Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 15465 in total

  1. Noor Akmal Shareela, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2020;15(2):327-332.
    Sesi praktikal konvensional sebelum ini telah dilaporkan kurang berkesan dalam mencapai objektif pembelajaran. Oleh itu “Speedy Biochemistry” diperkenalkan untuk membantu pelajar mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang telah mereka pelajari di dalam kelas. Teknik ini memupuk semangat kerja berpasukan dan penerapan pengetahuan dalam penyelesaian masalah yang dapat dicapai melalui pembelajaran aktif. Pendekatan pembelajaran aktif telah kian diminati oleh para akademik kerana memberikan lebih banyak faedah kepada pelajar. Sesi “Speedy Biochemistry” telah dijalankan di kalangan pelajar perubatan Tahun 1 di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia dan maklum balas mereka telah direkodkan. “Speedy Biochemistry” boleh menjadi contoh sesi pembelajaran aktif yang baik dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar perubatan di dalam mata pelajaran Biokimia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  2. Harnentis H, Nurmiati N, Marlida Y, Adzitey F, Huda N
    Vet World, 2019 Aug;12(8):1352-1357.
    PMID: 31641319 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1352-1357
    Aim: This study aimed at optimizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of an Indonesian indigenous fermented buffalo milk (dadih) origin. This study utilized LAB previously cultured from dadih that has the ability to produce GABA.

    Materials and Methods: The study started with the identification of selected LAB by 16S rRNA, followed by optimization of GABA production by culture conditions using different initial pH, temperature, glutamate concentration, incubation time, carbon, and nitrogen sources. 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and analysis by phylogenetic were used to identify Lactobacillus plantarum (coded as N5) responsible for the production of GABA.

    Results: GABA production by high-performance liquid chromatography was highest at pH of 5.5, temperature of 36°C, glutamate concentration of 500 mM, and incubation time of 84 h. Peptone and glucose served as the nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, whereas GABA was produced at optimum fermentation condition of 211.169 mM.

    Conclusion: Production of GABA by L. plantarum N5 was influenced by initial pH of 5.5, glutamic acid concentration, nitrogen source, glucose as carbon source, and incubation temperature and time.

    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  3. Majid Shah S, Ullah F, Ayaz M, Sadiq A, Hussain S, Ali Shah AU, et al.
    Steroids, 2019 08;148:56-62.
    PMID: 31085212 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.05.001
    The current study was aimed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial potentials of β-sitosterol isolated from Ifloga spicata. The anti-leishmanial potential of β-sitosterol is well documented against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis but unexplored against Leishmania tropica. Structure of the compound was elucidated by FT-IR, mass spectrometry and multinuclear (1H and 13C) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was evaluated for its anti-leishmanial potentials against L. tropica KWH23 using in vitro anti-promastigote, DNA interaction, apoptosis, docking studies against leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors using MOE 2016 software. β-sitosterol exhibited significant activity against leishmania promastigotes with IC50 values of 9.2 ± 0.06 μg/mL. The standard drug glucantaime showed IC50 of 5.33 ± 0.07 µg/mL. Further mechanistic studies including DNA targeting and apoptosis induction via acridine orange assay exhibited promising anti-leishmanial potentials for β-sitosterol. Molecular docking with leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors displayed the binding scores of β-sitosterol with targets TR and GP63 were -7.659 and -6.966 respectively. The low binding energies -61.54 (for TR) and -33.24 (for GP63) indicate that it strongly bind to the active sites of target receptors. The results confirmed that β-sitosterol have considerable anti-leishmanial potentials and need further studies as potential natural anti-leishmanial agent against L. tropica.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  4. Gopal K, Nagarajan P, Jedy J, Raj AT, Gnanaselvi SK, Jahan P, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(6):e67098.
    PMID: 23826202 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067098
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common chronic degenerative disease characterized by progressive aortic dilation and rupture. The mechanisms underlying the role of α-tocopherol and β-carotene on AAA have not been comprehensively assessed. We investigated if α-tocopherol and β-carotene supplementation could attenuate AAA, and studied the underlying mechanisms utilized by the antioxidants to alleviate AAA. Four-months-old Apoe(-/-) mice were used in the induction of aneurysm by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), and were orally administered with α-tocopherol and β-carotene enriched diet for 60 days. Significant increase of LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides and circulating inflammatory cells was observed in the Ang II-treated animals, and gene expression studies showed that ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-12 were upregulated in the aorta of aneurysm-induced mice. Extensive plaques, aneurysm and diffusion of inflammatory cells into the tunica intima were also noticed. The size of aorta was significantly (P = 0.0002) increased (2.24±0.20 mm) in the aneurysm-induced animals as compared to control mice (1.17±0.06 mm). Interestingly, β-carotene dramatically controlled the diffusion of macrophages into the aortic tunica intima, and circulation. It also dissolved the formation of atheromatous plaque. Further, β-carotene significantly decreased the aortic diameter (1.33±0.12 mm) in the aneurysm-induced mice (β-carotene, P = 0.0002). It also downregulated ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, M-CSF, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-12, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ following treatment. Hence, dietary supplementation of β-carotene may have a protective function against Ang II-induced AAA by ameliorating macrophage recruitment in Apoe(-/-) mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  5. Syam S, Bustamam A, Abdullah R, Sukari MA, Hashim NM, Mohan S, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Apr 28;153(2):435-45.
    PMID: 24607509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.051
    The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Hence, this study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of β mangostin (βM), a major compound present in Garcinia mangostana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  6. Matsusaka K, Ishima Y, Maeda H, Kinoshita R, Ichimizu S, Taguchi K, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2019 11;108(11):3592-3598.
    PMID: 31288036 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2019.07.002
    Nanosize plasma proteins could be used as a biomimetic drug delivery system (DDS) for cancer treatment when loaded with anticancer drugs based on the fact that plasma proteins can serve as a source of nutrients for cancer cells. This prompted us to investigate the potential of α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for this role because it is a nanosize plasma protein and binds a variety of anticancer agents. Pharmacokinetic analyses indicated that AGP is distributed more extensively in tumor tissue than human serum albumin, which was already established as a cancer DDS carrier. AGP is possibly being incorporated into tumor cells via endocytosis pathways. Moreover, a synthetic AGP-derived peptide which possesses a high ability to form an α-helix, as deduced from the primary structure of AGP, was also taken up by the tumor cells. AGP loaded with anticancer agents, such as paclitaxel or nitric oxide, efficiently induced tumor cell death. These results suggest that AGP has the potential to be a novel DDS carrier for anticancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  7. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Kamalidehghan B, Ghaderian M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1629-47.
    PMID: 25302018 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66105
    Cratoxylum arborescens is an equatorial plant belonging to the family Guttiferae. In the current study, α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated and its cell death mechanism was studied. HCS was undertaken to detect the nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and the release of cytochrome c. An investigation for reactive oxygen species formation was conducted using fluorescent analysis. To determine the mechanism of cell death, human apoptosis proteome profiler assay was conducted. In addition, using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 proteins were also tested. Caspaces such as 3/7, 8, and 9 were assessed during treatment. Using HCS and Western blot, the contribution of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was investigated. AM had showed a selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells with no toxicity toward the normal cells even at 30 μg/mL, thereby indicating that AM has the attributes to induce cell death in tumor cells. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with AM prompted apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals. This regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, thereby causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The liberation of cytochrome c activated caspace-9, which, in turn, activated the downstream executioner caspace-3/7 with the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, thereby leading to apoptotic alterations. Increase of caspace 8 had showed the involvement of an extrinsic pathway. This type of apoptosis was suggested to occur through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and prevention of translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results revealed AM prompt apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 modulation with the contribution of caspaces. Moreover, ingestion of AM at (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that AM is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  8. Herdiana Y, Wathoni N, Shamsuddin S, Muchtaridi M
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 24;26(17).
    PMID: 34500560 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175119
    α-Mangostin (AMG) is a potent anticancer xanthone that was discovered in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). AMG possesses the highest opportunity for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic therapy. AMG inhibits every step in the process of carcinogenesis. AMG suppressed multiple breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation and apoptosis by decreasing the creation of cancerous compounds. Accumulating BC abnormalities and their associated molecular signaling pathways promotes novel treatment strategies. Chemotherapy is a commonly used treatment; due to the possibility of unpleasant side effects and multidrug resistance, there has been substantial progress in searching for alternative solutions, including the use of plant-derived natural chemicals. Due to the limitations of conventional cancer therapy, nanotechnology provides hope for effective and efficient cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanotechnology enables the delivery of nanoparticles and increased solubility of drugs and drug targeting, resulting in increased cytotoxicity and cell death during BC treatment. This review summarizes the progress and development of AMG's cytotoxicity and the mechanism of death BC cells. The combination of natural medicine and nanotechnology into a synergistic capital will provide various benefits. This information will aid in the development of AMG nanoparticle preparations and may open up new avenues for discovering an effective BC treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  9. Taher M, Mohamed Amiroudine MZ, Tengku Zakaria TM, Susanti D, Ichwan SJ, Kaderi MA, et al.
    PMID: 25873982 DOI: 10.1155/2015/740238
    Obesity has been often associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity is also accompanied by significant differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the activity of α-mangostin, a major xanthone component isolated from the stem bark of G. malaccensis, on glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells focusing on PPARγ, GLUT4, and leptin expressions. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation. Cells treated with 50 μM of α-mangostin reduced intracellular fat accumulation dose-dependently up to 44.4% relative to MDI-treated cells. Analyses of 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H] glucose uptake activity showed that α-mangostin significantly improved the glucose uptake (P < 0.05) with highest activity found at 25 μM. In addition, α-mangostin increased the amount of free fatty acids (FFA) released. The highest glycerol release level was observed at 50 μM of α-mangostin. qRT-PCR analysis showed reduced lipid accumulation via inhibition of PPARγ gene expression. Induction of glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by α-mangostin were accompanied by increasing mRNA expression of GLUT4 and leptin. These evidences propose that α-mangostin might be possible candidate for the effective management of obesity in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  10. Kaka A, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Yimer N, Khumran AM, Sarsaifi K, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2015 Feb;153:1-7.
    PMID: 25544152 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.12.001
    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing α-linolenic acid (ALA) into BioXcell(®) extender on post-cooling, post-thawed bovine spermatozoa and post thawed fatty acid composition. Twenty-four semen samples were collected from three bulls using an electro-ejaculator. Fresh semen samples were evaluated for general motility using computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA) whereas morphology and viability with eosin-nigrosin stain. Semen samples extended into BioXcell(®) were divided into five groups to which 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA were added, respectively. The treated samples were incubated at 37°C for 15 min for ALA uptake by sperm cells before being cooled for 2 h at 5°C. After evaluation, the cooled samples were packed into 0.25 ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h before thawing and evaluation for semen quality. Evaluation of cooled and frozen-thawed semen showed that the percentages of all the sperm parameters improved with 5 ng/ml ALA supplement. ALA was higher in all treated groups than control groups than control group. In conclusion, 5 ng/ml ALA supplemented into BioXcell(®) extender improved the cooled and frozen-thawed quality of bull spermatozoa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  11. Lim WF, Muniandi L, George E, Sathar J, Teh LK, Gan GG, et al.
    Blood Cells Mol. Dis., 2012 Jan 15;48(1):17-21.
    PMID: 22079025 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2011.10.002
    The alpha haemoglobin stabilising protein (AHSP) acts as a molecular chaperone for α-globin by stabilising nascent α-globin before transferring it to waiting free β-globin chains. Binding of AHSP to α-globin renders α-globin chemically inert whereby preventing it from precipitating and forming reactive oxygen species byproducts. The AHSP has been actively studied in the recent years, particularly in its relation to β-thalassaemia. Studies have shown that AHSP is a modifier in β-thalassaemia mice models. However, this relationship is less established in humans. Studies by some groups showed no correlation between the AHSP haplotypes and the severity of β-thalassaemia, whereas others have shown that certain AHSP haplotype could modify the phenotype of β-thalassaemia intermedia patients. We investigated the expression of AHSP in relation to selected demographic data, full blood count, HPLC results, HbE/β-thalassaemia genotype, Xmn-1 Gγ polymorphism, α-globin, β-globin and γ-globin expression. We found that AHSP expression was significantly correlated to mean cell haemoglobin level, HbF %, α-globin, β-globin and excess α-globin expression. We concluded that AHSP could be a secondary compensatory mechanism in red blood cells to counterbalance the excess α-globin chains in HbE/β-thalassaemia individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  12. Nafeesa K, Aziz-Ur-Rehman -, Abbasi MA, Siddiqui SZ, Rasool S, Ali Shah SA, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2019 Nov;32(6):2651-2658.
    PMID: 31969298
    A series of 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives bearing piperidine moiety has been introduced as new anti-diabetic drug candidates with least cytotoxicity. p-Chlorophenylsulfonyl chloride (1) and ethyl nipecotate (2) were the starting reagents that resulted into corresponding 3,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,4-triazole (6) through a series of steps. A series of electrophiles, 9a-e, were synthesized by reacting 4-bromobutyryl chloride (7) with differently substituted aromatic amines (8a-e) under basic aqueous medium. Target derivatives, 10a-e, were synthesized by the reaction of compound 6 with N-aryl-4-bromobutanamides (9a-e) in an aprotic solvent. Structures of all the derivatives were verified by spectroscopic analysis using IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS. Most of the derivatives revealed moderate to good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with reference to acarbose. The moderate hemolytic potential demonstrated least toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  13. Sidahmed HM, Abdelwahab SI, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Mohamed Elhassan Taha M, Hashim NM, et al.
    PMID: 23634169 DOI: 10.1155/2013/450840
    Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume is an Asian herbal medicine with versatile ethnobiological properties including treatment of gastric ulcer. This study evaluated the antiulcerogenic mechanism(s) of α -mangostin (AM) in a rat model of ulcer. AM is a prenylated xanthone derived through biologically guided fractionation of C. arborescens. Rats were orally pretreated with AM and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Following treatment, ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological and immunohistochemical analyses, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) were evaluated. The anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory effect, and antioxidant activity of AM were also investigated in vitro. AM (10 and 30 mg/kg) inhibited significantly (P < 0.05) ethanol-induced gastric lesions by 66.04% and 74.39 %, respectively. The compound induces the expression of Hsp70, restores GSH levels, decreases lipid peroxidation, and inhibits COX-2 activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AM showed an effective in vitro anti-H. pylori activity. The efficacy of the AM was accomplished safely without presenting any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the antioxidant properties and the potent anti-H. pylori, in addition to activation of Hsp70 protein, may contribute to the gastroprotective activity of α -mangostin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  14. Tiash S, Chowdhury EH
    J Drug Target, 2019 03;27(3):325-337.
    PMID: 30221549 DOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2018.1525388
    Chemotherapy, the commonly favoured approach to treat cancer is frequently associated with treatment failure and recurrence of disease as a result of development of multidrug resistance (MDR) with concomitant over-expression of drug efflux proteins on cancer cells. One of the most widely used drugs, doxorubicin (Dox) is a substrate of three different ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely, ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1, predominantly contributing to MDR phenotype in cancer. To silence these transporter-coding genes and thus enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Dox, pH-sensitive carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as a carrier system to co-deliver siRNAs against these genes and Dox in breast cancer cells and in a syngeneic breast cancer mouse model. siRNAs and Dox were complexed with NPs by incubation at 37 °C and used to treat cancer cell lines to check cell viability and caspase-mediated signal. 4T1 cells-induced breast cancer mouse model was used for treatment with the complex to confirm their action in tumour regression. Smaller (∼200 nm) and less polydisperse NPs that were taken up more effectively by tumour tissue could enhance Dox chemosensitivity, significantly reducing the tumour size in a very low dose of Dox (0.34 mg/kg), in contrast to the limited effect observed in breast cancer cell lines. The study thus proposes that simultaneous delivery of siRNAs against transporter genes and Dox with the help of CA NPs could be a potential therapeutic intervention in effectively treating MDR breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  15. Tekade RK, Maheshwari RG, Sharma PA, Tekade M, Chauhan AS
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(31):4614-36.
    PMID: 26486147
    siRNA technology presents a helpful means of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Advancement in the field includes enhanced attentiveness in the characterization of target and off-target effects employing suitable controls and gene expression microarrays. These will permit expansion in the measurement of single and multiple target combinations and also permit comprehensive efforts to understand mammalian cell processes. Another fact is that the delivery of siRNA requires the creation of a nanoparticulate vector with controlled structural geometry and surface modalities inside the targeted cells. On the other hand, dendrimers represent the class of carrier system where massive control over size, shape and physicochemical properties makes this delivery vector exceptional and favorable in genetic transfection applications. The siRNA therapeutics may be incorporated inside the geometry of the density controlled dendrimers with the option of engineering the structure to the specific needs of the genetic material and its indication. The existing reports on the siRNA carrying and deliverance potential of dendrimers clearly suggest the significance of this novel class of polymeric architecture and certainly elevate the futuristic use of this highly branched vector as genetic material delivery system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  16. Salama M, El-Desouky S, Alsayed A, El-Hussiny M, Magdy K, Fekry E, et al.
    Neurotox Res, 2019 May;35(4):987-992.
    PMID: 30362086 DOI: 10.1007/s12640-018-9974-3
    Tauopathy is a pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. It is characterized by abnormal aggregates of pathological phosphotau and somatodendritic redistribution. One suggested strategy for treating tauopathy is to stimulate autophagy, hence, getting rid of these pathological protein aggregates. One key controller of autophagy is mTOR. Since stimulation of mTOR leads to inhibition of autophagy, inhibitors of mTOR will cause stimulation of autophagy process. In this report, tauopathy was induced in mice using annonacin. Blocking of mTOR was achieved through stereotaxic injection of siRNA against mTOR. The behavioral and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed the development of tauopathy model as proven by deterioration of behavioral performance in open field test and significant tau aggregates in annonacin-treated mice. Blocking of mTOR revealed significant clearance of tau aggregates in the injected side; however, tau expression was not affected by mTOR blockage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  17. Warrier S, Marimuthu R, Sekhar S, Bhuvanalakshmi G, Arfuso F, Das AK, et al.
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2016 06;75:104-11.
    PMID: 27063405 DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.04.002
    The extracellular ligand, Wnt, and its receptors are involved in sign al transduction and play an important role in axis formation and neural development. In neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), a decrease of the intracellular Wnt effector, β-catenin, has been linked to amyloid-β-peptide-induced neurotoxicity. Despite this knowledge, targeting Wnt inhibitors as potential biomarkers has not been explored, and harnessing Wnt activators as therapeutic candidates remains largely not investigated. A wide acting family of Wnt mediators, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), has not been probed so far as molecular indicators of disease occurrence and progression of Alzheimer's. Unlike the effect of the Dickkopf (DKK) family of Wnt antagonists on AD, the sFRP molecules have a more pleiotropic impact on the Wnt signaling cascade and probably have a far-reaching involvement in neurodegeneration. The role of sFRPs has been poorly described in AD, and in this review, we analyze the present status of the role of sFRPs on neurodegeneration, their likely involvement, and potential implications in treatment modalities of AD. This information would provide valuable clues for the development of potential therapeutic targets for aberrant neurodegenerative disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  18. Thukral V, Varshney B, Ramly RB, Ponia SS, Mishra SK, Olsen CM, et al.
    Virus Genes, 2018 Apr;54(2):199-214.
    PMID: 29218433 DOI: 10.1007/s11262-017-1526-z
    The infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) is a piscine virus, a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. It encodes at least 10 proteins from eight negative-strand RNA segments. Since ISAV belongs to the same virus family as Influenza A virus, with similarities in protein functions, they may hence be characterised by analogy. Like NS1 protein of Influenza A virus, s8ORF2 of ISAV is implicated in interferon antagonism and RNA-binding functions. In this study, we investigated the role of s8ORF2 in RNAi suppression in a well-established Agrobacterium transient suppression assay in stably silenced transgenic Nicotiana xanthi. In addition, s8ORF2 was identified as a novel interactor with SsMov10, a key molecule responsible for RISC assembly and maturation in the RNAi pathway. This study thus sheds light on a novel route undertaken by viral proteins in promoting viral growth, using the host RNAi machinery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  19. Norhaida A, Suharni M, Liza Sharmini AT, Tuda J, Rahmah N
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2008 Mar;102(2):151-60.
    PMID: 18318937 DOI: 10.1179/136485908X252250
    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati, mainly relies on serological tests. Unfortunately, however, the specificities of most of the commercial tests that are available for the serodiagnosis of this disease are not very high and this may cause problems, especially in tropical countries where co-infections with other helminths are common. In an effort to develop a serological assay with improved specificity for the detection of Toxocara infection, an IgG(4)-ELISA based on a recombinant version (rTES-30USM) of the 30-kDa Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES-30) has recently been developed. To produce the antigen, the TES-30 gene was cloned via assembly PCR, subcloned into a His-tagged prokaryotic expression vector, and purified by affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic-acid (Ni-NTA) resin. The performance of the ELISA based on the recombinant antigen was then compared with that of commercial kit, based on an IgG-ELISA, for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis (Toxocara IgG-ELISA; Cypress Diagnostics, Langdorp, Belgium). Both assays were used to test 338 serum samples, including 26 samples from probable cases of toxocariasis. Assuming that all the probable cases were true cases, the assay based on rTES-30USM demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.3% (24/26) and a specificity of 89.6% (103/115) whereas the commercial kit exhibited a sensitivity of 100% (26/26) but a specificity of only 55.7% (64/115). The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the new IgG(4)-ELISA should make the assay a good choice for use in tropical countries and any other area where potentially cross-reactive helminthic infections are common.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
  20. Moriya S, Tan VP, Yee AK, Parhar IS
    Neurosci Lett, 2019 08 24;708:134330.
    PMID: 31201839 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2019.134330
    In Parkinson's disease (PD), several genes have been identified as the PD-related genes, however, the regulatory mechanisms of these gene expressions have not been fully identified. In this study, we investigated the effect of inflammation, one of the major risk factors in PD on expressions of the PD-related genes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was intraperitoneally administered to mature male zebrafish and gene expressions in the brains were examined by real-time PCR. In the inflammation-related genes, expressions of tnfb, il1b and il6 were increased at 2 days post administration in the 10 μg group, and tnfb expression was also increased at 4 days post administration in the 1 μg and 10 μg group. In the PD-related genes, pink1 expression was significantly decreased at 4 days, atp13a2 expression was significantly increased at 7 days, and uchl1 expression was significantly decreased at 7 days. This suggests that pink1, atp13a2 and uchl1 expressions are regulated by inflammation, and this regulatory mechanism might be involved in the progress of PD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animals
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