KEY FINDINGS: T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) parts are used as poultice, boiled juice, decoctions and infusions for treatment against ulceration, fracture, post-natal recovery, syphilis, fever, tumours and orchitis in Malaysia, China, Thailand and Bangladesh. Studies recorded alkaloids as the predominant phytochemicals in addition to phenols, saponins and sterols with vast bioactivities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anthelmintic, vasorelaxation, antiviral and cytotoxicity.
SUMMARY: An evaluation of scientific data and traditional medicine revealed the medicinal uses of different parts of T. corymbosa (Roxb. ex Wall.) across Asia. Future studies exploring the structure-bioactivity relationship of alkaloids such as jerantinine and vincamajicine among others could potentially improve the future application towards reversing anticancer drug resistance.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To test extracts of P. glaucus in a number of bioassays and determine the legitimacy of its traditional use.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stems, leaves, roots and fruits of P. glaucus were collected and extracted sequentially with hexane, chloroform and ethanol, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by testing the ability of the extracts to inhibit heat induced protein denaturation, stabilise human red blood cells under hypotonic stress and by testing the inhibitory activity of the extracts against cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. Cytotoxicity was tested using the human lung epithelial cell line MRC-5 and nasopharangeal carcinoma cell line HK1 in the MTT assay.
RESULTS: Many of the samples showed an ability to prevent heat induced protein denaturation, as well as prevent lysis of red blood cells. Most of the extracts demonstrated inhibitory activity towards both of the COX enzymes. The ethanol extracts tended to demonstrate greater toxicity than other extracts, with some of the other extracts significantly enhancing growth and metabolism of the cells.
CONCLUSION: The benefit of P. glaucus for the treatment of diseases related to inflammation and cancer was supported by the in vitro assays adopted in this study.