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  1. Mendelsohn JB, Schilperoord M, Spiegel P, Balasundaram S, Radhakrishnan A, Lee CK, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2014 Feb;18(2):323-34.
    PMID: 23748862 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0494-0
    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Jiamsakul A, Kerr SJ, Kiertiburanakul S, Azwa I, Zhang F, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2018 12;30(12):1560-1566.
    PMID: 30021450 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1499859
    Missed clinic visits can lead to poorer treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been linked to subsequent missed visits. Knowing the determinants of missed visits in Asian patients will allow for appropriate counselling and intervention strategies to ensure continuous engagement in care. A missed visit was defined as having no assessments within six months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to analyse factors associated with missed visits. A total of 7100 patients were included from 12 countries in Asia with 2676 (37.7%) having at least one missed visit. Patients with early suboptimal self-reported adherence <95% were more likely to have a missed visit compared to those with adherence ≥95% (OR = 2.55, 95% CI(1.81-3.61)). Other factors associated with having a missed visit were homosexual (OR = 1.45, 95%CI(1.27-1.66)) and other modes of HIV exposure (OR = 1.48, 95%CI(1.27-1.74)) compared to heterosexual exposure; using PI-based (OR = 1.33, 95%CI(1.15-1.53) and other ART combinations (OR = 1.79, 95%CI(1.39-2.32)) compared to NRTI+NNRTI combinations; and being hepatitis C co-infected (OR = 1.27, 95%CI(1.06-1.52)). Patients aged >30 years (31-40 years OR = 0.81, 95%CI(0.73-0.89); 41-50 years OR = 0.73, 95%CI(0.64-0.83); and >50 years OR = 0.77, 95%CI(0.64-0.93)); female sex (OR = 0.81, 95%CI(0.72-0.90)); and being from upper middle (OR = 0.78, 95%CI(0.70-0.80)) or high-income countries (OR = 0.42, 95%CI(0.35-0.51)), were less likely to have missed visits. Almost 40% of our patients had a missed clinic visit. Early ART adherence was an indicator of subsequent clinic visits. Intensive counselling and adherence support should be provided at ART initiation in order to optimise long-term clinic attendance and maximise treatment outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration
  3. Mukhtar F, Abu Bakar AK, Mat Junus M, Awaludin A, Abdul Aziz S, Midin M, et al.
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2012;13(2):157-164.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) is a short, structured diagnostic interview compatible with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). It was designed for clinical practice, research in psychiatric, primary care settings and epidemiological surveys. This preliminary study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Malaysian Version of MINI for Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms criteria only.

    Methods: Six hours of MINI training was given as part of a National Health Morbidity Survey training program for layman interviewers (n=229) and three videos were prepared by an expert psychiatrist for inter-rater reliability purposes. Meanwhile, for validity purposes, the MINI was administered to patients with Major Depressive Disorder (n=30), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=20) and to a normal population (n=60), to conform against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-IV) that was administered by psychiatrists.

    Results: Overall the inter-rater reliability was satisfactory (0.67 to 0.85) and the concordance between the MINI’s and expert diagnoses was good, with kappa values of greater than 0.88.

    Conclusions: The Malay version of the MINI is adjusted to the clinical setting and for the assessment of positive cases in a community setting. Modifications were highlighted to correct any identified problems and to improve the reliability of the MINI for future research and clinical use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Zakaria N, Baharudin A, Razali R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(2):89-99.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To study the effect of depressive disorders, severity of depression and, sociodemographic factors on drug compliance among hypertensive patients at primary care clinics. Methods: A total of 201 hypertensive patients on treatment for at least 3 months who attended the HUKM Primary Care Clinic and Salak Polyclinic were selected for this study. Patients were screened for depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and those who scored 8 and more were further interviewed to establish a diagnosis using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients who were diagnosed to have depressive disorders were further rated for the severity of the illness by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Drug compliance was assessed during a 2 month follow up using the pill counting method (ratio 0.8 – 1.2 considered as compliant). Results: The prevalence of non-compliance among hypertensive patients was 38.3%. There was no association between the diagnosis of depressive disorders and drug compliance. Among the 12 patients who had depressive disorders, severity of depression as rated by HAMD, showed significant association with drug compliance (Mann-Whitney test z = -2.083, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Nik Jaafar NR, Midin M, Wan Puteh SE, Musa R
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(1):43-53.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the correlation between sexual desire and sexual arousal among Malaysian women in a primary care setting. Methods: The Malay Version of Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSI) was used to assess low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal among the respondents. A total of 230 married women aged 18 – 70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic, marital profiles and correlation between low sexual desire and lack of sexual arousal were examined. Results: More than 60% respondents with low sexual desire have co-exist low sexual arousal and 94.4% respondents with high sexual desire do have high sexual arousal ( χ²= 79.6, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Norni Abdullah
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):97-105.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of genital arousal disorder and the potential risk
    factors that may impair genital arousal among women at a primary care setting in Malaysia.
    Methods: A validated questionnaire for sexual function was used to assess genital arousal
    function. A total of 230 married women aged 18–70 years old participated in this study. Their sociodemographic and marital profiles were compared between those who had genital arousal disorder and those who did not. The risk factors were examined. Results: The prevalence of genital arousal disorder in the primary care population was 50.4% (116/230). Women with genital arousal disorder were found to be significantly higher in groups of more than 45 years old (p55) (p=.001), those having 4 children or more (p=.028), those having less sexual intercourse (less than 1–2 times a week) (p=.001), and those at post-menopausal state (p=.002). There was no significant difference between these two groups in term of salary (p=.29), suffering from medical problems (p=.32), dysmenorrhea (p=.95), menarche (p=.5) and hormonal replacement therapy (p=.6). Conclusion: Women with infrequent sexual intercourse are less likely to be sexually aroused (OR=0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.74).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Kamaralzaman S, Sidi H, Yau M, Budin SB, Sani A, Mohamed J
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(1):64-71.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Female sexual dysfunction is a known complication of diabetes mellitus. The aims of this study is to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and the types of sexual dysfunction experienced by Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted on married Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, receiving treatment from two community clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. Female sexual function was assessed using Malay version of Female Sexual Function Index.
    Results: This study found that sexual dysfunction was present among 18.2% women. Lack of libido was the commonest symptom among these women and was observed in 40.9% of women followed by sexual dissatisfaction (36.4%). Sexual arousal disorder was observed in 22.7%, 18.2% complained of lack of lubrication, and 22.7% had vaginal discomfort. Orgasmic dysfunction was found in only 4.5% of these women.
    Conclusion: This preliminary research showed sexual desire disorder was the commonest type of sexual disorder among diabetic women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Wee LH, Shahab L, Bulgiba A, West R
    Addict Behav, 2011 Apr;36(4):400-3.
    PMID: 21195553 DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.11.011
    INTRODUCTION: As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their success. This involves accumulation of data from different countries.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of smokers and factors leading up to quitting with clinics in Malaysia.
    METHOD: Records from 629 smokers who had sought help from five selected SSCs in Malaysia from January 2006 to June 2007 were analysed.
    RESULTS: The characteristics of smokers attending Malaysian smoking clinics were broadly similar to those in Western countries. Consistent with the findings from other countries, older age and longest duration of previous quit attempts were associated with successful smoking cessation. Greater baseline carbon-monoxide readings (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99; p=0.013), but not Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), predicted failure to quit at six-month in multivariate analysis. Success rates varied greatly between clinics even after adjusting for all other predictors.
    CONCLUSION: In these rare data from a non-Western culture some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to generalise from Western smokers but the universal validity of the FTND in particular needs to be examined further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities*
  9. Cho SH, Lin HC, Ghoshal AG, Bin Abdul Muttalif AR, Thanaviratananich S, Bagga S, et al.
    Allergy Asthma Proc, 2016 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-40.
    PMID: 26802834 DOI: 10.2500/aap.2016.37.3925
    BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases represent a significant impact on health care. A cross-sectional, multicountry (India, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand) observational study was conducted to investigate the proportion of adult patients who received care for a primary diagnosis of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or rhinosinusitis.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of patients who received care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis, and the frequency and main symptoms reported.
    METHODS: Patients ages ≥18 years, who presented to a physician with symptoms that met the diagnostic criteria for a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Patients and physicians completed a survey that contained questions related to demographics and respiratory symptoms.
    RESULTS: A total of 13,902 patients with a respiratory disorder were screened, of whom 7030 were eligible and 5250 enrolled. The highest percentage of patients who received care had a primary diagnosis of AR (14.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 13.4-14.6%]), followed by asthma (13.5% [95% CI, 12.9-14.1%]), rhinosinusitis (5.4% [95% CI, 4.6-5.3%]), and COPD (4.9% [95% CI, 5.0-5.7%]). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (73%), followed by asthma (61%), rhinosinusitis (59%), and AR (47%) most frequently reported cough as a symptom. Cough was the main reason for seeking medical care among patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD (43%), asthma (33%), rhinosinusitis (13%), and AR (11%).
    CONCLUSION: Asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis represent a significant proportion of respiratory disorders in patients who presented to health care professionals in the Asia-Pacific region, many with concomitant disease. Cough was a prominent symptom and the major reason for patients with respiratory diseases to seek medical care.
    Study site:; 22 sites in six countries (various types of clinics, including primary care)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Abdul Ghani, M., Mohd Zaki, M.H., Cheah, C.W.
    Ann Dent, 2015;22(2):38-44.
    MyJurnal
    The aim of study was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 of University of Malaya. The subjects were patients treated in the Year 4 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic B) (n=38) and Year 5 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic C) (n=30). Data was gathered using a questionnaire which consisted of 4 components namely appointment facilities, infrastructure and basic facilities, behaviour of students dental clinician, and quality and efficiency of treatment provided. The results showed that for appointment facilities the level of satisfaction was almost 80%; for infrastructure and basic facilities the satisfaction was more than 85%; for behavior of students dental clinician the level of satisfaction was more than 90% and for quality and efficiency of treatment provided the level of satisfaction was more than 60%. When all the components were compared between patients treated in Polyclinic B to patients treated in Polyclinic C, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 periodontology clinic of University of Malaya is the same
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Abdullah, N.S., Radzali, N.F.M., Saub, R., R.D. Vaithilingam,
    Ann Dent, 2013;20(2):16-23.
    MyJurnal
    To assess the oral health related quality of life
    (OHQoL) of a selected population of Malaysian adults and to compare the OHQoL by periodontal status. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study comprises a convenient sampling of fifty subjects from the Primary Care Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. OHQoL was assessed using the Malaysian version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Basic periodontal examination (BPE) was performed on all subjects to determine their periodontal status. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed.
    Results: Psychological discomfort, physical pain and psychological disability domains were the most affected dimensions in this population. Subjects with income levels >RM2,500 had higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those from other income levels (p0.05).
    Conclusion: Subjects with high income levels had high impacts on their OHQoL. Those with periodontitis experienced higher impacts on their OHQoL as compared to those who had a healthy periodontium or gingivitis and affected a wide range of domains of quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Mah GK, Yeo A
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1990 May;19(3):339-43.
    PMID: 2144101
    Blood samples from 1,600 persons who sought immunisation against hepatitis B in private clinics in Singapore in 1988-1989 were screened for two viral markers. Of that total, 4.81% were positive for HBsAg and 17.31% had anti-HBs levels greater than 10 mIU/ml, indicating that about 22.12% of the general population would not benefit from immunisation. Preimmunisation screening will identify persons not requiring the hepatitis B vaccine and thus, avoid wastage. When immunisation has already been performed without screening, recall for post-immunisation screening should be considered in order to detect the infectious hepatitis B carriers. Data in this study indicates that at this point in time, it is important to immunise adolescents and adults, in addition to neonates and children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Alshagga MA, Al-Dubai SA, Muhamad Faiq SS, Yusuf AA
    Ann Thorac Med, 2011 Jul;6(3):115-9.
    PMID: 21760841 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.82438
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the knowledge about asthma and the prevalence, disclosure and evaluation of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among asthmatic patients.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 patients diagnosed with asthma in a primary healthcare centre in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire.
    RESULTS: Ninety-five patients with a mean age of 47.06 years (±12.8) participated, the majority were female (66.7%), Malay (72.6%). The prevalence of ever-CAM use was 61.1%. The non-ever-CAM users' mean age was 51±13.9 years while the ever-CAM users' mean age was 44.5 ±11.5 years (P = 0.021). Sixty-three females (66.8%) used CAM compared to 14 males (43.8%) (P = 0.014). Thirty-six (62.1%) CAM users had not discussed use of CAM with their doctors. The main reason of non-disclosure was the doctor never asked (55.6%), and the main sources of information about CAM were family and relatives (46.6%). There was no significant difference between use of CAM and knowledge about asthma. The majority of asthmatic patients used rubs (39%), foods (16.9%) and herbs (16.9%). About 76% of asthmatic patients perceived CAM as good for their disease management. On linear multiple regression, Malay race (P = 0.026) and female gender (P = 0.006) were significant predictors of CAM use.
    CONCLUSION: Use of CAM among asthmatic patients is relatively high, particularly among females. The majority of asthmatic patients valued the use of CAM. Non-disclosure was high in this study. Health education of asthmatic patients about CAM is highly recommended.
    KEYWORDS: Asthma; Malaysia; complementary and alternative medicine; disclosure
    Study site: Primary care clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Nur Eliana Ahmad Tarmizi, Periasamy, Chenthilnathan, Singh, Avatar Singh Mohan, Irfan Mohamad
    Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2017;12(2):114-117.
    MyJurnal
    (DENTAL)

    Foreign bodies (FB) are most often lodged in the upper digestive tract and amongst the common encounter in outpatient clinic. In most instances, the ingested FB passes uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract without any harm but in certain cases, it can migrate extraluminally and lead to serious complication. Long standing migrated FB can cause devastating complications like neck abscess and injuries to the major blood vessels. In the present case, a wooden toothpick had migrated to the soft tissue of the neck. A careful and detailed history with clinical-radiographic investigation helped to locate the ingested FB and aided in its successful removal.

    Study site: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hospital Taiping, Perak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Zain AM, Mohammad AJ, Lye MS
    Arch Med Sci, 2016 Oct 1;12(5):1043-1051.
    PMID: 27695496
    INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
    KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Abdul Kadir A, Nordin R, Ismail SB, Yaacob MJ, Wan Mustapha WMR
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2004;3(1&2):9-18.
    Aim. Validation of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
    Methods. A validation study was done involving 52 mothers who were at 4-12 weeks post-delivery. The women completed the Malay versions of EPDS and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). They were then assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS). Psychiatric diagnoses were made based on ICD-10 criteria. The validity of EPDS was tested against this clinical diagnosis and the concurrent validity against the Malay version of 30-item GHQ and HDRS scores was also evaluated.
    Results. The best cut-off score of the Malay version of EPDS was 11.5 with the sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 92.6 %.
    Conclusion. The Malay version of EPDS is a valid and reliable screening tool for PND.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Lee PY, Abang Taha AB, Lin K, Ghazali SR, Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor SH
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2007;6(1).
    Aims: To evaluate the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients who attended three randomly selected primary care clinics over 4 months from January to April 2004. Results: A total of 198 patients were recruited. One hundred and eighty-one (91.4%) patients agreed to participate by answering the anonymous questionnaire. Results: Ninety (51.4%) patients used CAM of which 43 (47.8%) patients used more than one type of CAM. Utilization rates of CAM were found to be associated with employment status but not with other socio-demographic factors. The common types of alternative medicine used were massage (n = 63; 36.2%) and herbal medicine (n = 44; 25.1%). Forty-two (46%) of the CAM users, used CAM for the problems that led to their current clinic visit. Thirty-four (37.8%) were using alternative and modern medicine at the same time. The reasons for CAM usage given by about half of the patients were that CAM was more effective and better for emotional or mental health problems. Conclusions: Usage of CAM was common in patients who visited primary care clinics. It is important to recognize this fact as combined use of CAM can create potentially dangerous interactions with pharmacotherapies Key words: complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), primary care
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Teng CL, Mohd Jamin Z, Mohd Kamaruddin NI, Idris SA
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(1):23-26.
    Aim: This study explored the health beliefs, concerns and expectations of primary care patients presenting with abdominal pain, headache and chest pain. Methods: Over a 6-week period, 107 adult patients with symptoms of pain were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. Results: The presenting symptoms of these patients were: abdominal pain, 41; headache, 35; and chest pain, 31. Females made up 53.3%; the ethnic groups were Malay (35.5%), Chinese (18.7%) and Indian (45.8%); and 71.8% of the patients had primary or secondary education. The patients' attributions of their symptoms were predominantly non-medical in all three ethnic groups. The non-medical causes mentioned include food, trauma, stress, weather changes and winds ('angin'). Only two fifths of the patients mentioned disease-specific concerns. Three quarters of these patients expected either medications or wanted the doctor to look for serious causes. Very few patients specifically wanted referral or special tests. Conclusions: The patients in the study had health beliefs and concerns, in view of their non-medical focus, that was at variance with those of the health care providers. However, having decided to consult the health clinic, they were mainly looking for symptomatic relief or evaluation for serious pathology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  19. Othman S, Chia YC, Ng CJ
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(4):206-212.
    Aim: To determine the accuracy of urinalysis in the detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in symptomatic patients at primary care level. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken on 100 patients with symptoms of UTI presenting at the Primary Care Clinic of University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during the months of August to November 1999. Their urine samples were tested simultaneously using urine dipstick, urine microscopy and urine culture. Urine culture was used as the gold standard and UTI was diagnosed when the urine culture showed a bacteria count of >= 105 organisms per mL. The sensitivity and specificity of each test was calculated. Results: The prevalence of UTI was 25% in symptomatic patients. The urine dipstick for leukocyte esterase, nitrite and red blood cell had sensitivities of 76, 56 and 76%, respectively. Their specificities were 60, 81 and 61%, respectively. Urine microscopy for leukocytes, red blood cells and bacterial count had sensitivities of 80, 52 and 84%, while their specificities were 76, 80 and 54%, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of UTI in the present study was low despite reported symptoms of UTI. Urinalysis is needed to support the diagnosis of UTI. In the present study, while there is accuracy in the urinalysis (as the sensitivities and specificities of various tests are comparable with other studies); lack of precision in each test because of the wide range of 95% confidence interval make it less reliable. Caution should be made in interpreting each test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Hanafi NS, Teng CL, Yasin S
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(1):10-15.
    Aim: To assess the importance of continuity of care among diabetic patients attending a primary care clinic and to correlate degree of continuity of care with diabetic control. Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among diabetic patients (n = 166) attending follow-up consultations in a family practice clinic of a teaching hospital. Face-to-face interviews were carried out on patients' perception of continuity of care and various aspects related to diabetes. Diabetic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin. Retrospective chart audits of each patient over the previous 28 months were done to assess the degree of continuity of care, measured with the Usual Provider Continuity Index (UPCI). Results: The UPCI ranged from 0.18 to 1.00 with a mean value of 0.60. The average number of visits per patient over the 28-month period was 11.7 visits. The majority of patients saw five different doctors for all their visits. There were no statistically significant associations between the degree of provider continuity with diabetic control (r = 0.054) and diabetic self-care behavior (r = 0.065). The majority of patients (89%) felt that it was important to have a regular doctor. The main reason given was that a regular doctor would know the patient's problems. Conclusions: Continuity of care was highly valued by diabetic patients attending a hospital-based family practice clinic. Even though the degree of continuity was not associated with the degree of diabetic control, patients felt that it was important to have doctors who are aware of their problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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