Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 252 in total

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  1. Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JY, Syamsumir DF
    Acta Med Iran, 2011;49(10):670-4.
    PMID: 22071643
    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  2. Shu YH, Yuan HH, Xu MT, Hong YT, Gao CC, Wu ZP, et al.
    Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2021 May;42(5):780-790.
    PMID: 32814819 DOI: 10.1038/s41401-020-0492-5
    Guangsangon E (GSE) is a novel Diels-Alder adduct isolated from leaves of Morus alba L, a traditional Chinese medicine widely applied in respiratory diseases. It is reported that GSE has cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In our research, we investigated its anticancer effect on respiratory cancer and revealed that GSE induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung and nasopharyngeal cancer cells. We first observed that GSE inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 and CNE1 cells. Meanwhile, the upregulation of autophagosome marker LC3 and increased formation of GFP-LC3 puncta demonstrates the induction of autophagy in GSE-treated cells. Moreover, GSE increases the autophagy flux by enhancing lysosomal activity and the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Next, we investigated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in autophagy induction by GSE. GSE activates the ER stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, which can be blocked by ROS scavenger NAC. Finally, inhibition of autophagy attenuates GSE-caused cell death, termed as "autophagy-mediated cell death." Taken together, we revealed the molecular mechanism of GSE against respiratory cancer, which demonstrates great potential of GSE in the treatment of representative cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  3. Kooi OK, Ling CY, Rodzi R, Othman F, Mohtarrudin N, Suhaili Z, et al.
    PMID: 25392583
    BACKGROUND: Melastoma malabathricum L. Smith (family Melastomaceae) is a shrub that has been used by the Malay practitioners of traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The present study aimed to determine the chemopreventive activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using the standard 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the initiation phase, the mice received a single dose of 100µl/100 µg DMBA (group I-V) or 100µl acetone (group VI) topically on the dorsal shaved skin area followed by the promotion phase involving treatment with the respective test solutions (100 µl of acetone, 10 mg/kg curcumin or MEMM (30, 100 and 300mg/kg)) for 30 min followed by the topical application of tumour promoter (100µl croton oil). Tumors were examined weekly and the experiment lasted for 15 weeks.

    RESULTS: MEMM and curcumin significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tumour burden, tumour incidence and tumour volume, which were further supported by the histopathological findings.

    CONCLUSION: MEMM demonstrated chemoprevention possibly via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the action of flavonoids like quercitrin.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  4. Jamila N, Khan N, Khan AA, Khan I, Khan SN, Zakaria ZA, et al.
    PMID: 28573253 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i2.38
    BACKGROUND: Garcinia hombroniana, known as "manggis hutan" (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl4. Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. (1)H, (13)C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract.

    RESULTS: In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) potency. In cytotoxicity study, MEA extract was more toxic towards MCF-7 and DBTRG cell lines causing 78.7% and 64.3% cell death, respectively. MEA extract in (1)H, (13)C-NMR, and IR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents.

    CONCLUSIONS: From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  5. Adebayo IA, Arsad H, Samian MR
    PMID: 28573245 DOI: 10.21010/ajtcam.v14i2.30
    BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera belongs to plant family, Moringaceae and popularly called "wonderful tree", for it is used traditionally to cure many diseases including cancer in Africa and Asia, however, there is limited knowledge on cytotoxic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds on MCF7 breast cancer cell. The present study evaluated antiproliferative effect on MCF7 of the seed.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seeds of Moringa oleifera were grinded to powder and its phytochemicals were extracted using water and 80% ethanol solvents, part of the ethanolic extract were sequentially partitioned to fractions with four solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform, and n-butanol). Antiproliferative effects on MCF7 of the samples were determined. Finally, potent samples that significantly inhibited MCF7 growth were tested on MCF 10A.
    RESULTS: Crude water extract, hexane and dichloromethane fractions of the seeds inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 with the following IC50 values 280 μg/ml, 130 μg/ml and 26 μg/ml respectively, however, of the 3 samples, only hexane fraction had minimal cytotoxic effect on MCF 10A (IC50 > 400μg/ml).
    CONCLUSION: Moringa oleifera seed has antiproliferative effect on MCF7.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  6. Hassan LEA, Iqbal MA, Dahham SS, Tabana YM, Ahamed MBK, Majid AMSA
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2017;17(4):590-598.
    PMID: 27671298 DOI: 10.2174/1871520616666160926113711
    BACKGROUND: Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division caused by dysregulation of cell proliferation. Therefore, agents that impair cancer cell proliferation could have potential therapeutic value. Higher plants are considered to be a good source of anticancer agents, and several clinically tested chemotherapeutic agents have been isolated from plants or derived from constituents of plant origin.

    METHODS: In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast).

    RESULTS: Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated proapoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells.

    CONCLUSION: Isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  7. Sawai S, Mohktar MS, Safwani WKZW, Ramasamy TS
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2018;18(9):1258-1266.
    PMID: 29521251 DOI: 10.2174/1871520618666180307143229
    BACKGROUND: Konjac Glucomannan (KGM) is a water-soluble dietary fibre extracted from Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch (Araceae). Konjac fibre has been clinically proven as an effective antioxidant agent in weight control but its traditionally known tumour suppression property remains to be explored.

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to determine the potential anti-proliferative effect of KGM on cancer and normal human liver cell lines, HepG2 and WRL68, respectively.

    METHOD: HepG2 and WRL68 cells were treated with KGM, D-mannose, KGM-D-mannose and 5-fluorouracil. The morphological changes in those treated cells were observed. Cytotoxic effect of the treatments on cell viability and proliferation, and apoptosis genes expression were assessed by cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses.

    RESULTS: The results show that KGM treatment resulted in reduced viability of HepG2 cells significantly, in line with the apoptosis-like morphological changes. Up-regulation of BAX and down-regulation of BCL2 genes as reflected by high Bax to Bcl 2 ratio suggests that the inhibitory effect of KGM on HepG2 cells most likely via Bcl2/Bax protein pathway. Despite the effectiveness of standard drug 5-FU in suppressing the viability and proliferation of HepG2 cells, it however, exhibited no selective inhibition of cancer cells as compared to KGM.

    CONCLUSION: Current findings suggested that KGM is a potential anti-cancer compound/drug entity, which could be an alternative preventive agent against liver cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  8. Ji X, Usman A, Razalli NH, Sambanthamurthi R, Gupta SV
    Anticancer Res, 2015 Jan;35(1):97-106.
    PMID: 25550539
    Oil palm phenolics (OPP) or Palm Juice (PJ), a water soluble extract from the palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) has been documented to have anti-carcinogenic activities in various cancer types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  9. Mohamad Rosdi MN, Mohd Arif S, Abu Bakar MH, Razali SA, Mohamed Zulkifli R, Ya'akob H
    Apoptosis, 2018 01;23(1):27-40.
    PMID: 29204721 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-017-1434-7
    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  10. Nordin N, Majid NA, Othman R, Omer FAA, Nasharuddin MNA, Hashim NM
    Apoptosis, 2018 02;23(2):152-169.
    PMID: 29430581 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1447-x
    Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0.62 µM. The existence of apoptotic bodies, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation indicated the hallmark of apoptosis. Increase of Annexin V-FITC bound to phosphatidylserine confirmed the apoptosis induction in the cells. The apoptosis event was triggered through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways via activation of caspases 8 and 9, respectively. Stimulation of caspase 3 and the presence of DNA ladder suggested downstream apoptotic signalling were initiated. Further confirmation of apoptosis was conducted at the molecular levels where up-regulation in Bax, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2, Hsp-70 and survivin were observed. Plagioneurin B was also seen to arrest CAOV-3 cells cycle at the G2/M phase. Docking simulation of plagioneurin B with CD95 demonstrated that the high binding affinity and hydrogen bonds formation may explain the capability of plagioneurin B to trigger apoptosis. This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  11. Zhang D, Gao C, Li R, Zhang L, Tian J
    Arch Pharm Res, 2017 May;40(5):579-591.
    PMID: 28211011 DOI: 10.1007/s12272-017-0899-9
    2α,3α,24-Thrihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oicacid (TEOA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, isolated from the roots of Actinidia eriantha, exhibits significant cytotoxicity against SW620, BGC-823, HepG-2, A549 and PC-3 cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the anticancer activity of TEOA in SW620 cells. We demonstrated that TEOA induced apoptosis through cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP in SW620 cells. In addition, evidence of TEOA-mediated autophagy included the induction of autophagolysosomes and activation of autophagic markers LC-3B and p62. Further analysis illustrated that TEOA promoted the phosphorylation of PERK and elF2α, followed by up-regulation of the downstream protein CHOP, suggesting the involvement of PERK/eIF2α/CHOP pathway and ER stress in TEOA-induced autophagy in SW620 cells. Meanwhile, TEOA-mediated PINK1, Parkin, ubiquitin and p62 activation revealed that TEOA induced specific autophagy-mitophagy in SW620 cells. Additionally, an antioxidant NAC attenuated the TEOA-induced mitophagy, indicating that TEOA triggers mitophagy via a ROS-dependent pathway. Collectively, our findings revealed a novel cellular mechanism of TEOA in the colon cancer cell line SW620, thus providing a molecular basis for developing TEOA into an anti-tumor candidate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  12. Goh TB, Koh RY, Mordi MN, Mansor SM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(14):5659-65.
    PMID: 25081682
    BACKGROUND: To investigate the antioxidant value and anticancer functions of mitragynine (MTG) and its silane-reduced analogues (SRM) in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTG and SRM was analyzed for their reducing power ability, ABTS radical inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazylfree radicals scavenging activities. Furthermore, the antiproliferation efficacy was evaluated using MTT assay on K 562 and HCT116 cancer cell lines versus NIH/3T3 and CCD18-Co normal cell lines respectively.

    RESULTS: SRM and MTG demonstrate moderate antioxidant value with ABTS assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC): 2.25±0.02 mmol trolox / mmol and 1.96±0.04 mmol trolox / mmol respectively) and DPPH (IC50=3.75±0.04 mg/mL and IC50=2.28±0.02 mg/mL respectively). Both MTG and SRM demonstrate equal potency (IC50=25.20±1.53 and IC50= 22.19±1.06 respectively) towards K 562 cell lines, comparable to control, betulinic acid (BA) (IC5024.40±1.26). Both compounds showed concentration-dependent cytototoxicity effects and exert profound antiproliferative efficacy at concentration > 100 μM towards HCT 116 and K 562 cancer cell lines, comparable to those of BA and 5-FU (5-Fluorouracil). Furthermore, both MTG and SRM exhibit high selectivity towards HCT 116 cell lines with selective indexes of 3.14 and 2.93 respectively compared to 5-FU (SI=0.60).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings revealed that the medicinal and nutitional values of mitragynine obtained from ketum leaves that growth in tropical forest of Southeast Asia and its analogues does not limited to analgesic properties but could be promising antioxidant and anticancer or chemopreventive compounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  13. Fouz N, Amid A, Hashim YZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014 Jan;14(11):6709-14.
    PMID: 24377593
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in women. The available chemotherapy drugs have been associated with many side effects. Bromelain has novel medicinal qualities including anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, fibrinolytic and anti-cancer functions. Commercially available bromelain is obtained through tedious methods; therefore, recombinant bromelain may provide a cheaper and simpler choice with similar quality.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to assess the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on the cytokinetic behavior of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and their potential as therapeutic alternatives in cancer treatment. Cytotoxic activities of commercial and recombinant bromelain were determined using (sulforhodamine) SRB assay. Next, cell viability assays were conducted to determine effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cell cytokinetic behavior. Finally, the established growth kinetic data were used to modify a model that predicts the effects of commercial and recombinant bromelain on MCF-7 cells.

    RESULTS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain exerted strong effects towards decreasing the cell viability of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 5.13 μg/mL and 6.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to taxol with an IC50 value of 0.063 μg/mL. The present results indicate that commercial and recombinant bromelain both have anti-proliferative activity, reduced the number of cell generations from 3.92 to 2.81 for commercial bromelain and to 2.86 for recombinant bromelain, while with taxol reduction was to 3.12. Microscopic observation of bromelain-treated MCF-7 cells demonstrated detachment. Inhibition activity was verified with growth rates decreased dynamically from 0.009 h-1 to 0.0059 h-1 for commercial bromelain and to 0.0063 h-1 for recombinant bromelain.

    CONCLUSIONS: Commercial and recombinant bromelain both affect cytokinetics of MCF-7 cells by decreasing cell viability, demonstrating similar strength to taxol.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  14. Sul ‘ain MD, Zakaria F, Johan MF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 Jan 25;20(1):185-192.
    PMID: 30678430
    Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer
    death among females worldwide. Limitations with conventional medical treatments have driven researchers to
    search for alternative approaches using natural products. This study aimed to detemine potential anti-proliferative
    effects of methanol and water extracts of Pyrrosia piloselloides (P. piloselloides) on the HeLa cell line. Methods:
    3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were performed to determine IC50
    concentrations and apoptosis analysis was by flow cytometry. To identify chemical compounds in the extracts, gas
    chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed. Results: P. piloselloides methanol extracts (PPME) showed
    antiproliferative effects on HeL awith an IC50 of 16.25μg/mL while the P. piloselloides water extract (PPWE) was without
    influence. Neither extract showed any significant effects on apoptosis. GC-MS analysis, revealed 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
    (23.1%), allopurinol (8.66%) and 3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one (7.41%) as major components in
    the PPME, while sulfolan-3-ol (10.1%), linoleic acid (9.06%) and β-sitosterol acetate (7.98%) predominated in the
    PPWE case. Conclusion: This first study of P. piloselloides showed PPME to exert potent anti-proliferative effect on
    HeLa cell lines. Further research now needs to be performed to establish the mechanisms of inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  15. Ghazali AR, Muralitharan RV, Soon CK, Salyam T, Ahmad Maulana NN, Mohamed Thaha UAB, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Nov 01;21(11):3381-3386.
    PMID: 33247699 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.11.3381
    BACKGROUND: Traditional cooling rice powder (bedak sejuk) is a fermented rice-based cosmetic that is applied topically on one's skin, as an overnight facial mask. According to user testimonies, bedak sejuk beautifies and whitens skin, whereby these benefits could be utilised as a potential melanoma chemopreventive agent.

    OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.

    METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.

    RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  16. Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2012 Oct;2(10):826-9.
    PMID: 23569855 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60237-8
    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of Elaeis guineensis methanol extract on MCF-7 and Vero cell.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  17. Alhuthali HM, Bradshaw TD, Lim KH, Kam TS, Seedhouse CH
    BMC Cancer, 2020 Jul 07;20(1):629.
    PMID: 32635894 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-020-07119-2
    BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous hematological malignancy with poor long-term survival. New drugs which improve the outcome of AML patients are urgently required. In this work, the activity and mechanism of action of the cytotoxic indole alkaloid Jerantinine B (JB), was examined in AML cells.

    METHODS: We used a combination of proliferation and apoptosis assays to assess the effect of JB on AML cell lines and patient samples, with BH3 profiling being performed to identify early effects of the drug (4 h). Phosphokinase arrays were adopted to identify potential driver proteins in the cellular response to JB, the results of which were confirmed and extended using western blotting and inhibitor assays and measuring levels of reactive oxygen species.

    RESULTS: AML cell growth was significantly impaired following JB exposure in a dose-dependent manner; potent colony inhibition of primary patient cells was also observed. An apoptotic mode of death was demonstrated using Annexin V and upregulation of apoptotic biomarkers (active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP). Using BH3 profiling, JB was shown to prime cells to apoptosis at an early time point (4 h) and phospho-kinase arrays demonstrated this to be associated with a strong upregulation and activation of both total and phosphorylated c-Jun (S63). The mechanism of c-Jun activation was probed and significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated which resulted in an increase in the DNA damage response marker γH2AX. This was further verified by the loss of JB-induced C-Jun activation and maintenance of cell viability when using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC).

    CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the first evidence of cytotoxicity of JB against AML cells and identifies ROS-induced c-Jun activation as the major mechanism of action.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  18. Rouhollahi E, Zorofchian Moghadamtousi S, Paydar M, Fadaeinasab M, Zahedifard M, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    PMID: 25652758 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0534-6
    BACKGROUND: Curcuma purpurascens BI. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as 'Koneng Tinggang' and 'Temu Tis' is a Javanese medicinal plant which has been used for numerous ailments and diseases in rural Javanese communities. In the present study, the apoptogenic activity of dichloromethane extract of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) was investigated against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.
    METHODS: Acute toxicity study of DECPR was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Compounds of DECPR were analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-time of flight (GC-MS-TOF) analysis. Cytotoxic effect of DECPR on HT-29 cells was analyzed by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Effects of DECPR on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial-initiated events were investigated using a high content screening system. The activities of the caspases were also measured using a fluorometric assay. The quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to examine the gene expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins.
    RESULTS: The in vivo acute toxicity study of DECPR on rats showed the safety of this extract at the highest dose of 5 g/kg. The GC-MS-TOF analysis of DECPR detected turmerone as the major compound in dichloromethane extract. IC50 value of DECPR towards HT-29 cells after 24 h treatment was found to be 7.79 ± 0.54 μg/mL. In addition, DECPR induced LDH release and ROS generation in HT-29 cells through a mechanism involving nuclear fragmentation and cytoskeletal rearrangement. The mitochondrial-initiated events, including collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c leakage was also triggered by DECPR treatment. Initiator caspase-9 and executioner caspase-3 was dose-dependently activated by DECPR. The quantitative PCR analysis on the mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family of proteins showed a significant up-regulation of Bax associated with down-regulation in Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl mRNA expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented in the current study showed that DECP suppressed the proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells and triggered the induction of apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  19. Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2014 Jan 20;14:32.
    PMID: 24444147 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-32
    BACKGROUND: This paper is to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica on HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line). Centella asiatica is native to the Southeast Asia that is used as a traditional medicine. This study aims to determine the chemopreventive effects of the Centella asiatica juice on human HepG2 cell line.

    METHODS: Different methods including flow cytometry, comet assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to show the effects of juice exposure on the level of DNA damage and the reduction of cancerous cells. MTT assay is a colorimetric method applied to measure the toxic effects of juice on cells.

    RESULTS: The Centella asiatica juice was not toxic to normal cells. It showed cytotoxic effects on tumor cells in a dose dependent manner. Apoptosis in cells was started after being exposed for 72 hr of dose dependent. It was found that the higher percentage of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage was at the concentration above 0.1%. In addition, the juice exposure caused the reduction of c-myc gene expression and the enhancement of c-fos and c-erbB2 gene expressions in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Centella asiatica juice reduced liver tumor cells. Thus, it has the potential to be used as a chemopreventive agent to prevent and treat liver cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  20. Kadir FA, Kassim NM, Abdulla MA, Yehye WA
    PMID: 24305067 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-343
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of tumour worldwide with a high mortality rate and with low response to current cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic drugs. The prediction of activity spectra for the substances (PASS) software, which predicted that more than 300 pharmacological effects, biological and biochemical mechanisms based on the structural formula of the substance was efficiently used in this study to reveal new multitalented actions for Vitex negundo (VN) constituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
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