land and high nutritional value. However, scant research is available on the toxicity of peptide-based preparations. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of microalgal protein hydrolysates (MPH) from one marine species of microalgae (Bellerochea malleus) to determine the feasibility of their use for functional food applications. Results showed that the oral administration of MPH at three doses (D1, 100 mg kg-1 BW; D2, 400 mg kg-1 BW; and D3, 2000 mg kg-1 BW) to male Wistar rats did not induce any adverse effects or mortality up to13 days of treatment. Data analysis of relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters did not show any significant differences between control and treated groups at the three doses investigated. Data from histopathological observations did not reveal any signs of major toxicity at the doses D1 and D2. However, mild signs of inflammation and necrosis were observed in the kidney of rats fed MPH at D3. All together, these results reveal the overall safety of MPH and provide new evidence for advocating their use for functional food or nutraceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  15. Tajunisah I, Reddy SC, Tan LH
    Int Ophthalmol, 2009 Apr;29(2):85-90.
    PMID: 18026692
    A rare case of acute retinal necrosis caused by cytomegalovirus in an immunocompetent adult, diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction of vitreous aspirate, with good visual outcome after intravitreal and intravenous ganciclovir and oral prednisolone therapy, is reported. A 50-year-old healthy lady presented with redness and diminution of vision in her right eye of 10 days duration. She had anterior chamber inflammation, marked vitritis, and anterior retinal necrosis in the right eye. Blood and other investigations did not reveal any infectious diseases and HIV testing was negative. The retinal lesions and panuveitis resolved with treatment. Two months later she developed retinal detachment which was treated successfully. The best-corrected vision was 6/12 in the right eye. Seven cases of cytomegalovirus ocular infection in immunocompetent healthy adults, reported in the literature, were reviewed. The different presentations of this disease and the importance of suspecting this causative agent are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  16. Harizal SN, Mansor SM, Hasnan J, Tharakan JK, Abdullah J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Sep 15;131(2):404-9.
    PMID: 20643198 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.013
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa Korth (ketum) is widely used in Malaysia as a medicinal agent for treating diarrhea, worm infestations and also acts as an analgesic and antipyretic.
    AIM: The aim of the study is to determine the acute toxicity of Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract in vivo in 4-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats.
    METHODOLOGY: Rats were orally administrated single dose of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract and the control group received 430 mg/kg of morphine orally. There were 10 rats in each group. All animals were sacrificed after 14 days of treatment. Eight parameters were tested: cage side observation, body weight measurement, food and water consumption, blood pressure, absolute and relative organ weight, hematology, biochemical analysis and histopathology, to look for evidence of toxicity.
    RESULT: No mortality was noted after 14 days of treatment. In general, behavior, food and water consumption, hematological studies and organ weights showed no significant changes. The standardized methanol extraction of Mitragyna speciosa Korth increased rat blood pressure (systolic: 147.4+/-1.01, 131.64+/-4.94 and 137.8+/-4.46) after an hour of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, respectively. Biochemical studies showed significant elevation of ALT, AST, albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol and albumin (p>0.05), at all levels of doses. But, nephrotoxicity evidenced by elevated creatinine was seen only at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. Histological examination showed congestion of sinusoids, hemorrhage hepatocytes, fatty change, centrilobular necrosis and increased number of Kuppfer cells in the liver of all Mitragyna speciosa Korth standardized methanol extract treated groups.
    CONCLUSION: Oral administration of standardized methanolic extraction of Mitragyna speciosa Korth resulted in increasing rat blood pressure after an hour of drug administration. The highest dose of extract also induced acute severe hepatotoxicity and mild nephrotoxicity. However, Mitragyna speciosa Korth shows no effects on body weight, food and water consumption, absolute and relative organ weight and also hematology parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  17. Rahman HS, Rasedee A, Othman HH, Chartrand MS, Namvar F, Yeap SK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:563930.
    PMID: 25276798 DOI: 10.1155/2014/563930
    Zerumbone- (ZER-) loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  18. Sujá F, Yusof A, Osman MA
    Water Sci. Technol., 2010;61(2):389-96.
    PMID: 20107265 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.825
    Leachate samples collected from the Ampar Tenang open dumping site at Dengkil, Malaysia, were analyzed for acute toxicity. Two in vivo toxicity tests, Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT) and Primary Skin Irritation (PSI), were performed using Sprague Dawley rats and New Zealand Albino rabbits, respectively. The leachate samples were also analyzed chemically for nitrate and phosphate, ammonia-nitrogen, Kjeldahl-nitrogen and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Results from both the AOT and PSI tests showed that the leachate did not contribute to acute toxicity. The AOT test yielded a negative result: no effect was observed in at least half of the rat population. The PSI test on rabbits produced effects only at a leachate concentration of 100%. However, the skin irritation was minor, and the test returned a negative result. The four chemical tests showed high levels of nutrient pollution in the leachate. The nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 2.1 mg/L and 23.6 mg/L, respectively. Further, the ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 1,000 mg NH(3)-N/L the Kjeldahl-nitrogen level was 446 mg NH(3)-N/L, and the Chemical Oxygen Demand was 1,300 mg/L. The in vivo toxicity and chemical analyses showed that the leachate is polluted but not acutely toxic to organisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  19. Zahrina AK, Norsa'adah B, Hassan NB, Norazwany Y, Norhayati I, Roslan MH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(21):9225-32.
    PMID: 25422205
    Ensuring adherence to chemotherapy is important to prevent disease progression, prolong survival and sustain good quality of life. Capecitabine is a complex chemotherapeutic agent with many side effects that might affect patient adherence to treatment. This cross sectional study aimed to determine adherence to capecitabine and its contributing factors among cancer outpatients in Malaysia. One hundred and thirteen patients on single regime capecitabine were recruited from Hospital Sultan Ismail and Hospital Kuala Lumpur from October 2013 to March 2014. Adherence was determined based on adherence score using validated Medication Compliance Questionnaire. Patient socio-demographics, disease, and treatment characteristics were obtained from medical records. Satisfaction score was measured using the validated Patient Satisfaction with Healthcare questionnaire. The mean adherence score was 96.1% (standard deviation: 3.29%). The significant contributing factors of adherence to capecitabine were Malay ethnicity [β=1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21, 2.43; p value=0.020], being female [β=1.8; 95%CI: 0.61, 2.99; p value=0.003]), satisfaction score [β=0.08; 95%CI: 0.06, 1.46; p value=0.035], presence of nausea or vomiting [β=2.3; 95%CI: 1.12, 3.48; p value <0.001] and other side effects [β=1.45; 95%CI: 0.24, 2.65; p value=0.019]. Adherence to capecitabine was generally high in our local population. Attention should be given to non-Malay males and patients having nausea, vomiting or other side effects. Sufficient information, proactive assessment and appropriate management of side effects would improve patient satisfaction and thus create motivation to adhere to treatment plans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
  20. Singh HJ, Keah LS, Kumar A, Sirajudeen KN
    Exp. Toxicol. Pathol., 2012 Nov;64(7-8):751-2.
    PMID: 21354772 DOI: 10.1016/j.etp.2011.01.011
    This report documents an incidental finding during a study investigating the effects of melatonin supplementation on the development of blood pressure in SHR. Administration of 10 mg/kg/day of melatonin in drinking water during pregnancy to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) dams caused a loss of more than 50% of the pups by the age of three weeks and 95% by the age of 6 weeks. There was no maternal morbidity or mortality in the two strains or death of any of the SHR pups. No obvious physical defects were present but mean body weight was lower in the surviving WKY rats when compared to that of melatonin supplemented SHR or non-supplemented WKY pups. The reason for the high mortality in WKY pups is uncertain and appears to be strain if not batch specific. There is a need for caution in its use, particularly during pregnancy, and clearly necessitates more detailed studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Administration, Oral
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