AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ionic liquid-Graviola fruit pulp extract (IL-GPE) on the metabolomics behavior of colon cancer (HT29) by using an untargeted GC-TOFMS-based metabolic profiling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multivariate data analysis was used to determine the metabolic profiling, and the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was used to predict the altered canonical pathways after treating the HT29 cells with crude IL-GPE and Taxol (positive control).
RESULTS: The principal components analysis (PCA) identified 44 metabolites with the most reliable factor loading, and the cluster analysis (CA) separated three groups of metabolites: metabolites specific to the non-treated HT29 cells, metabolites specific to the treated HT29 cells with the crude IL-GPE and metabolites specific to Taxol treatment. Pathway analysis of metabolomic profiles revealed an alteration of many metabolic pathways, including amino acid metabolism, aerobic glycolysis, urea cycle and ketone bodies metabolism that contribute to energy metabolism and cancer cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: The crude IL-GPE can be one of the promising anticancer agents due to its selective inhibition of energy metabolism and cancer cell proliferation.
METHODS: MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, ELISA and cell cycle analysis were carried out.
RESULTS: Nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal at IC50 values of 1.7 μg/mL and10 μg/mL, respectively. At the molecular level, these compounds caused internucleosomal DNA cleavage producing multiple 180-200 bp fragments that are visible as a "ladder" on the agarose gel. This was due to the activation of the Mg2+/Ca2+-dependent endonuclease. The induction of apoptosis by nordamnacanthal was different from the one induced by damnacanthal, in a way that it occurs independently of ongoing transcription process. Nevertheless, in both cases, the process of dephosphorylation of protein phosphates 1 and 2A, the ongoing protein synthesis and the elevations of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were not needed for apoptosis to take place. Nordamnacanthal was found to have a cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis, while damnacanthal caused arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle.
CONCLUSION: Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal have anticancer properties, and could act as potential treatment for T-lymphoblastic leukemia.
AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effects of F3, lutein and β-sitosterol on tumor development and metastasis were investigated in 4T1-induced mouse mammary carcinoma model.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor-bearing mice were fed with F3 (100 mg/kg/day), lutein (50 mg/kg/day) and β-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day) for 30 days (n = 5 each group). Tumor physical growth parameters, animal body weight and development of secondary tumors were investigated. The safety profile of F3 was assessed using hematological and histomorphological changes on the major organs in normal control mice (NM).
RESULTS: Our findings revealed significant reduction of physical tumor growth parameters in all tumor-bearing mice treated with F3 (TM-F3), lutein (TM-L) or β-sitosterol (TM-β) as compared with the untreated group (TM). Statistically significant reduction in body weight was observed in TM compared to the NM or treated (TM-F3, TM-L and TM-β) groups. Histomorphological examination of tissue sections from the F3-treated group showed normal features of the vital organs (i.e., liver, kidneys, lungs and spleen) which were similar to those of NM. Administration of F3 to NM mice (NM-F3) did not cause significant changes in full blood count values.
CONCLUSION: F3 significantly reduced the total tumor burden and prevented secondary tumor development in metastatic breast cancer without significant toxicities in 4T1-induced mouse mammary carcinoma model. The current study provides further support for therapeutic development of F3 with further pharmacokinetics studies.
OBJECTIVE: The present novel study aims to evaluate and make a comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different extractions of C. cassia bark using seven solvents having different polarities. Solvents polarity gradients start with the solvent of lower polarity, n-hexane, and end with water as the highest polar solvent. Among the extracts, acetone extract contains the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents; therefore, it is assessed for the ability to protect DNA from damage.
METHODS: The extracts are evaluated for total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities, using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals scavenging assays. DNA damage protecting activity of the acetone extract is studied with the comet assay. Each of the extracts is studied for its antiproliferative effect against, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231(breast cancer), and HT29 (colon cancer), using MTT assay.
RESULTS: The acetone extract exhibited the highest FRAP value, phenolic and flavonoids contents when compared to the other extracts and could protect 45% mouse fibroblast cell line (3T3-L1) from DNA damage at 30 μg/ml. The lowest IC50 value in DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals scavenging was noticed in the ethyl acetate extract. IC50 value obtained for the hexane extract was the lowest compared to the other extracts in scavenging nitric oxide radicals. The hexane extract showed the highest antiproliferative effect against cancer cells followed by the chloroform extract. The ethyl acetate extract inhibited the proliferation of only MCF-7 by IC50 of 100 μg/ml, while the other extracts exhibited no IC50 in all the cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: C. cassia showed promising antioxidant and anticancer activities with significant DNA damage protecting effect.
OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.
METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.
RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.
METHODS: We used a combination of proliferation and apoptosis assays to assess the effect of JB on AML cell lines and patient samples, with BH3 profiling being performed to identify early effects of the drug (4 h). Phosphokinase arrays were adopted to identify potential driver proteins in the cellular response to JB, the results of which were confirmed and extended using western blotting and inhibitor assays and measuring levels of reactive oxygen species.
RESULTS: AML cell growth was significantly impaired following JB exposure in a dose-dependent manner; potent colony inhibition of primary patient cells was also observed. An apoptotic mode of death was demonstrated using Annexin V and upregulation of apoptotic biomarkers (active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP). Using BH3 profiling, JB was shown to prime cells to apoptosis at an early time point (4 h) and phospho-kinase arrays demonstrated this to be associated with a strong upregulation and activation of both total and phosphorylated c-Jun (S63). The mechanism of c-Jun activation was probed and significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated which resulted in an increase in the DNA damage response marker γH2AX. This was further verified by the loss of JB-induced C-Jun activation and maintenance of cell viability when using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC).
CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the first evidence of cytotoxicity of JB against AML cells and identifies ROS-induced c-Jun activation as the major mechanism of action.