Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 312 in total

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  1. Ab Aziz NA, Salim N, Zarei M, Saari N, Yusoff FM
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2021;51(1):44-53.
    PMID: 32701046 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2020.1789991
    The study was conducted to determine anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities of the extracted collagen hydrolysate (CH) derived from Malaysian jellyfish, Rhopilema hispidum. Collagen was extracted using 1:1 (w:v) 0.1 M NaOH solution at temperature 25 °C for 48 hr followed by treatment of 1:2 (w:v) distilled water for another 24 hr and freeze-dried. The extracted collagen was hydrolyzed using papain at optimum temperature, pH and enzyme/substrate ratio [E/S] of 60 °C, 7.0 and 1:50, respectively. CH was found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibitory activity, DPPH radical scavenging and metal ion-chelating assays up to 64, 28, and 83%, respectively, after 8 hr of hydrolysis process. The molecular weight of CH was found <10 kDa consisting of mainly Gly (19.219%), Glu (10.428%), and Arg (8.848%). The UV-visible spectrum analysis showed a major and minor peak at 218 and 276 nm, accordingly. The FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the amide groups in CH. The SEM images demonstrated spongy and porous structure of CH. In the cytotoxicity study, CH has no cytotoxicity against mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblast cell line with IC50 value >500 µg/ml. Results revealed that the CH generated from this study has a potential to be developed as active ingredient in cosmeceutical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  2. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
    PMID: 16038556
    A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  3. Abdallah Q, Al-Deeb I, Bader A, Hamam F, Saleh K, Abdulmajid A
    Mol Med Rep, 2018 Aug;18(2):2441-2448.
    PMID: 29901194 DOI: 10.3892/mmr.2018.9155
    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in malignant tumor progression and development. The present study aimed to identify lead plants with selective anti-angiogenic properties. A total of 26 methanolic extracts obtained from 18 plants growing in Saudi Arabia and Jordan that belong to the Lamiaceae family were screened for their cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activities using MTT and rat aortic ring assays, respectively. Four novel extracts of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., Phlomis viscosa Poir, Salvia samuelssonii Rech.f., and Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer were identified for their selective anti-angiogenic effects. These extracts did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on human endothelial cells (EA.hy926) indicating the involvement of indirect anti-angiogenic mechanisms. The active extracts are potential candidates for further phytochemical and mechanistic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  4. Abdelgawad MA, Bakr RB, Ahmad W, Al-Sanea MM, Elshemy HAH
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 11;92:103218.
    PMID: 31536956 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103218
    To enhance the cytotoxicity of benzimidazole and/or benzoxazole core, the benzimidazole/benzoxazole azo-pyrimidine were synthesized through diazo-coupling of 3-aminophenybenzimidazole (6a) or 3-aminophenylbenzoxazole (6b) with diethyl malonate. The new azo-molanates 6a&b mixed with urea in sodium ethoxide to afford the benzimidazolo/benzoxazolopyrimidine 7a&b. The structure elucidation of new synthesized targets was proved using spectroscopic techniques NMR, IR and elemental analysis. The cytoxicity screening had been carried out against five cancer cell lines: prostate cancer (PC-3), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), pancreas cancer (PaCa-2) and colon cancer (HT-29). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity, phospholipase A2-V and cyclooxygenases inhibitory activities of the target compounds 7a&b were evaluated and the new compounds showed potent activity (cytotoxicity IC50 range from 4.3 to 9.2 µm, antioxidant activity from 40% to 80%, COXs or LOX inhibitory activity from 1.92 µM to 8.21 µM). The docking of 7a&b was made to confirm the mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  5. Abdelwahab SI, Zaman FQ, Mariod AA, Yaacob M, Abdelmageed AH, Khamis S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Dec;90(15):2682-8.
    PMID: 20945508 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4140
    Plant essential oils are widely used as fragrances and flavours. Therefore, the essential oils from the leaves of Cinnamomum pubescens Kochummen (CP) and the whole plant of Etlingera elatior (EE) were investigated for their antioxidant, antibacterial and phytochemical properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  6. Abdul Hamid NA, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Abas F, Park YS, Leontowicz H, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 May 10;138:80-91.
    PMID: 28189049 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2017.01.046
    It is known from our previous studies that kiwifruits, which are used in common human diet, have preventive properties of coronary artery disease. This study describes a combination of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements in differentiating of some kiwifruit varieties, their quenching and antioxidant properties. A total of 41 metabolites were identified by comparing with literature data Chenomx database and 2D NMR. The binding properties of the extracted polyphenols against HSA showed higher reactivity of studied two cultivars in comparison with the common Hayward. The results showed that the fluorescence of HSA was quenched by Bidan as much as twice than by other fruits. The correlation between the binding properties of polyphenols in the investigated fruits, their relative quantification and suggested metabolic pathway was established. These results can provide possible application of fruit extracts in pharmaceutical industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  7. Abdullah AS, Mohammed AS, Abdullah R, Mirghani ME, Al-Qubaisi M
    PMID: 24962691 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-199
    Waterlily Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is thought to be antioxidant-rich, conferred by its functional phytochemicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  8. Abdulwanis Mohamed Z, Mohamed Eliaser E, Mazzon E, Rollin P, Cheng Lian Ee G, Abdull Razis AF
    Molecules, 2019 Aug 27;24(17).
    PMID: 31461914 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24173109
    Plant natural compounds have great potential as alternative medicines for preventing and treating diseases. Melicope lunu-ankenda is one Melicope species (family Rutaceae), which is widely used in traditional medicine, consumed as a salad and a food seasoning. Consumption of different parts of this plant has been reported to exert different biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities, resulting in a protective effect against several health disorders including neurodegenerative diseases. Various secondary metabolites such as phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids, isolated from the M. lunu-ankenda plant, were demonstrated to have neuroprotective activities and also exert many other beneficial biological effects. A number of studies have revealed different neuroprotective mechanisms for these secondary metabolites. This review summarizes the most significant and recent studies for neuroprotective activity of M. lunu-ankenda major secondary metabolites in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  9. Abedin MZ, Karim AA, Latiff AA, Gan CY, Ghazali FC, Barzideh Z, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2014;28(16):1302-5.
    PMID: 24670209 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.900617
    The molecular mass distribution, amino acid composition and radical-scavenging activity of collagen hydrolysates prepared from collagen isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus vastus were investigated. β and α1 chains of the collagen were successfully hydrolysed by trypsin. The molecular mass distribution of the hydrolysates ranged from 5 to 25 kDa, and they were rich in glycine, alanine, glutamate, proline and hydroxyproline residues. The hydrolysates exhibited excellent radical-scavenging activity. These results indicate that collagen hydrolysates from S. vastus can be used as a functional ingredient in food and nutraceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  10. Ablat A, Mohamad J, Awang K, Shilpi JA, Arya A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:786130.
    PMID: 24688431 DOI: 10.1155/2014/786130
    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  11. Abood WN, Fahmi I, Abdulla MA, Ismail S
    PMID: 24969238 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-205
    Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  12. Abosadiya HM, Hasbullah SA, Mackeen MM, Low SC, Ibrahim N, Koketsu M, et al.
    Molecules, 2013;18(11):13369-84.
    PMID: 24172244 DOI: 10.3390/molecules181113369
    C-5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenylcalix[4]-2-methylresorcinarene (I) was synthesized by cyclocondensation of 5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-methylresorcinol in the presence of concentrated HCl. Compound I was characterized by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. X-ray analysis showed that this compound crystallized in a triclinic system with space group of Pī, a = 15.9592(16)Å, b = 16.9417(17)Å, c = 17.0974(17)Å, α = 68.656(3)°, β = 85.689(3)°, γ = 81.631(3)°, Z = 2 and V = 4258.6(7)Å3. The molecule adopts a chair (C2h) conformation. The thermal properties and antioxidant activity were also investigated. It was strongly antiviral against HSV-1 and weakly antibacterial against Gram-positive bacteria. Cytotoxicity testing on Vero cells showed that it is non-toxic, with a CC50 of more than 0.4 mg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  13. Abu-Serie MM, Habashy NH, Attia WE
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 May 10;18(1):154.
    PMID: 29747629 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2218-5
    BACKGROUND: Since oxidative stress and inflammation are two linked factors in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Thus identification of effective treatment is of great importance. Edible mushroom and microalgae are rich in the effective antioxidant phytochemicals. Hence, their beneficial effects on oxidative stress-associated inflammation are extremely required to be investigated.

    METHODS: This study evaluated the functional constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Malaysian Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLE) and Egyptian Chlorella vulgaris ethanolic extract (CVE). Also, the synergistic, addictive or antagonistic activities of the combination between the two extracts (GLE-CVE) were studied. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor-kappa B, as well as levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes were determined using in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated white blood cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  14. Abubakar B, Yakasai HM, Zawawi N, Ismail M
    J Food Drug Anal, 2018 04;26(2):706-715.
    PMID: 29567241 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfda.2017.06.010
    Diet-related metabolic diseases, and especially obesity, are metabolic disorders with multifactorial aetiologies. Diet has been a cornerstone in both the aetiology and management of this metabolic disorders. Rice, a staple food for over half of the world's population, could be exploited as part of the solution to check this menace which has been skyrocketing in the last decade. The present study investigated nine forms of rice from three widely grown Malaysian rice cultivars for in vitro and in vivo (glycaemic index and load) properties that could translate clinically into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases. The germinated brown forms of MRQ 74 and MR 84 rice cultivars had high amylose content percentages (25.7% and 25.0%), high relative percentage antioxidant scavenging abilities of 85.0% and 91.7%, relatively low glycaemic indices (67.6 and 64.3) and glycaemic load (32.3 and 30.1) values, and modest glucose uptake capabilities of 33.69% and 31.25%, respectively. The results show that all things being equal, rice cultivars that are germinated and high in amylose content when compared to their white and low amylose counterparts could translate into a lower predisposition to diet-related diseases from the dietary point of view in individuals who consume this cereal as a staple food.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  15. Adam IK, Heikal M, Aziz ARA, Yusup S
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Oct;25(28):28500-28516.
    PMID: 30088249 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2863-8
    The present work analyzes the effect of antioxidants on engine combustion performance of a multi-cylinder diesel engine fueled with PB30 and PB50 (30 and 50 vol.% palm biodiesel (PB)). Four antioxidants namely N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (NPPD), 2(3)-tert-Butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), and 2-tert-butylbenzene-1,4-diol (TBHQ) were added at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 ppm to PB30 and PB50. TBHQ showed the highest activity in increasing oxidation stability in both PB30 and PB50 followed by BHA, DPPD, and NPPD respectively, without any negative effect on physical properties. Compared to diesel fuel, PB blends showed 4.61-6.45% lower brake power (BP), 5.90-8.69% higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), 9.64-11.43% higher maximum in cylinder pressure, and 7.76-12.51% higher NO emissions. Carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke opacity were reduced by 36.78-43.56%, 44.12-58.21%, and 42.59-63.94%, respectively, than diesel fuel. The start of combustion angles (SOC) of PB blends was - 13.2 to - 15.6 °CA BTDC, but the combustion delays were 5.4-7.8 °CA short compared to diesel fuel which were - 10 °CA BTDC and 11°CA respectively. Antioxidant fuels of PB showed higher BP (1.81-5.32%), CO (8.41-24.60%), and HC (13.51-37.35%) with lower BSFC (1.67-7.68%), NO (4.32-11.53%), maximum in cylinder pressure (2.33-4.91%) and peak heat release rates (HRR) (3.25-11.41%) than baseline fuel of PB. Similar SOC of - 13 to - 14 °CA BTDC was observed for PB blended fuels and antioxidants. It can be concluded that antioxidants' addition is effective in increasing the oxidation stability and in controlling the NOx emissions of palm biodiesel fuelled diesel engine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  16. Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Morton DW, Ristivojević P
    J Chromatogr A, 2016 Oct 14;1468:228-235.
    PMID: 27670751 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2016.09.041
    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method to screen for antioxidant activity in algal samples. 16 algal species were collected from local Victorian beaches. Fucoxanthin, one of the most abundant marine carotenoids was quantified directly from the HPTLC plates before derivatization, while derivatization either with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) or ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used to analyze antioxidants in marine algae, based on their ability to scavenge non biological stable free radical (DPPH) or to chelate iron ions. Principal component analysis of obtained HPTLC fingerprints has classified algae species into 5 groups according to their chemical/antioxidant profiles. The investigated brown algae samples were found to be rich in non-and moderate-polar compounds and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. Most of the phenolic iron chelators also have shown free radical scavenging activity. Strong positive and significant correlations between total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity showed that, phenolic compounds, including flavonoids are the main contributors of antioxidant activity in these species. The results suggest that certain brown algae possess significantly higher antioxidant potential when compared to red or green algae and could be considered for future applications in medicine, dietary supplements, cosmetics or food industries. Cystophora monilifera extract was found to have the highest antioxidant concentration, followed by Zonaria angustata, Cystophora pectinate, Codium fragile, and Cystophora pectinata. Fucoxanthin was found mainly in the brown algae species. The proposed methods provide an edge in terms of screening for antioxidants and quantification of antioxidant constituents in complex mixtures. The current application also demonstrates flexibility and versatility of a standard HPTLC system in the drug discovery. Proposed methods could be used for the bioassay-guided isolation of unknown natural antioxidants and subsequent identification if combined with spectroscopic identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  17. Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Morton DW
    J Chromatogr A, 2017 Dec 29;1530:197-203.
    PMID: 29157606 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.024
    High-Performance Thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) combined with DPPH free radical method and α-amylase bioassay was used to compare antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from 10 marine macroalgae species (3 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta and 3 Rhodophyta) from Blue Lagoon beach (Malaysia). Samples were also evaluated for their phenolic and stigmasterol content. On average, higher antioxidant activity was observed in the ethyl acetate extracts (55.1mg/100g gallic acid equivalents (GAE) compared to 35.0mg/100g GAE) while, as expected, phenolic content was higher in ethanol extracts (330.5mg/100g GAE compared to 289.5mg/100g GAE). Amounts of fucoxanthin, stigmasterol and α-amylase inhibitory activities were higher in ethyl acetate extracts. Higher enzyme inhibition is therefore related to higher concentrations of triterpenes and phytosterols (Note: these compounds are more soluble in ethyl acetate). Ethyl acetate extracts from Caulerpa racemosa and Padina minor, had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, and also showed moderately high antioxidant activities, stigmasterol content and polyphenolic content. Caulerpa racemose, being green algae, does not contain fucoxanthin, while Padina minor, being brown algae, contains high amounts of fucoxanthin. Therefore, it is very unlikely that fucoxanthin contributes to α-amylase inhibitory activity as previously reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  18. Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Morton DW, Adam A, Mizaton HH, Zakaria H
    J Chromatogr A, 2017 Dec 29;1530:192-196.
    PMID: 29132827 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.012
    The steady increase of diabetes is becoming a major burden on health care systems. As diabetic complications arise from oxidative stress, an antioxidant therapy along with anti-diabetic drugs is recommended. Myrmecodia or ant plant is highly valued as a traditional medicine in West Papua. It is used as an alternative treatment for diabetes, as the substances produced by ants can reduce blood sugar levels. The aim of this study was to develop and establish high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC)-bioautographic methods to measure the antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects in different extracts from Myrmecodia platytyrea and to compare them with sterol content. Antioxidant activity in methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts were measured with a direct HPTLC-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) assay, while hypoglycemic effects were assessed using a newly developed α-amylase inhibitory activity assay. Stigmasterol is observed, after derivatization with anisaldehyde, as purple colored zones under visible light at hRF values of 0.66. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the ethanol extract which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, while the DCM extract did not show antioxidant activity, but had significant α-amylase inhibitory activity. The highest α-amylase inhibitory activity was observed in the EA and DCM extracts and was related to their stigmasterol content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
  19. Ahmad Aufa Z, Hassan FA, Ismail A, Mohd Yusof BN, Hamid M
    J Agric Food Chem, 2014 Mar 5;62(9):2077-84.
    PMID: 24499380 DOI: 10.1021/jf403481p
    Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of α-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry*
  20. Ahmad H, Ahmad S, Shah SAA, Latif A, Ali M, Khan FA, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2017 07 01;25(13):3368-3376.
    PMID: 28457693 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2017.04.022
    Extensive chromatographic separations performed on the basic (pH=8-10) chloroform soluble fraction of Aconitum heterophyllum resulted in the isolation of three new diterpenoid alkaloids, 6β-Methoxy, 9β-dihydroxylheteratisine (1), 1α,11,13β-trihydroxylhetisine (2), 6,15β-dihydroxylhetisine (3), and the known compounds iso-atisine (4), heteratisine (5), hetisinone (6), 19-epi-isoatisine (7), and atidine (8). Structures of the isolated compounds were established by means of mass and NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-8 were screened for their antioxidant and enzyme inhibition activities followed by in silico studies to find out the possible inhibitory mechanism of the tested compounds. This work is the first report demonstrating significant antioxidant and anticholinesterase potentials of diterpenoid alkaloids isolated from a natural source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/chemistry
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