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  1. Mendelsohn JB, Schilperoord M, Spiegel P, Balasundaram S, Radhakrishnan A, Lee CK, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2014 Feb;18(2):323-34.
    PMID: 23748862 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0494-0
    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Jiamsakul A, Kerr SJ, Kiertiburanakul S, Azwa I, Zhang F, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2018 12;30(12):1560-1566.
    PMID: 30021450 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1499859
    Missed clinic visits can lead to poorer treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been linked to subsequent missed visits. Knowing the determinants of missed visits in Asian patients will allow for appropriate counselling and intervention strategies to ensure continuous engagement in care. A missed visit was defined as having no assessments within six months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to analyse factors associated with missed visits. A total of 7100 patients were included from 12 countries in Asia with 2676 (37.7%) having at least one missed visit. Patients with early suboptimal self-reported adherence <95% were more likely to have a missed visit compared to those with adherence ≥95% (OR = 2.55, 95% CI(1.81-3.61)). Other factors associated with having a missed visit were homosexual (OR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.27-1.66)) and other modes of HIV exposure (OR = 1.48, 95%CI(1.27-1.74)) compared to heterosexual exposure; using PI-based (OR = 1.33, 95%CI(1.15-1.53) and other ART combinations (OR = 1.79, 95%CI(1.39-2.32)) compared to NRTI+NNRTI combinations; and being hepatitis C co-infected (OR = 1.27, 95%CI(1.06-1.52)). Patients aged >30 years (31-40 years OR = 0.81, 95%CI(0.73-0.89); 41-50 years OR = 0.73, 95%CI(0.64-0.83); and >50 years OR = 0.77, 95%CI(0.64-0.93)); female sex (OR = 0.81, 95%CI(0.72-0.90)); and being from upper middle (OR = 0.78, 95%CI(0.70-0.80)) or high-income countries (OR = 0.42, 95%CI(0.35-0.51)), were less likely to have missed visits. Almost 40% of our patients had a missed clinic visit. Early ART adherence was an indicator of subsequent clinic visits. Intensive counselling and adherence support should be provided at ART initiation in order to optimise long-term clinic attendance and maximise treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration
  3. Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Norni Abdullah
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):97-105.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital arousal disorder and the potential risk
    factors that may impair genital arousal among women at a primary care setting in Malaysia.
    Methods: A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used to assess genital arousal
    function. A total of 230 married women aged 18–70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic and marital profiles were compared between those who had genital arousal disorder and those who did not. The risk factors were examined. Results: The prevalence of genital arousal disorder in the primary care population was 50.4% (116/230). Women with genital arousal disorder were found to be significantly higher in groups of more than 45 years old (p55) (p=.001), those having 4 children or more (p=.028), those having less sexual intercourse (less than 1–2 times a week) (p=.001), and those at post-menopausal state (p=.002). There was no significant difference between these two groups in term of salary (p=.29), suffering from medical problems (p=.32), dysmenorrhea (p=.95), menarche (p=.5) and hormonal replacement therapy (p=.6). Conclusion: Women with infrequent sexual intercourse are less likely to be sexually aroused (OR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, Wan Puteh SE, Musa R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(1):43-53.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between sexual desire and sexual arousal among Malaysian women in a primary care setting. Methods: The Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSI) was used to assess low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal among the respondents. A total of 230 married women aged 18 – 70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic, marital profiles and correlation between low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal were examined. Results: More than 60% respondents with low sexual desire have co-exist low sexual arousal and 94.4% respondents with high sexual desire do have high sexual arousal ( χ²= 79.6, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Kamaralzaman S, Sidi H, Yau M, Budin SB, Sani A, Mohamed J
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(1):64-71.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Female sexual dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study is to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the types of sexual dysfunction experienced by Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted on married Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving treatment from two community clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. Female sexual function was assessed using Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index.
    Results: This study found that sexual dysfunction was present among 18.2% women. Lack of libido was the commonest symptom among these women and was observed in 40.9% of women followed by sexual dissatisfaction (36.4%). Sexual arousal disorder was observed in 22.7%, 18.2% complained of lack of lubrication, and 22.7% had vaginal discomfort. Orgasmic dysfunction was found in only 4.5% of these women.
    Conclusion: This preliminary research showed sexual desire disorder was the commonest type of sexual disorder among diabetic women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Mukhtar F, Abu Bakar AK, Mat Junus M, Awaludin A, Abdul Aziz S, Midin M, et al.
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2012;13(2):157-164.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) is a short, structured diagnostic interview compatible with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). It was designed for clinical practice, research in psychiatric, primary care settings and epidemiological surveys. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Malaysian Version of MINI for Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms criteria only.

    Methods: Six hours of MINI training was given as part of a National Health Morbidity Survey training program for layman interviewers (n=229) and three videos were prepared by an expert psychiatrist for inter-rater reliability purposes. Meanwhile, for validity purposes, the MINI was administered to patients with Major Depressive Disorder (n=30), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=20) and to a normal population (n=60), to conform against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) that was administered by psychiatrists.

    Results: Overall the inter-rater reliability was satisfactory (0.67 to 0.85) and the concordance between the MINI’s and expert diagnoses was good, with kappa values of greater than 0.88.

    Conclusions: The Malay version of the MINI is adjusted to the clinical setting and for the assessment of positive cases in a community setting. Modifications were highlighted to correct any identified problems and to improve the reliability of the MINI for future research and clinical use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Zakaria N, Baharudin A, Razali R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(2):89-99.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To study the effect of depressive disorders, severity of depression and, sociodemographic factors on drug compliance among hypertensive patients at primary care clinics. Methods: A total of 201 hypertensive patients on treatment for at least 3 months who attended the HUKM Primary Care Clinic and Salak Polyclinic were selected for this study. Patients were screened for depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and those who scored 8 and more were further interviewed to establish a diagnosis using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients who were diagnosed to have depressive disorders were further rated for the severity of the illness by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Drug compliance was assessed during a 2 month follow up using the pill counting method (ratio 0.8 – 1.2 considered as compliant). Results: The prevalence of non-compliance among hypertensive patients was 38.3%. There was no association between the diagnosis of depressive disorders and drug compliance. Among the 12 patients who had depressive disorders, severity of depression as rated by HAMD, showed significant association with drug compliance (Mann-Whitney test z = -2.083, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Wee LH, Shahab L, Bulgiba A, West R
    Addict Behav, 2011 Apr;36(4):400-3.
    PMID: 21195553 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.011
    INTRODUCTION: As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their success. This involves accumulation of data from different countries.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of smokers and factors leading up to quitting with clinics in Malaysia.
    METHOD: Records from 629 smokers who had sought help from five selected SSCs in Malaysia from January 2006 to June 2007 were analysed.
    RESULTS: The characteristics of smokers attending Malaysian smoking clinics were broadly similar to those in Western countries. Consistent with the findings from other countries, older age and longest duration of previous quit attempts were associated with successful smoking cessation. Greater baseline carbon-monoxide readings (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99; p=0.013), but not Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), predicted failure to quit at six-month in multivariate analysis. Success rates varied greatly between clinics even after adjusting for all other predictors.
    CONCLUSION: In these rare data from a non-Western culture some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to generalise from Western smokers but the universal validity of the FTND in particular needs to be examined further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities*
  9. Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Proc, 2016 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-40.
    PMID: 26802834 DOI: 10.2500/aap.2016.37.3925
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases represent a significant impact on health care. A cross-sectional, multicountry (India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand) observational study was conducted to investigate the proportion of adult patients who received care for a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or rhinosinusitis.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who received care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis, and the frequency and main symptoms reported.
    METHODS: Patients ages ≥18 years, who presented to a physician with symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Patients and physicians completed a survey that contained questions related to demographics and respiratory symptoms.
    RESULTS: A total of 13,902 patients with a respiratory disorder were screened, of whom 7030 were eligible and 5250 enrolled. The highest percentage of patients who received care had a primary diagnosis of AR (14.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 13.4-14.6%]), followed by asthma (13.5% [95% CI, 12.9-14.1%]), rhinosinusitis (5.4% [95% CI, 4.6-5.3%]), and COPD (4.9% [95% CI, 5.0-5.7%]). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (73%), followed by asthma (61%), rhinosinusitis (59%), and AR (47%) most frequently reported cough as a symptom. Cough was the main reason for seeking medical care among patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (43%), asthma (33%), rhinosinusitis (13%), and AR (11%).
    CONCLUSION: Asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis represent a significant proportion of respiratory disorders in patients who presented to health care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region, many with concomitant disease. Cough was a prominent symptom and the major reason for patients with respiratory diseases to seek medical care.
    Study site:; 22 sites in six countries (various types of clinics, including primary care)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Abdullah, N.S., Radzali, N.F.M., Saub, R., R.D. Vaithilingam,
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(2):16-23.
    MyJurnal
    To assess the oral health related quality of life
    (OHQoL) of a selected population of Malaysian adults and to compare the OHQoL by periodontal status. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study comprises a convenient sampling of fifty subjects from the Primary Care Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. OHQoL was assessed using the Malaysian version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Basic periodontal examination (BPE) was performed on all subjects to determine their periodontal status. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed.
    Results: Psychological discomfort, physical pain and psychological disability domains were the most affected dimensions in this population. Subjects with income levels >RM2,500 had higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those from other income levels (p0.05).
    Conclusion: Subjects with high income levels had high impacts on their OHQoL. Those with periodontitis experienced higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those who had a healthy periodontium or gingivitis and affected a wide range of domains of quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Abdul Ghani, M., Mohd Zaki, M.H., Cheah, C.W.
    Ann Dent, 2015;22(2):38-44.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of study was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 of University of Malaya. The subjects were patients treated in the Year 4 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic B) (n=38) and Year 5 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic C) (n=30). Data was gathered using a questionnaire which consisted of 4 components namely appointment facilities, infrastructure and basic facilities, behaviour of students dental clinician, and quality and efficiency of treatment provided. The results showed that for appointment facilities the level of satisfaction was almost 80%; for infrastructure and basic facilities the satisfaction was more than 85%; for behavior of students dental clinician the level of satisfaction was more than 90% and for quality and efficiency of treatment provided the level of satisfaction was more than 60%. When all the components were compared between patients treated in Polyclinic B to patients treated in Polyclinic C, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 periodontology clinic of University of Malaya is the same
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Abdullah MF, Nor NM, Mohd Ali SZ, Ismail Bukhary NB, Amat A, Latif LA, et al.
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2011 Apr;40(4):168-78.
    PMID: 21678002
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that is prevalent in many countries. The prevalence of DM is on the rise, and its complications pose a heavy burden on the healthcare systems and on the patients' quality of life worldwide.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multicentre, cross-sectional study involving 5 Health Clinics conducted by Family Medicine Specialists in Malaysia. Convenience sampling of 100 respondents with DM were selected. The International Classifi cation of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) based measures were collected using the Comprehensive Core Set for DM. SF-36 and self-administered forms and comorbidity questionnaire (SCQ) were also used.
    RESULTS: Ninety-seven percent had Type 2 DM and 3% had Type 1 DM. The mean period of having DM was 6 years. Body functions related to physical health including exercise tolerance (b455), general physical endurance (b4550), aerobic capacity (b4551) and fatiguability (b4552) were the most affected. For body structures, the structure of pancreas (s550) was the most affected. In the ICF component of activities and participation, limitation in sports (d9201) was the highest most affected followed by driving (d475), intimate relationships (d770), handling stress and other psychological demands (d240) and moving around (d455). Only 7% (e355 and e450) in the environmental category were documented as being a relevant factor by more than 90% of the patients.
    CONCLUSION: The content validity of the comprehensive ICF Core set DM for Malaysian population were identified and the results show that physical and mental functioning were impaired in contrast to what the respondents perceived as leading healthy lifestyles.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Ray R, Lim LH, Ling SL
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1994 May;23(3):335-41.
    PMID: 7944246
    The Programme on Prevention and Management of Obesity in Preschool Children, aged three to six years, was implemented in 17 Primary Health Clinics in November 1991. The study sample comprised 1128 preschool children who qualified to enter the obesity register, using the defined criteria for obesity of 2 standard deviations above the normal weight for height and age. This group was divided into three categories, namely, mildly overweight (120% to below 140%), moderately overweight (140% to below 160%), and severely overweight (above 160%). The severely overweight category was referred to dietitians for follow-up management, while the other two categories were managed by the clinic staff through pre-planned nurse-conducted counselling sessions. In this paper, we analysed the first 1128 preschool children aged three to six years on the Programme with respect to their demographic characteristics; medical conditions; family history of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease; number of siblings and parents' educational and occupational status. The Malay children showed significantly more severe grades of obesity compared to the Chinese and Indian children. A family history of obesity and hypertension among the three groups were significant (P < 0.001). After one year of follow-up with the intervention programme, the following were found: 40.4% (456) of the children improved in their obesity status and 20.2% (228) reached normal status. The severe, moderate and mild categories reduced from 6.3% to 5.9%, 29.3% to 23.2% and 64.4% to 50.7% respectively and was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Mah GK, Yeo A
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1990 May;19(3):339-43.
    PMID: 2144101
    Blood samples from 1,600 persons who sought immunisation against hepatitis B in private clinics in Singapore in 1988-1989 were screened for two viral markers. Of that total, 4.81% were positive for HBsAg and 17.31% had anti-HBs levels greater than 10 mIU/ml, indicating that about 22.12% of the general population would not benefit from immunisation. Preimmunisation screening will identify persons not requiring the hepatitis B vaccine and thus, avoid wastage. When immunisation has already been performed without screening, recall for post-immunisation screening should be considered in order to detect the infectious hepatitis B carriers. Data in this study indicates that at this point in time, it is important to immunise adolescents and adults, in addition to neonates and children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Alshagga MA, Al-Dubai SA, Muhamad Faiq SS, Yusuf AA
    Ann Thorac Med, 2011 Jul;6(3):115-9.
    PMID: 21760841 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.82438
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the knowledge about asthma and the prevalence, disclosure and evaluation of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among asthmatic patients.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 patients diagnosed with asthma in a primary healthcare centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire.
    RESULTS: Ninety-five patients with a mean age of 47.06 years (±12.8) participated, the majority were female (66.7%), Malay (72.6%). The prevalence of ever-CAM use was 61.1%. The non-ever-CAM users' mean age was 51±13.9 years while the ever-CAM users' mean age was 44.5 ±11.5 years (P = 0.021). Sixty-three females (66.8%) used CAM compared to 14 males (43.8%) (P = 0.014). Thirty-six (62.1%) CAM users had not discussed use of CAM with their doctors. The main reason of non-disclosure was the doctor never asked (55.6%), and the main sources of information about CAM were family and relatives (46.6%). There was no significant difference between use of CAM and knowledge about asthma. The majority of asthmatic patients used rubs (39%), foods (16.9%) and herbs (16.9%). About 76% of asthmatic patients perceived CAM as good for their disease management. On linear multiple regression, Malay race (P = 0.026) and female gender (P = 0.006) were significant predictors of CAM use.
    CONCLUSION: Use of CAM among asthmatic patients is relatively high, particularly among females. The majority of asthmatic patients valued the use of CAM. Non-disclosure was high in this study. Health education of asthmatic patients about CAM is highly recommended.
    KEYWORDS: Asthma; Malaysia; complementary and alternative medicine; disclosure
    Study site: Primary care clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Nur Eliana Ahmad Tarmizi, Periasamy, Chenthilnathan, Singh, Avatar Singh Mohan, Irfan Mohamad
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):114-117.
    MyJurnal
    (DENTAL)

    Foreign bodies (FB) are most often lodged in the upper digestive tract and amongst the common encounter in outpatient clinic. In most instances, the ingested FB passes uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract without any harm but in certain cases, it can migrate extraluminally and lead to serious complication. Long standing migrated FB can cause devastating complications like neck abscess and injuries to the major blood vessels. In the present case, a wooden toothpick had migrated to the soft tissue of the neck. A careful and detailed history with clinical-radiographic investigation helped to locate the ingested FB and aided in its successful removal.

    Study site: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Oct 1;12(5):1043-1051.
    PMID: 27695496
    INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
    KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Ng CJ, Haidi NS
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2005;4(3).
    Aim: To explore the help-seeking behavior of primary care doctors during illness. Methods: This qualitative study used focus group discussions to explore participants' help-seeking behavior during illness. It involved 22 primary care doctors (5 lecturers, 12 postgraduate trainees, 5 medical officers) working in a hospital-based primary care clinic. Result: Most primary care doctors in this study managed their illnesses without seeking help. Although most preferred to seek professional help for chronic illnesses and antenatal care, they tend to delay the consultations and were less likely to comply with treatment and follow-up. Explanations for their behavior include their ability to assess and treat themselves, difficulty to find suitable doctors, work commitment, easy access to drugs, and reluctance to assume a sick role. Conclusions: This study found that the help-seeking behavior of primary care doctors was similar to those in other studies. Due to their professional ability, heavy workload and expectations from peer and patients, primary care doctors were more likely to delay in seeking treatment especially for chronic and serious diseases. This highlights the need to enhance support services for doctors during illness. Key words: doctors, help-seeking behavior, illness
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  19. Teng CL, Leong KC, Aljunid SM, Cheah M
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2004;3(1&2):38-45.
    Aims. To document the antibiotic prescribing rate for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in general practice and its associated factors. Methods. Data extracted from a morbidity survey of 150 general practice clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia. Participating general practitioners recorded demographic, morbidity and process of care data for 30 consecutive adult patients using a structured form. [year of study=1999] Results. URTI contributed 940 (27.0%) of the total of 3481 encounters recorded. Antibiotic was prescribed in 68.4% of encounters with URTI; a significant proportion of the antibiotic choice was inappropriate. Half the antibiotics prescribed in this study were due to URTI. [overall antibiotic prescribing rate for all encounters=33.4%] Conclusions. General practitioners need to re-examine their own prescribing for URTI and decide whether it is consistent with current guidelines. Rational prescribing is not just part of the professional role of doctors, but will go a long way to impede the emergence of antibiotic resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Khatoon R, Khoo EM
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2007;6(1).
    Aims: To determine whether the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ) can be used as a screening tool for detecting peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. 
    Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 patients with diabetes over 18 years of age who attended a primary care clinic at a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the ECQ for the presence of intermittent claudication. Blood pressure and peripheral neuropathy were assessed. Ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) was measured and used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of eripheral arterial disease (PAD), which was defined as an ABPI of < 0.9 on either leg. 
    Results: The overall prevalence of PAD was found to be 16% among patients with diabetes based on ABPI. Among these 32 patients with PAD, eight (25%) had symptoms of intermittent claudication based on the ECQ. The ECQ was found to have a low sensitivity (25%) but a high specificity (99.4%), with a positive predictive value of 88.9% and a negative predictive value of 88% for diagnosing PAD in patients with diabetes. 
    Conclusions: The ECQ is not a good screening tool for detection of PAD among patients with diabetes due to its low sensitivity. Key words: ankle brachial pressure, diabetes mellitus, Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaires, intermittent claudication, peripheral arterial disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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