Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 252 in total

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  1. Yusof KM, Makpol S, Jamal R, Harun R, Mokhtar N, Ngah WZ
    Molecules, 2015 Jun 03;20(6):10280-97.
    PMID: 26046324 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200610280
    Numerous bioactive compounds have cytotoxic properties towards cancer cells. However, most studies have used single compounds when bioactives may target different pathways and exert greater cytotoxic effects when used in combination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the anti-proliferative effect of γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) and 6-gingerol (6G) in combination by evaluating apoptosis and active caspase-3 in HT-29 and SW837 colorectal cancer cells. MTS assays were performed to determine the anti-proliferative and cytotoxicity effect of γ-T3 (0-150 µg/mL) and 6G (0-300 µg/mL) on the cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 6G+ γ-T3 for HT-29 was 105 + 67 µg/mL and for SW837 it was 70 + 20 µg/mL. Apoptosis, active caspase-3 and annexin V FITC assays were performed after 24 h of treatment using flow cytometry. These bioactives in combination showed synergistic effect on HT-29 (CI: 0.89 ± 0.02,) and SW837 (CI: 0.79 ± 0.10) apoptosis was increased by 21.2% in HT-29 and 55.4% in SW837 (p < 0.05) after 24 h treatment, while normal hepatic WRL-68 cells were unaffected. Increased apoptosis by the combined treatments was also observed morphologically, with effects like cell shrinkage and pyknosis. In conclusion, although further studies need to be done, γ-T3 and 6G when used in combination act synergistically increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis in cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  2. Ibrahim MY, Hashim NM, Mohan S, Abdulla MA, Kamalidehghan B, Ghaderian M, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2014;8:1629-47.
    PMID: 25302018 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S66105
    Cratoxylum arborescens is an equatorial plant belonging to the family Guttiferae. In the current study, α-Mangostin (AM) was isolated and its cell death mechanism was studied. HCS was undertaken to detect the nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and the release of cytochrome c. An investigation for reactive oxygen species formation was conducted using fluorescent analysis. To determine the mechanism of cell death, human apoptosis proteome profiler assay was conducted. In addition, using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting, the levels of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 proteins were also tested. Caspaces such as 3/7, 8, and 9 were assessed during treatment. Using HCS and Western blot, the contribution of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) was investigated. AM had showed a selective cytotoxicity toward the cancer cells with no toxicity toward the normal cells even at 30 μg/mL, thereby indicating that AM has the attributes to induce cell death in tumor cells. The treatment of MCF-7 cells with AM prompted apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals. This regulated the mitochondrial membrane potential by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, thereby causing the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The liberation of cytochrome c activated caspace-9, which, in turn, activated the downstream executioner caspace-3/7 with the cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, thereby leading to apoptotic alterations. Increase of caspace 8 had showed the involvement of an extrinsic pathway. This type of apoptosis was suggested to occur through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways and prevention of translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Our results revealed AM prompt apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through NF-κB, Bax/Bcl-2 and heat shock protein 70 modulation with the contribution of caspaces. Moreover, ingestion of AM at (30 and 60 mg/kg) significantly reduced tumor size in an animal model of breast cancer. Our results suggest that AM is a potentially useful agent for the treatment of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  3. Zainal NS, Gan CP, Lau BF, Yee PS, Tiong KH, Abdul Rahman ZA, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2018 Jan 15;39:33-41.
    PMID: 29433681 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.12.011
    BACKGROUND: The CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways play crucial roles in the dissemination and tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Activation of these pathways have made them promising molecular targets in the treatment of OSCC. Zerumbone, a bioactive monocyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizomes of tropical ginger, Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Roscoe ex Sm. has displayed promising anticancer properties with the ability to modulate multiple molecular targets involved in carcinogenesis. While the anticancer activities of zerumbone have been well explored across different types of cancer, the molecular mechanism of action of zerumbone in OSCC remains largely unknown.

    PURPOSE: Here, we investigated whether OSCC cells were sensitive towards zerumbone treatment and further determined the molecular pathways involved in the mechanism of action.

    METHODS: Cytotoxicity, anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects of zerumbone were tested on a panel of OSCC cell lines. The mechanism of action of zerumbone was investigated by analysing the effects on the CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR pathways by western blotting.

    RESULTS: Our panel of OSCC cells was broadly sensitive towards zerumbone with IC50 values of less than 5 µM whereas normal keratinocyte cells were less responsive with IC50 values of more than 25 µM. Representative OSCC cells revealed that zerumbone inhibited OSCC proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, zerumbone treatment inhibited migration and invasion of OSCC cells, with concurrent suppression of endogenous CXCR4 protein expression in a time and dose-dependent manner. RhoA-pull down assay showed reduction in the expression of RhoA-GTP, suggesting the inactivation of RhoA by zerumbone. In association with this, zerumbone also inhibited the PI3K-mTOR pathway through the inactivation of Akt and S6 proteins.

    CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that zerumbone could inhibit the activation of CXCR4-RhoA and PI3K-mTOR signaling pathways leading to the reduced cell viability of OSCC cells. Our results suggest that zerumbone is a promising phytoagent for development of new therapeutics for OSCC treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  4. Hajiaghaalipour F, Kanthimathi MS, Sanusi J, Rajarajeswaran J
    Food Chem, 2015 Feb 15;169:401-10.
    PMID: 25236244 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.005
    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. White tea is made from the buds and young leaves of the tea plant which are steamed and dried, whilst undergoing minimal oxidation. The MTT assay was used to test the extract on the effect of the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line, HT-29. The extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC50 of 87μg/ml. The extract increased the levels of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity in the cells. DNA damage in 3T3-L1 normal cells was detected by using the comet assay. The extract protected 3T3-L1 cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage. The results from this study show that white tea has antioxidant and antiproliferative effects against cancer cells, but protect normal cells against DNA damage. Regular intake of white tea can help to maintain good health and protect the body against disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  5. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Yeap SK, Roselina K
    Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2015;19(6):1022-9.
    PMID: 25855928
    Brewers' rice, a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ, is a rice by-product in the rice industry. The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the water extract of brewers' rice (WBR) against colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  6. Ghazali AR, Muralitharan RV, Soon CK, Salyam T, Ahmad Maulana NN, Mohamed Thaha UAB, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Nov 01;21(11):3381-3386.
    PMID: 33247699 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.11.3381
    BACKGROUND: Traditional cooling rice powder (bedak sejuk) is a fermented rice-based cosmetic that is applied topically on one's skin, as an overnight facial mask. According to user testimonies, bedak sejuk beautifies and whitens skin, whereby these benefits could be utilised as a potential melanoma chemopreventive agent.

    OBJECTIVE: Hence, this study aimed to determine the effects of bedak sejuk made from Oryza sativa ssp. indica (Indica) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Japonica) on UVB-induced B164A5 melanoma cells, and also identify the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk.

    METHODS: The optimum dose of Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk to treat the cells was determined via the MTT assay. Then, the antioxidant capacities of both types of bedak sejuk were determined using the FRAP assay.

    RESULTS: From the MTT assay, it was found that Indica and Japonica bedak sejuk showed no cytotoxic effects towards the cells. Hence, no IC50 can be obtained and two of the higher doses, 50 and 100 g/L were chosen for treatment. In the FRAP assay, Indica bedak sejuk at 50 and 100 g/L showed FRAP values of 0.003 ± 0.001 μg AA (ascorbic acid)/g of bedak sejuk and 0.004 ± 0.0003 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk. Whereas Japonica bedak sejuk at 50 g/L had the same FRAP value as Indica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L. As for Japonica bedak sejuk at 100 g/L, it showed the highest antioxidant capacity with the FRAP value of 0.01 ± 0.0007 μg AA/g of bedak sejuk which was statistically significant (p < 0.05) when compared to other tested concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Japonica bedak sejuk has a higher antioxidant capacity compared to Indica bedak sejuk despite both being not cytotoxic towards the cells. Regardless, further investigations need to be done before bedak sejuk could be developed as potential melanoma chemoprevention agents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  7. Heng WS, Kruyt FAE, Cheah SC
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 27;22(11).
    PMID: 34071790 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115697
    Lung cancer is still one of the deadliest cancers, with over two million incidences annually. Prevention is regarded as the most efficient way to reduce both the incidence and death figures. Nevertheless, treatment should still be improved, particularly in addressing therapeutic resistance due to cancer stem cells-the assumed drivers of tumor initiation and progression. Phytochemicals in plant-based diets are thought to contribute substantially to lung cancer prevention and may be efficacious for targeting lung cancer stem cells. In this review, we collect recent literature on lung homeostasis, carcinogenesis, and phytochemicals studied in lung cancers. We provide a comprehensive overview of how normal lung tissue operates and relate it with lung carcinogenesis to redefine better targets for lung cancer stem cells. Nine well-studied phytochemical compounds, namely curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, luteolin, sulforaphane, berberine, genistein, and capsaicin, are discussed in terms of their chemopreventive and anticancer mechanisms in lung cancer and potential use in the clinic. How the use of phytochemicals can be improved by structural manipulations, targeted delivery, concentration adjustments, and combinatorial treatments is also highlighted. We propose that lung carcinomas should be treated differently based on their respective cellular origins. Targeting quiescence-inducing, inflammation-dampening, or reactive oxygen species-balancing pathways appears particularly interesting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  8. Lai CS, Mas RH, Nair NK, Majid MI, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2008 Jun 19;118(1):14-20.
    PMID: 18436400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.034
    Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd.) Blume (Araceae) is a Malaysian plant used locally to combat cancer. In order to evaluate its antiproliferative activity in vitro and to possibly identify the active chemical constituents, a bioactivity guided study was conducted on the extracts of this plant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  9. Mohan S, Abdul AB, Abdelwahab SI, Al-Zubairi AS, Sukari MA, Abdullah R, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Oct 5;131(3):592-600.
    PMID: 20673794 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.043
    The plant Typhonium flagelliforme (TF), commonly known as 'rodent tuber' in Malaysia, is often used as traditional remedy for cancer, including leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  10. Neoh CK
    Med J Malaysia, 1992 Mar;47(1):86-8.
    PMID: 1387458
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  11. Asiri SM, Shaari K, Abas F, Al-Mekhlafi NA, Lajis NH
    Nat Prod Commun, 2012 Oct;7(10):1333-6.
    PMID: 23157003
    Two new naphthoquinones designated as 3alpha-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yI)-9alpha-methoxy-2,3,3alpha,9alpha-tetra-hydronaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (callicarpa-quinone A, 1) and 5-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (callicarpaquinone B, 2) were isolated from the chloroform fraction of Callicarpa maingayi. Three other known compounds, identified as avicequinone-C (3), wodeshiol (4) and paulownin (5), were reported for the first time from this species. The structure elucidation of compounds was established by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses as well as EIMS, UV and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer MCF-7cells. Compound 2 exhibited strong cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 1.9 +/- 0.2 microM, while 1 showed moderate activity with an IC50 value of 25.0 +/- 4.3 microM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  12. Awang K, Loong XM, Leong KH, Supratman U, Litaudon M, Mukhtar MR, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2012 Dec;83(8):1391-5.
    PMID: 23098876 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2012.10.004
    A study on the leaves of Aglaia exima led to the isolation of one new and seven known compounds: six triterpenoids and two steroids. Their structures were elucidated and analyzed mainly by using spectroscopic methods; 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometry, UV spectrometry and X-ray. All the triterpenoids and steroids were measured in vitro for their cytotoxic activities against eight cancer cell lines; lung (A549), prostate (DU-145), skin (SK-MEL-5), pancreatic (BxPC-3), liver (Hep G2), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and (MDA-MB-231). The new cycloartane triterpenoid, 24(E)-cycloart-24-ene-26-ol-3-one 1, showed potent cytotoxic activity against colon (HT-29) cancer cell line (IC(50) 11.5μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  13. Loganathan R, Selvaduray KR, Nesaretnam K, Radhakrishnan AK
    Cell Prolif, 2013 Apr;46(2):203-13.
    PMID: 23510475 DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12014
    OBJECTIVES: Tocotrienols and tocopherols are members of the vitamin E family, with similar structures; however, only tocotrienols have been reported to achieve potent anti-cancer effects. The study described here has evaluated anti-cancer activity of vitamin E to elucidate mechanisms of cell death, using human breast cancer cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anti-cancer activity of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and a tocotrienol-enriched fraction (TEF) isolated from palm oil, as well as pure vitamin E analogues (α-tocopherol, α-, δ- and γ-tocotrienols) were studied using highly aggressive triple negative MDA-MB-231 cells and oestrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells, both of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell population growth was evaluated using a Coulter particle counter. Cell death mechanism, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and levels of NF-κB were determined using commercial ELISA kits.

    RESULTS: Tocotrienols exerted potent anti-proliferative effects on both types of cell by inducing apoptosis, the underlying mechanism of cell death being ascertained using respective IC50 concentrations of all test compounds. There was marked induction of apoptosis in both cell lines by tocotrienols compared to treatment with Paclitaxel, which was used as positive control. This activity was found to be associated with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (a DNA repair protein), demonstrating involvement of the apoptotic cell death signalling pathway. Tocotrienols also inhibited expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn can increase sensitivity of cancer cells to apoptosis.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienols induced anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in association with DNA fragmentation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and NF-κB inhibition in the two human breast cancer cell lines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  14. Nesaretnam K, Dorasamy S, Darbre PD
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S95-103.
    PMID: 11271861
    The vitamin E component of palm oil provides a rich source of tocotrienols which have been shown previously to be growth inhibitory to two human breast cancer cell lines: responsive MCF7 cells and unresponsive MDA-MB-231 cells. Data presented here shows that the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) of palm oil and individual fractions (alpha, gamma and delta) can also inhibit the growth of another responsive human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. At low concentrations in the absence of oestrogen tocotrienols stimulated growth of the ZR-75-1 cells, but at higher concentrations in the presence as well as in the absence of oestradiol, tocotrienols inhibited cell growth strongly. As for MCF7 cells, alpha-tocopherol had no effect on growth of the ZR-75-1 cells in either the absence or presence of oestradiol. In studying the effects of tocotrienols in combination with antioestrogens, it was found that TRF could further inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of tamoxifen (10(-7) M and 10(-8) M). Individual tocotrienol fractions (alpha, gamma, delta) could inhibit growth of ZR-75-1 cells in the presence of 10(-8) M oestradiol and 10(-8) M pure antioestrogen ICI 164,384. The immature mouse uterine weight bioassay confirmed that TRF could not exert oestrogen antagonist action in vivo. These results provide evidence of wider growth-inhibitory effects of tocotrienols beyond MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and with an oestrogen-independent mechanism of action, suggest a possible clinical advantage in combining administration of tocotrienols with antioestrogen therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  15. Salim LZ, Mohan S, Othman R, Abdelwahab SI, Kamalidehghan B, Sheikh BY, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Sep 12;18(9):11219-40.
    PMID: 24036512 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180911219
    There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds from traditional medicine with anti-cancer potential. Nigella sativa (black seed) is one of the most widely studied plants. This annual herb grows in countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and India. Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa. The anti-cancer effect of TQ, via the induction of apoptosis resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, was assessed in an acute lymphocyte leukemic cell line (CEMss) with an IC50 of 1.5 µg/mL. A significant increase in chromatin condensation in the cell nucleus was observed using fluorescence analysis. The apoptosis was then confirmed by Annexin V and an increased number of cellular DNA breaks in treated cells were observed as a DNA ladder. Treatment of CEMss cells with TQ encouraged apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals by a down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. Moreover, the significant generation of cellular ROS, HSP70 and activation of caspases 3 and 8 were also observed in the treated cells. The mitochondrial apoptosis was clearly associated with the S phase cell cycle arrest. In conclusion, the results from the current study indicated that TQ could be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  16. Pillai MK, Young DJ, Bin Hj Abdul Majid HM
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2018;18(14):1220-1232.
    PMID: 28969549 DOI: 10.2174/1389557517666171002154123
    The plant Alpinia officinarum of the ginger family originated in China and is used throughout South and South-East Asian countries to flavor food and as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases. This review summarizes the biological, pharmacological and phytochemical properties of extracts and subsequently isolated compounds from A. officinarum. In vitro and in vivo studies of both extracts and pure compounds indicate a wide variety of potent bioactivities including antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiobesity, anticancer, enzyme inhibitory and remarkable antiviral properties. The latter is particularly promising in the face of emerging, virulent respiratory diseases in Asia and the Middle East.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  17. Alkhamaiseh SI, Taher M, Ahmad F, Qaralleh H, Althunibat OY, Susanti D, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2012 Jul;25(3):555-63.
    PMID: 22713941
    Recently there was huge increase in using of 'herbal products'. These can be defined as plants, parts of plants or extracts from plants that are used for curing disease. However, Calophyllum species is a tropical plant and it has been used in traditional medicine, the limitation in safety and effectiveness information could lead to serious health problems. Providing information for communities by evaluating the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities will improve the therapeutic values. Three main Calophyllum canum fractions (none - high polar) were tested to find out the phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol content, DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating iron ions. Also were tested against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Psedomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans. In addition, cytotoxic activity was assayed against lung cancer A549 cell line. The methanol fraction showed no bioactivity but achieved the highest amount of phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents, also it showed a significant result as antioxidant, reducing power and chelating agent. The n-hexane fraction achieved the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value 12.5 μg. mL(-1) against B. cereus while the MIC value for DCM fraction was 25 μg. mL(-1). The DCM fraction was more active against S. aureus where the result was 50 μg. mL(-1) while the n-hexane fraction was 100 μg. mL(-1). The three main fractions have shown no activity against gram negative bacterial and fungal. The n-hexane and DCM fractions have shown cytotoxicity against lung cancer cell line; the 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was 22 ± 2.64 and 32 ± 3.78 μg. mL(-1) respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Among the results, C. canum fractions proved to be effective against gram positive bacterial and anti-proliferation activity. Also it showed antioxidant activity as well. The results provided beneficial information for communities as well as can help to search for alternative drugs, and will contribute to establish safe and effective use of phytomedicines in the treatment of diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
  18. Alhuthali HM, Bradshaw TD, Lim KH, Kam TS, Seedhouse CH
    BMC Cancer, 2020 Jul 07;20(1):629.
    PMID: 32635894 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-020-07119-2
    BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous hematological malignancy with poor long-term survival. New drugs which improve the outcome of AML patients are urgently required. In this work, the activity and mechanism of action of the cytotoxic indole alkaloid Jerantinine B (JB), was examined in AML cells.

    METHODS: We used a combination of proliferation and apoptosis assays to assess the effect of JB on AML cell lines and patient samples, with BH3 profiling being performed to identify early effects of the drug (4 h). Phosphokinase arrays were adopted to identify potential driver proteins in the cellular response to JB, the results of which were confirmed and extended using western blotting and inhibitor assays and measuring levels of reactive oxygen species.

    RESULTS: AML cell growth was significantly impaired following JB exposure in a dose-dependent manner; potent colony inhibition of primary patient cells was also observed. An apoptotic mode of death was demonstrated using Annexin V and upregulation of apoptotic biomarkers (active caspase 3 and cleaved PARP). Using BH3 profiling, JB was shown to prime cells to apoptosis at an early time point (4 h) and phospho-kinase arrays demonstrated this to be associated with a strong upregulation and activation of both total and phosphorylated c-Jun (S63). The mechanism of c-Jun activation was probed and significant induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was demonstrated which resulted in an increase in the DNA damage response marker γH2AX. This was further verified by the loss of JB-induced C-Jun activation and maintenance of cell viability when using the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC).

    CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the first evidence of cytotoxicity of JB against AML cells and identifies ROS-induced c-Jun activation as the major mechanism of action.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  19. Tong KL, Chan KL, AbuBakar S, Low BS, Ma HQ, Wong PF
    PLoS One, 2015;10(3):e0121752.
    PMID: 25826409 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121752
    Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40) containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids composition from E. longifolia promotes anti-prostate cancer activities in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
  20. Syam S, Abdul AB, Sukari MA, Mohan S, Abdelwahab SI, Wah TS
    Molecules, 2011 Aug 23;16(8):7155-70.
    PMID: 21862957 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16087155
    Murraya koenigii is an edible herb widely used in folk medicine. Here we report that girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells. The MTT and LDH assay results showed that girinimbine decreased cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in a dose-and time-dependent manner selectively. Girinimbine-treated HepG2 cells showed typical morphological features of apoptosis, as observed from normal inverted microscopy and Hoechst 33342 assay. Furthermore, girinimbine treatment resulted in DNA fragmentation and elevated levels of caspase-3 in HepG2 cells. Girinimbine treatment also displayed a time-dependent accumulation of the Sub-G(0)/G(1) peak (hypodiploid) and caused G(0)/G(1)-phase arrest. Together, these results demonstrated for the first time that girinimbine could effectively induce programmed cell death in HepG2 cells and suggests the importance of conducting further investigations in preclinical human hepatocellular carcinoma models, especially on in vivo efficacy, to promote girinimbine for use as an anticancer agent against hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology*
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