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  1. Azratul-Hizayu T, Chen CD, Lau KW, Azrizal-Wahid N, Tan TK, Lim YAL, et al.
    Parasitol Int, 2022 Feb;86:102483.
    PMID: 34678492 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2021.102483
    This study examines the biological efficacy of four mosquito mat vaporizers each containing different active ingredients: prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin, and d-allethrin. The glass chamber assay was used to evaluate their efficacy on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) from nine districts in Selangor, Malaysia. Aedes albopictus exhibited different knockdown rates, with 50% knockdown times, KT50, varying from 1.19 to 2.00 min, 1.22 to 2.20 min, 1.39 to 5.85 min, and 1.39 to 1.92 min for prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin and d-allethrin, respectively. In general, all populations of Ae. albopictus were completely knocked down after exposure to all active ingredients except Hulu Selangor population, which showed 96.00% knockdown against d-allethrin. On the contrary, mortality rates were observed from 84.00-100.00%, 84.00-100.00%, 90.67-100.00% and 90.67-100.00% in populations tested with prallethrin with PBO, dimefluthrin, prallethrin and d-allethrin, respectively. Moreover, significant correlations between mortality rates of prallethrin with PBO vs dimefluthrin (r = 0.836, P = 0.003), prallethrin with PBO vs prallethrin (r = 0.760, P = 0.011), and prallethrin vs d-allethrin (r = 0.694, P = 0.026) were also observed, suggesting cross-resistance among pyrethroids. d-allethrin was found to be high in insecticidal activity, followed by prallethrin, prallethrin with PBO, and dimefluthrin. In consistent with mortality due to insecticide exposure, elevated levels of enzyme activities were also demonstrated in Sabak Bernam, Hulu Selangor, Gombak, Petaling, Hulu Langat and Klang populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  2. Ling AJW, Chang LS, Babji AS, Latip J, Koketsu M, Lim SJ
    Food Chem, 2022 Jan 15;367:130755.
    PMID: 34390910 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130755
    Sialic acids are a group of nine-carbon α-keto acids. Sialic acid exists in more than 50 forms, with the natural types discovered as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), deaminoneuraminic acid (2-keto-3-deoxy-nonulononic acid or Kdn), and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Sialic acid level varies depending on the source, where edible bird's nest (EBN), predominantly Neu5Ac, is among the major sources of sialic acid. Due to its high nutritive value and complexity, sialic acid has been studied extensively through acid, aqueous, and enzymatic extraction. Although detection by chromatographic methods or mass spectrometry is common, the isolation and recovery work remained limited. Sialic acid is well-recognised for its bioactivities, including brain and cognition development, immune-enhancing, anti-hypertensive, anticancer, and skin whitening properties. Therefore, sialic acid can be used as a functional ingredient in the various industries. This paper reviews the current trend in the biochemistry, sources, extraction, and functions of sialic acids with special reference to EBN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  3. Wu Y, Wang K, Liu Q, Liu X, Mou B, Lai OM, et al.
    Food Chem, 2022 Jan 15;367:130700.
    PMID: 34352694 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130700
    Present study prepared curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes using bovine milk, krill phospholipids and cholesterol; and investigated the effects of cholesterol on membrane characteristics, storage stability and antibacterial properties of the curcumin nanoliposomes. Bovine milk phospholipids which have higher saturation than krill phospholipids resulted in formation of curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (84.78%), larger absolute value of zeta potential and vesicle size (size: 159.15 ± 5.27 nm, zeta potential: -28.3 ± 0.62 mV). Cholesterol helps to formation of a more hydrophobic, compact and tighter bilayer membrane structure which improved the storage stability of nanoliposomes under alkaline (66.25 ± 0.46%), heat (43.25 ± 0.69%) and sunlight (49.44 ± 1.78%) conditions. In addition, curcumin-loaded nanoliposomes can effectively target infectious bacteria which secrete pore-forming toxins such as Staphylococcus aureus by causing the bacterial cell wall to lysis. Findings from present work can guide future development of novel antibacterial agents for use in food preservation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  4. Mudgil P, Baba WN, Kamal H, FitzGerald RJ, Hassan HM, Ayoub MA, et al.
    Food Chem, 2022 Jan 15;367:130661.
    PMID: 34348197 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130661
    Cow (CwC) and camel casein (CaC) hydrolysates were generated using Alcalase™ (CwCA and CaCA) and Pronase-E (CwCP and CaCP) each for 3 and 6 h, and investigated for their potential to inhibit key lipid digesting enzymes i.e., pancreatic lipase (PL) and cholesteryl esterase (CE). Results revealed stronger PL and CE inhibition by CaC hydrolysates compared to CwC. Potent hydrolysates (CwCP-3 h and CaCA-6 h) upon simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) showed significant improvement in inhibition of both PL and CE. However, both the SGID hydrolysates showed similar extent of PL and CE inhibition and were further sequenced for peptide identification. Peptides MMML, FDML, HLPGRG from CwC and AAGF, MSNYF, FLWPEYGAL from CaC hydrolysates were predicted to be most active PL inhibitory peptides. Peptide LP found in both CwC and CaC hydrolysates was predicted as active CE inhibitor. Thus, CwC and CaC could be potential source of peptides with promising CE and PL inhibitory properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  5. Semail NF, Abdul Keyon AS, Saad B, Kamaruzaman S, Mohamad Zain NN, Lim V, et al.
    Talanta, 2022 Jan 01;236:122833.
    PMID: 34635223 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122833
    A dynamic pH junction was used in capillary electrophoresis (CE-DAD) to on-line preconcentrate, separate, and determine trace amounts of sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) in milk and yoghurt samples in this study. A sample matrix with 0.15% acetic acid and 10% methanol (MeOH) at a pH of 4.0, and a background electrolyte (BGE) that contained 35 mM sodium citrate with 10% MeOH at a pH of 8.5, and an acidic barrage of 0.4% acetic acid with 10% MeOH at a pH of 2.5 were utilised to achieve a stacking effect for SAs through a dynamic pH junction. Under optimised conditions, the proposed preconcentration method showed good linearity (30-500 ng/mL, r2 ≥ 0.9940), low limits of detection (LODs) of 4.1-6.3 ng/mL, and acceptable analytes recovery (81.2-106.9%) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) within 5.3-13.7 (n = 9). The limits of quantification (LOQs) were below the maximum residue limit approved by the European Union (EU) in this type of matrices. Sensitivity enhancement factors of up to 129 were reached with the optimised dynamic pH junction using CE with a diode array detector (DAD). The method was used to determine SAs in fresh milk, low-fat milk, full-cream milk, and yoghurt samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  6. Takaoka H, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Low VL, Ya'cob Z
    Acta Trop, 2022 Jan;225:106207.
    PMID: 34687650 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106207
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) omutaense Ogata & Sasa, 1954 is the only named species in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein recorded from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. It represents the northernmost distribution of this species-group, of which most members are distributed in the Oriental region. This species, the only member of the Simulium omutaense subgroup, is unique among the seven subgroups of the S. batoense species-group by having the pupal gill with one long filament and seven short filaments, similar to the arrangement of the pupal gill filaments in the S. zonatum subgroup of the S. epistum species-group in the same subgenus. This species is fully redescribed based on adults, pupal exuviae and mature larvae, and is most similar to species of the S. decuplum subgroup, based on adult morphological characteristics, although the pupal gill of the latter subgroup is markedly different by having 10 or 12 short filaments. Its close relationship to the S. decuplum subgroup is supported by a DNA analysis using COI gene sequences, with genetic distances of 9.30-11.02%. On the other hand, genetic distances between S. (G.) omutaense and species of the S. zonatum subgroup were 16.32-16.93%. Our study shows that a similar arrangement of the pupal gills in two different species-groups, which is rarely seen, has evolved independently and its occurrence does not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  7. Chen K, Ng KH, Cheng CK, Cheng YW, Chong CC, Vo DN, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 2):132222.
    PMID: 34826917 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132222
    Biomass, which defined as plant- or animal-based materials, is intriguing tremendous scientific attentions due to its renewable attribute in serving energy security. Amongst, the plant-based biomasses, particularly those that co-generated in the agriculture activities, are commonly regarded as fuel for burning, which overlooked their hidden potentials for high-end applications. Organically, the plant-based biomass constitutes of lignocellulose components, which can be served as promising precursors for functionalized carbon materials. Meanwhile, its inorganic counterpart made up of various minerals, with Si being the most concerned one. With the advancement of biomass technologies and material synthesis in recent years, numerous attempts were endeavoured to obtain valorised products from biomass. Particularly, syntheses of catalytic and adsorptive materials are actively researched in the field of biomass reutilization. Herein, our work systematically summarized the advancements of biomass-materials for these applications in recent 10 years (2010-2020), with a special focus on the carbon-based and Si-based catalytic/adsorptive materials. Significantly, the deriving steps, inclusive of both pre-treatment and post-treatment of such materials, are incorporated in the discussion, alongside with their significances revealed too. The performance of the as-obtained materials in the respective application is systematically correlated to their physicochemical properties, hence providing valuable insights to the readers. Challenges and promising directions to be explored are raised too at the end of the review, aiming to advocate better-usage of biomass while offering great opportunities to sustain catalysis and adsorption in the industrial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  8. Dai C, Li S, Duan Y, Leong KH, Tu Y, Zhou L
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Dec 20;801:149730.
    PMID: 34467938 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149730
    Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment have raised wide attention in recent years due to their potential adverse effects and bioaccumulation in biota. China has been a major producer and consumer of pharmaceuticals, however, the potential human health risk of these chemicals is yet to be determined in China. In this study, we evaluated available exposure data for twenty pharmaceuticals in surface waters from Chinese five major river basins (the Yangtze, Haihe, Pearl, Songliao, and Yellow River Basins), and human health risk assessment was performed. Based on the concentration data and risk data, we conducted research on the source, cause, and control measures of the pharmaceuticals. The twenty pharmaceuticals were found to be ubiquitous in China with median concentrations between 0.09 and 304 ng/L. The estimated daily intake of pharmaceuticals from drinking water and eating fish was calculated. The intake via drinking water was significantly lower than that via eating fish. The risk quotients via water intake and fish consumption ranged from 0 to 17.2, with estrogen and sulfapyridine highest among the twenty pharmaceuticals. High risks of exposure were mainly in North China, including the Haihe and Songliao River Basins. This is the first analysis in Chinese major river basins that has filled the gaps in the research on the human health risks of pharmaceuticals. The results of the study provide basic information of pharmaceutical intake from drinking water and eating fish in China and provide insights into the risk management guidance of pharmaceuticals, and will facilitate the optimization of health advisories and policy making.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  9. Velayutham M, Guru A, Arasu MV, Al-Dhabi NA, Choi KC, Elumalai P, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Dec 10;342:79-91.
    PMID: 34751134 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.10.010
    GR15 is a short molecule or peptide composed of aliphatic amino acids and possesses to have antioxidant properties. The GR15, 1GGGAFSGKDPTKVDR15 was identified from the protein S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAMe) expressed during the sulfur departed state of Arthrospira platensis (spirulina or cyanobacteria). The in-silico assessment and the structural features of GR15 showed its antioxidant potency. Real-time PCR analysis found the up-regulation of ApSAMe expression on day 15 against oxidative stress due to 10 mM H2O2 treatment in A. platensis (Ap). The antioxidant activity of GR15 was accessed by the cell-free antioxidant assays such as ABTS, SARS, HRAS and NO; the results showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The toxicity assay was performed in both in vitro and in vivo models, in which peptide does not exhibit any toxicity in MDCK cell and zebrafish embryos. The intercellular ROS reduction potential of GR15 peptide was also investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models including LDH assay, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), and fluorescent staining assay (DCFDA, Hochest and Acridine orange sting) was performed; the results showed that the GR15 peptide was effectively reduced the ROS level. Further, RT-PCR demonstrated that GR15 enhanced the antioxidant property and also up-regulated the antioxidant gene, thus reduced the ROS level in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on the results obtained from this study, we propose that GR15 has the potential antioxidant ability; hence further research can be directed towards the therapeutic product or drug development against disease caused by oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  10. Chia WY, Kok H, Chew KW, Low SS, Show PL
    Bioengineered, 2021 12;12(1):1226-1237.
    PMID: 33858291 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2021.1910432
    The world at large is facing a new threat with the emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Though imperceptible by the naked eye, the medical, sociological and economical implications caused by this newly discovered virus have been and will continue to be a great impediment to our lives. This health threat has already caused over two million deaths worldwide in the span of a year and its mortality rate is projected to continue rising. In this review, the potential of algae in combating the spread of COVID-19 is investigated since algal compounds have been tested against viruses and algal anti-inflammatory compounds have the potential to treat the severe symptoms of COVID-19. The possible utilization of algae in producing value-added products such as serological test kits, vaccines, and supplements that would either mitigate or hinder the continued health risks caused by the virus is prominent. Many of the characteristics in algae can provide insights on the development of microalgae to fight against SARS-CoV-2 or other viruses and contribute in manufacturing various green and high-value products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  11. Loh ZH, Kwong HC, Lam KW, Teh SS, Ee GCL, Quah CK, et al.
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2021 Dec;36(1):627-639.
    PMID: 33557647 DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2021.1882452
    A new series of 3-O-substituted xanthone derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their anti-cholinergic activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The results indicated that the xanthone derivatives possessed good AChE inhibitory activity with eleven of them (5, 8, 11, 17, 19, 21-23, 26-28) exhibited significant effects with the IC50 values ranged 0.88 to 1.28 µM. The AChE enzyme kinetic study of 3-(4-phenylbutoxy)-9H-xanthen-9-one (23) and ethyl 2-((9-oxo-9H-xanthen-3-yl)oxy)acetate (28) showed a mixed inhibition mechanism. Molecular docking study showed that 23 binds to the active site of AChE and interacts via extensive π-π stacking with the indole and phenol side chains of Trp86 and Tyr337, besides the hydrogen bonding with the hydration site and π-π interaction with the phenol side chain of Y72. This study revealed that 3-O-alkoxyl substituted xanthone derivatives are potential lead structures, especially 23 and 28 which can be further developed into potent AChE inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  12. Mazlan M, Khairani-Bejo S, Hamzah H, Nasruddin NS, Salleh A, Zamri-Saad M
    Vet Q, 2021 Dec;41(1):36-49.
    PMID: 33349157 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2020.1867328
    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis of goats is caused by Brucella melitensis. It is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in many countries due to transmission from domestic animals and wildlife such as ibex, deer and wild buffaloes.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathological changes, identification and distribution of B. melitensis in foetuses of experimentally infected does.

    METHODS: Twelve female goats of approximately 90 days pregnant were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 was exposed intra-conjunctival to 100 µL of sterile PBS while goats of Groups 2, 3 and 4 were similarly exposed to 100 µL of an inoculum containing 109 CFU/mL of live B. melitensis. Goats of these groups were killed at 15, 30 and 60 days post-inoculation, respectively. Foetal fluid and tissues were collected for bacterial identification (using direct bacterial culture, PCR and immuno-peroxidase staining) and histopathological examination.

    RESULTS: Bilateral intra-conjunctival exposure of pregnant does resulted in in-utero infection of the foetuses. All full-term foetuses of group 4 were either aborted or stillborn, showing petechiations of the skin or absence of hair coat with subcutaneous oedema. The internal organs showed most severe lesions. Immune-peroxidase staining revealed antigen distribution in all organs that became most extensive in group 4. Brucella melitensis was successfully isolated from the stomach content, foetal fluid and various other organs.

    CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission of caprine brucellosis was evident causing mild to moderate lesions in different organs. The samples of choice for isolation and identification of B. melitensis are stomach content as well as liver and spleen tissue.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  13. Zabidi NA, Ishak NA, Hamid M, Ashari SE, Mohammad Latif MA
    J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2021 Dec;36(1):109-121.
    PMID: 33249946 DOI: 10.1080/14756366.2020.1844680
    The inhibition of α-glucosidase and DPP enzymes capable of effectively reducing blood glucose level in the management of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory potential of α-glucosidase and DPP (IV) activity including with the 2-NBDG uptake assay and insulin secretion activities through in vitro studies. The selected of active compounds obtained from the screening of compounds by LC-MS were docked with the targeted enzyme that involved in the mechanism of T2DM. From the results, root extracts displayed a better promising outcome in α-glucosidase (IC50 2.72 ± 0.32) as compared with the fruit extracts (IC50 3.87 ± 0.32). Besides, root extracts also displayed a better activity in the inhibition of DPP (IV), enhance insulin secretion and glucose uptake activity. Molecular docking results revealing that phlorizin binds strongly with α-glucosidase, DPP (IV) and Insulin receptor (IR) enzymes with achieving the lowest binding energy value. The present work suggests several of the compounds have the potential that contribute towards inhibiting α-glucosidase and DPP (IV) and thus effective in lowering post-prandial hyperglycaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  14. Samsulrizal N, Goh YM, Ahmad H, Md Dom S, Azmi NS, NoorMohamad Zin NS, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2021 Dec;59(1):66-73.
    PMID: 33399485 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2020.1865411
    CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of bone diseases including osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. We have previously demonstrated that Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae) is capable of reducing hyperglycaemia. However, whether F. deltoidea could protect against diabetic osteoporosis remains to be determined.

    OBJECTIVE: The study examines the effect of F. deltoidea on bone histomorphometric parameters, oxidative stress, and turnover markers in diabetic rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 animals per group) received one of the following treatments via gavage for 8 weeks: saline (diabetic control), metformin (1000 mg/kg bwt), and methanol leaves extract of F. deltoidea (1000 mg/kg bwt). A group of healthy rats served as normal control. The femoral bones were excised and scanned ex vivo using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) for histomorphometric analysis. The serum levels of insulin, oxidative stress, and bone turnover markers were determined by ELISA assays.

    RESULTS: Treatment of diabetic rats with F. deltoidea could significantly increase bone mineral density (BMD) (from 526.98 ± 11.87 to 637.74 ± 3.90). Higher levels of insulin (2.41 ± 0.08 vs. 1.58 ± 0.16), osteocalcin (155.66 ± 4.11 vs. 14.35 ± 0.97), and total bone n-3 PUFA (2.34 ± 0.47 vs. 1.44 ± 0.18) in parallel with the presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy were also observed following F. deltoidea treatment compared to diabetic control.

    CONCLUSIONS: F. deltoidea could prevent diabetic osteoporosis by enhancing osteogenesis and inhibiting bone oxidative stress. These findings support the potential use of F. deltoidea for osteoporosis therapy in diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  15. Mou B, Liu Y, Yang W, Song S, Shen C, Lai OM, et al.
    Food Chem, 2021 Dec 01;364:130426.
    PMID: 34175616 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130426
    Present work investigated the effects of processing (homogenization, sterilization) and cold storage on physicochemical properties, in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cellular uptake of bovine milk. Extreme heat sterilization and low temperature storage have significant impact on particle size and phospholipidome of bovine milk. In addition, cold storage of bovine milks led to formation of β' polymorphs crystals and endothermic peak with Toffset higher than body temperature. Processing and cold storage also increased the initial digestibility but reduced the overall digestibility of bovine milk. This might be related to the decreased particle size of the milk fat globules, changed in the phospholipidome of the MFGM and formation of β' polymorphs crystals in frozen milk. It is interesting to note that PE has relatively faster digestion meanwhile SM has relatively slower digestion. HTST milk which demonstrated lesser changed in terms of phospholipidome demonstrated highest cellular uptakes of most fatty acids.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  16. Bradosty SW, Hamad SW, Agha NFS, Shaikh FK, Qadir Nanakali NM, Aziz PY, et al.
    Environ Toxicol, 2021 Dec;36(12):2404-2413.
    PMID: 34436826 DOI: 10.1002/tox.23353
    Morinda elliptica L. (Rubiaceae) is a phytomedicinal herb, used to treat gastrointestinal complications in Peninsular Malaysia. The study evaluates the in vivo hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of M. elliptica stem in thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver fibrosis in male Sprague Drawly rats. Thirty adult rats were divided into five groups of six rats each. Rats of the normal control group received intraperitoneal injections (i. p.) of vehicle 10% Tween-20, 5 ml/kg, and hepatotoxic group 200 mg/kg TAA three times per week respectively. Three supplementary groups were treated with TAA plus daily oral silymarin (50 mg/kg) or M. elliptica (250 or 500 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, all rats were sacrificed. Liver fibrosis was assessed by gross macroscopic and microscopic tissue analysis, histopathological, and biochemical analysis. The livers of the TAA treated group showed uniform coarse granules, hepatocytic necrosis with lymphocytes infiltration. Contrary, the livers of M. elliptica treated groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) were much smoother and the cell damage was much lesser. The livers of M. elliptica treated groups rats showed elevated activity of SOD and CAT with a significant decrease in MDA level at p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  17. Tsai MH, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Yazid F
    Arch Oral Biol, 2021 Dec;132:105278.
    PMID: 34634537 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2021.105278
    OBJECTIVE: The optimal timing of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) could allow earlier tooth movements across alveolar bone defects while minimizing the adverse effects. The objective of this scoping systematic review was therefore designed to review pre-clinical animal studies on the ideal protocol for the timing of orthodontic traction across alveolar defects augmented with synthetic scaffolds.

    DESIGN: Following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, three electronic databases were searched (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science).

    RESULTS: A total of twelve studies were included in the final review that reported on small-animal (rats, guinea pigs, rabbits) and large-animal (dogs and goats) models. Based on the grafting biomaterials, eight papers used cell-free scaffolds, four articles utilised cell-based scaffolds. The timing protocol for the initiation of OTM employed in the studies ranged from immediate to 6 months after surgical grafting. Only four studies included autologous bone graft (gold standard) as positive control. Most papers reported positive results with regards to the rate of OTM and bone augmentation effects while only a few reported side effects such as root resorptions. Overall, the included articles showed a massive heterogeneity in terms of the animal bone defect model characteristics, scaffold materials, study designs, parameters of OTM and methods of analysis.

    CONCLUSION: Since there was inadequate evidence to identify the optimal protocol of OTM, optimization of animal bone defect models and outcome measurements is needed to improve the translational ability of future studies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  18. Devasvaran K, Lim V
    Pharm Biol, 2021 Dec;59(1):494-503.
    PMID: 33905665 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2021.1910716
    CONTEXT: Pectin is a plant heteropolysaccharide that is biocompatible and biodegradable, enabling it to be an excellent reducing agent (green synthesis) for metallic nanoparticles (MNPs). Nevertheless, in the biological industry, pectin has been left behind in synthesising MNPs, for no known reason.

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the biological activities of pectin synthesised MNPs (Pe-MNPs).

    METHODS: The databases Springer Link, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, PubMed, Mendeley, and ResearchGate were systematically searched from the date of their inception until 10th February 2020. Pectin, green synthesis, metallic nanoparticles, reducing agent and biological activities were among the key terms searched. The data extraction was focussed on the biological activities of Pe-MNPs and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations for systematic reviews.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 studies outlined 7 biological activities of Pe-MNPs in the only three metals that have been explored, namely silver (Ag), gold (Au) and cerium oxide (CeO2). The activities reported from the in vitro and in vivo studies were antimicrobial (9 studies), anticancer (2 studies), drug carrier (3 studies), non-toxic (4 studies), antioxidant (2 studies), wound healing (1 study) and anti-inflammation (1 study).

    CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review demonstrates the current state of the art of Pe-MNPs biological activities, suggesting that Ag and Au have potent antibacterial and anticancer/chemotherapeutic drug carrier activity, respectively. Further in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research is crucial for a better understanding of the pharmacological potential of pectin synthesised MNPs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  19. Heo CC, Teel PD, OConnor BM, Tomberlin JK
    Exp Appl Acarol, 2021 Dec;85(2-4):223-246.
    PMID: 34762225 DOI: 10.1007/s10493-021-00676-6
    Acari community structure and function associated with delayed pig carrion decomposition has not been examined. In this study, 18 swine carcasses were studied in central Texas, USA, during two consecutive summers (2013 and 2014). Samples of ca. 400 g soil were collected from beneath, aside, and 5 m away from each pig carcass over 180 days. Mites from soil samples were extracted using Berlese funnels and identified to order and family levels and classified according to ecological function. In total 1565 and 1740 mites were identified from the 2013 and 2014 soil samples, respectively. Significant differences were determined for mite community structure at order and family levels temporally on carrion (e.g., day 0 × day 14) regardless of treatments and between soil regions where mites were collected (e.g., soil beneath vs. soil 5 m away from carrion). However, no significant differences were found in mite community structure at the order level between pig carrion with and without delayed Diptera colonization (i.e., treatments). Analysis at the family level determined a significant difference across treatments for both summers. Ecological function of mites did not change significantly following the delayed decomposition of pig carcasses. However, detritivores and fungivores were significant indicator groups during the pig carrion decomposition process. Furthermore, 13 phoretic mite species associated with eight forensically important beetle species were documented. Data from this study indicated that the rate of nutrient flow into the soil impacted associated arthropod communities; however, detecting such shifts depends on the taxonomic resolution being applied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  20. Shaari A, Yunus R, Raman IA, Omar D, Shahar MK, Awang Biak DR, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2021 Dec;224:106107.
    PMID: 34450061 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106107
    This study evaluates the efficacy of palm oil-based nanoemulsion insecticides in thermal fogging applications against adult Ae. aegypti. The nanoemulsion formulations contained a palm oil methyl ester solvent, water, a non-ionic surfactant, and active ingredient deltamethrin, with nanoemulsion droplet diameters ranging from 362 to 382 nm. Knockdown and mortality rates of caged mosquitoes were measured at various distances up to 18 m from the spray nozzle. After 15 min of insecticide exposure, nanoemulsion insecticides achieved a knockdown rate of >97% at a spraying distance of 4 m, and the knockdown effect increased substantially with exposure time. At an 18 m spraying distance, the best nanoemulsion formulation, NanoEW8, achieved a high mosquito mortality rate of more than 80%, whereas the non-nanoemulsion and the commercial product reached only 14 and 8 m distances, respectively, for comparable mortality. The artificial neural network (ANN) was used to predict the mosquito knockdown distribution over the spraying distances and time intervals. The models predicted that NanoEW8 can still cause knockdown at a maximum distance of 61.5 m from the discharge point 60 min after spraying. The results established that Ae. aegypti was susceptible to the newly developed palm oil-based nanoemulsion insecticide, indicating a high potential for mosquito control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
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