Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 550 in total

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  1. Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JY, Syamsumir DF
    Acta Med Iran, 2011;49(10):670-4.
    PMID: 22071643
    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  2. Chin KY, Pang KL, Soelaiman IN
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2016;928:97-130.
    PMID: 27671814
    Tocotrienol is a member of vitamin E family and is well-known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also a suppressor of mevalonate pathway responsible for cholesterol and prenylated protein synthesis. This review aimed to discuss the health beneficial effects of tocotrienol, specifically in preventing or treating hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis and cancer with respect to these properties. Evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human studies has been examined. It is revealed that tocotrienol shows promising effects in preventing or treating the health conditions previously mentioned in in vivo and in vitro models. In some cases, alpha-tocopherol attenuates the biological activity of tocotrienol. Except for its cholesterol-lowering effects, data on the health-promoting effects of tocotrienol in human are limited. As a conclusion, the encouraging results on the health beneficial effects of tocotrienol should motivate researchers to explore its potential use in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  3. Quah CC, Kim KH, Lau MS, Kim WR, Cheah SH, Gundamaraju R
    PMID: 25392585
    BACKGROUND: The preference for a fairer skin-tone has become a common trend among both men and women around the world. In this study, seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis were investigated for their in vitro and in vivo potentials in working as skin whitening agents. Seaweed has been used as a revolutionary skin repairing agent in both traditional and modern preparations. The high antioxidant content is one of the prime reasons for its potent action. It has been employed in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine. For centuries, most medical practitioners in the Asian cultures have known seaweed as an organic source of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids like omega-3 and omega-6 and antioxidants. The present objective of the study was to evaluate the potent dermal protective effect of the two seaweeds Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis on human cell lines and guinea pigs.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seaweeds were extracted with ethanol and further fractionated with hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The extracts were tested for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, cytotoxicity in human epidermal melanocyte (HEM), and Chang cells. Extracts with potent melanocytotoxicity were formulated into cosmetic cream and tested on guinea pigs in dermal irritation tests and de-pigmentation assessments.

    RESULTS: Both Sargassum polycystum and Padina tenuis seaweeds showed significant inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase in the concentration tested. SPEt showed most potent cytotoxicity on HEM (IC50 of 36µg/ml), followed by SPHF (65µg/ml), and PTHF (78.5µg/ml). SPHF and SPEt reduced melanin content in skin of guinea pigs when assessed histologically.

    CONCLUSION: SPEt, SPHF and PTHF were able to inhibit HEM proliferation in vitro, with SPHF being most potent and did not cause any dermal irritation in guinea pigs. The results obtained indicate that SPHF is a promising pharmacological or cosmetic agent.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  4. Thent ZC, Lin TS, Das S, Zakaria Z
    PMID: 23983373
    Cardiovascular complications are one of the major causes of death in diabetes mellitus. Piper sarmentosum (P.s) is an herb that possesses antihyperglycaemic effects. The main aim of the study was to observe the histological changes in the heart and the proximal aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following P.s administration. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were equally randomized into four groups: control group supplemented with normal saline (C); control group supplemented with P.s (CTx) ; diabetic group supplemented with normal saline (D) and, diabetic group supplemented with P.s (DTx). Diabetes was induced by STZ (50mg/kg body weight) intramuscularly. P.s extract (0.125g/kg) was administered orally for 28 days, following four weeks of STZ induction. The cardiac and aortic tissues were collected and processed under different stains: Haematoxylin and Eosin (H & E), Verhoeff-Van Gieson (VVG), Masson's Trichome (MT) and Periodic Acid- Schiff (PAS). There were abnormal cardiomyocytes nuclei, disarray of myofibres and increase in connective tissue deposits in cardiac tissues of the diabetic untreated group. The thickness of tunica media and ratio of tunica intima to media were found to be significantly increased in the aorta of diabetic untreated group (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. There were degenerative changes in the proximal aorta in diabetic untreated groups. All the histological damages of cardiac and aortic tissues were found to be lesser in the diabetic treated groups. Supplementation with P.s extract prevented the oxidative damage arising from diabetes mellitus, and reduced its complications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  5. Moniruzzaman M, Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA, Gan SH
    PMID: 23983317
    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in contributing to the processes of aging and disease. In an effort to combat free radical activity, scientists are studying the effects of increasing individuals' antioxidant levels through diet and dietary supplements. Honey appears to act as an antioxidant in more ways than one. In the body, honey can mop up free radicals and contribute to better health. Various antioxidant activity methods have been used to measure and compare the antioxidant activity of honey. In recent years, DPPH (Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), ORAC (The Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity), ABTS [2, 2-azinobis (3ehtylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diamonium salt], TEAC [6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox)-equivalent antioxidant capacity] assays have been used to evaluate antioxidant activity of honey. The antioxidant activity of honey is also measured by ascorbic acid content and different enzyme assays like Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD). Among the different methods available, methods that have been validated, standardized and widely reported are recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  6. Khalil MI, Sulaiman SA
    PMID: 21731163
    Honey is rich in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. A wide range of phenolic constituents is present in honey like quercetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), acacetin, kaempferol, galangin which have promising effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular intake of phenolic compounds is associated with reduced risk of heart diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of phenolic compounds include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. In this review paper, we discussed the preventive role of polyphenols of honey against cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  7. Mohamed M, Sirajudeen K, Swamy M, Yaacob NS, Sulaiman SA
    Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med, 2009 Oct 15;7(1):59-63.
    PMID: 21304614
    Honey has been used since ancient times for its nutritional as well as curative properties. Tualang honey is collected from wild honey bees' hives on Tualang trees found in the Malaysian rain forest. It has been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases, where its therapeutic value has partly been related to its antioxidant properties. This study therefore assessed the colour intensity, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and antiradical activity of gamma irradiated Tualang Honey. The colour intensity at ABS₄₅₀ was 489.5 ± 1.7 mAU, total phenolic content was 251.7 ± 7.9 mg (gallic acid) /Kg honey, total antioxidant activity by FRAP assay was 322.1 ± 9.7 (µM Fe(II)) and the antiradical activity by DPPH assay was 41.30 ± 0.78 (% inhibition). The data confirms that the antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated Tualang honey are similar to other types of honeys reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  8. Newaz MA, Nawal NN
    Am J Hypertens, 1998 Dec;11(12):1480-5.
    PMID: 9880131
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant status of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), comparing them with normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR were divided into three groups and treated with different doses of alpha-tocopherol (alpha1, 17 mg/kg diet; alpha2, 34 mg/kg diet; and alpha3, 170 mg/kg diet). Normal WKY and untreated SHR were used as normal (N) and hypertensive control (HC). Blood pressures were recorded every 10 days for 3 months. At the end of the trial, animals were killed and measurement of plasma total antioxidant status, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lipid peroxide levels in plasma and blood vessels was carried out following well-established methods. From our study it was found that lipid peroxides in thoracic aorta (N, 0.47 +/- 0.17; H, 0.96 +/- 0.37; P < .0001) and plasma (N, 0.06 +/- 0.01; H, 0.13 +/- 0.01) were significantly higher in hypertensives than in normal rats. SOD activity was significantly lower in hypertensive than normal rats (N, 172.93 +/- 46.91; H, 110.08 +/- 14.38; P < .005). Total antioxidant status was significantly higher in normal than hypertensive rats (N, 0.88 +/- 0.05; H, 0.83 +/- 0.02; P < .05). After the antioxidant trial, it was found that in the treated groups rise of blood pressure was prevented significantly (P < .001) and lipid peroxides in blood vessels were significantly reduced more than in the controls (P < .001). For plasma lipid peroxide it was only significant for groups alpha2 (P < .001) and alpha3 (P < .05). Although all three treated groups showed improved total antioxidant status, only groups alpha2 (0.87 +/- 0.04, P < .005) and alpha3 (1.20 +/- 0.18, P < .001) were statistically significant. All the three groups showed significant increases in their SOD activity (P < .001). Correlation studies showed that total antioxidant status and SOD were significantly negatively correlated with blood pressure in normal rats (P = .007; P = .008). Lipid peroxides in both blood vessel and plasma showed a positive correlation. In the treated groups, lipid peroxides in blood vessels maintained a significant positive correlation with blood pressure in all groups (alpha1, P = .021; alpha2, P = .019; alpha3, P = .002), whereas for plasma lipid peroxides the correlation was in groups alpha1 (P = .005) and alpha2 (P = .009). For SOD activity, significant negative correlations were found with blood pressure in the alpha2 (P = .017) and alpha3 (P = .025) groups. Total antioxidant status maintained a significant negative correlation with blood pressure in all three groups (alpha1, P = .012; alpha2, P = .044; alpha3, P = .014). In conclusion it was found that supplement of alpha-tocopherol may prevent development of increased blood pressure, reduce lipid peroxides in plasma and blood vessels, and enhance the total antioxidant status, including SOD activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  9. Ujah GA, Nna VU, Agah MI, Omue LO, Leku CB, Osim EE
    Andrologia, 2018 Mar;50(2).
    PMID: 28703286 DOI: 10.1111/and.12866
    Cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) has been reported to cause reproductive toxicity in male rats, mainly through oxidative stress. This study examined its effect on sexual behaviour, as one of the mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction, as well as the possible ameliorative effect of quercetin (QE) on same. Thirty male Wistar rats (10 weeks old), weighing 270-300 g, were used for this study. They were either orally administered 2% DMSO, CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.w.), QE (20 mg/kg b.w.) or CdCl2 +QE, once daily for 4 weeks, before sexual behavioural studies. The 5th group received CdCl2 for 4 weeks and allowed 4-week recovery period, before sexual behavioural test. Rats were sacrificed after sexual behavioural studies. The blood, testis and penis were collected for biochemical assays. Cadmium increased mount, intromission and ejaculatory latencies, but reduced their frequencies, compared to control. Serum nitric oxide increased, while penile cyclic guanosine monophosphate reduced in the CdCl2 -exposed rats, compared to control. CdCl2 increased testicular cholesterol, but reduced 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD activities, and testosterone concentration. QE better attenuated these negative changes compared to withdrawal of CdCl2 treatment. In conclusion, CdCl2 suppressed steroidogenesis, penile erection and sexual behaviour, with poor reversal following withdrawal, while QE attenuated these effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  10. Abd Aziz NAA, Chatterjee A, Chatterjee R, Durairajanayagam D
    Andrologia, 2019 Apr;51(3):e13199.
    PMID: 30461035 DOI: 10.1111/and.13199
    This study examined whether tocotrienol supplementation to corticosterone-treated male rats could prevent foetal loss in females upon their mating. Epididymides of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with proven fertility were surgically separated at the testis-caput junction. Twenty-four hours post-surgery, these animals received for 7 days either: tocopherol-stripped corn oil (Control), corticosterone 25 mg/kg s.c. (CORT), CORT 25 mg/kg s.c. and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) 100 mg/kg orally (CORT + TRF) or TRF 100 mg/kg orally (TRF). On day 8, males were cohabited with proestrus females. A spermatozoa-positive vaginal smear indicated pregnancy. Males were euthanised for analysis of testosterone and antioxidant activities. Reproductive organs were weighed. On day 8 of pregnancy, females were laparotomised to count the number of implantation sites. Pregnancy was continued until term. Number of pups delivered and their weights were determined. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in CORT + TRF group compared with CORT group. Enzymatic antioxidant activities, testosterone level and reproductive organ weights were significantly higher in CORT + TRF group compared with CORT group. Number of implantation sites and live pups delivered, and their birth weights from females mated with CORT + TRF males were significantly higher compared to CORT group. Therefore, TRF prevents foetal loss in females mated with CORT + TRF-treated males.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  11. Memon AA, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Goh YM, Ebrahimi M, Nadia FM, et al.
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2011 Nov;129(1-2):44-9.
    PMID: 22024366 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2011.10.004
    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected using an artificial vagina. Ten replicates of the ejaculates were diluted with a Tris egg yolk based extender which contained various concentrations (0.5mM, 1.0mM, 2.0mM and 3.0mM) of butylated hydroxytoluene while one sample was processed without supplementation of antioxidant and served as control. The diluted semen was cooled at 4°C and loaded into the straw and then stored in liquid nitrogen. It was evident that supplementation of BHT produces positive effect in terms of motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity in comparison with the control group in cooled and frozen Boer goat semen. Results showed significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability of cooled and frozen Boer goat spermatozoa at different concentrations. Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability was significantly higher in all treated groups than the control group (P<0.05) while there was no significant differences (P>0.05) in morphology trait between all group in cooled semen. However, improvement (P<0.05) was observed only in terms of the membrane integrity and acrosome integrity compared to the control and other treated groups in frozen semen. In conclusion, BHT can be used in cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in order to reduce the oxidative stress on spermatozoa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  12. Memon AA, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Goh YM, Ebrahimi M, Nadia FM
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2012 Dec;136(1-2):55-60.
    PMID: 23182473 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2012.10.020
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of antioxidants on standard semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and fertility of Boer goat semen after cryopreservation. Ejaculates from four bucks were collected, evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The pooled semen was diluted with Tris citric acid fructose for washing. Semen samples, which were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the antioxidant ascorbic acid (8.5mg/ml), butylated hydroxytoluene (2mM), cysteine (5mM) and hypotaurine (10mM) and an extender without antioxidant supplementation were cooled to 4°C and frozen in 0.25 straws with programmable freezer and finally stored in liquid nitrogen. Data (10 replicates) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Mean (±SEM) progressive motility was significantly higher in ascorbic acid than other supplement groups and control samples (P>0.05). Best values were observed in ascorbic acid followed by BHT, cysteine, and hypotaurine. Antioxidant supplementation in extender showed significant (P<0.05) better values than the control group for sperm membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability. The ability of antioxidants to reduce the lipid peroxidation (LPO) after freeze thawing was measured by the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the thiobarbituric acid method. Results showed that addition of antioxidants significantly reduced the rate of LPO in comparison to control (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid exhibited better values (1.27±0.28), than butylated hydroxytoluene, cysteine and hypotaurine 1.32±0.42, 2.27±0.16 and 2.38±0.17 respectively, which are significantly better than control (3.52±0.54). Higher pregnancy rate was observed with ascorbic acid followed by butylated hydroxtolune, hypotaurine and cysteine. However, differences in the fertility rate were non-significant with hypotaurine, cysteine and control groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  13. Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Wahab MS, Sirajudeen KN, Salleh MS, Gurtu S
    Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris), 2010 Sep;71(4):291-6.
    PMID: 20398890 DOI: 10.1016/j.ando.2010.03.003
    Glucotoxicity contributes to beta-cell dysfunction through oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that tualang honey ameliorated renal oxidative stress and produced hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. This present study investigated the hypothesis that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might partly be due to protection of pancreas against oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups and administered distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). Similarly, two groups of non-diabetic rats received distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). The animals were treated orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the honey-treated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose levels [8.8 (5.8)mmol/L; median (interquartile range)] compared with the diabetic control rats [17.9 (2.6)mmol/L]. The pancreas of diabetic control rats showed significantly increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Tualang honey significantly (p<0.05) reduced elevated MDA levels. Honey treatment also restored SOD and CAT activities. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might be attributed to its antioxidative effect on the pancreas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  14. Jaganathan SK, Balaji A, Vellayappan MV, Asokan MK, Subramanian AP, John AA, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(1):48-56.
    PMID: 25052987
    Recent statistics revealed that cancer is one among the main reasons for death throughout the world. Several treatments are available but still there is no cure when it is detected at late stages. One of the treatment modes for cancer is chemotherapy which utilizes anticancer drugs in order to eradicate the cancer cells by apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death through which body maintains homeostasis or kills cancer cells by utilizing its cell machinery. Recent researches have concluded that dietary agents have a putative role in instituting apoptosis of cancer cells. Honey, one of the victuals rich in antioxidants, has a long-standing exposure to humans and its role in cancer prevention and treatment is a topic of current interest. Various researchers have been experimenting honey against different cancers and provided valuable insights about the apoptosis induced by the honey. This review will highlight the recent findings of apoptotic mechanism involved in different cancer cells. Further it also reports antitumor activity of honey in some animal models. Hence it is high-time to initiate more preclinical trials as well as clinical experiments which would further add to the knowledge of anticancer nature of honey and also endorse honey as a potential candidate in the war against cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  15. Jalal TK, Ahmed IA, Mikail M, Momand L, Draman S, Isa ML, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2015 Apr;175(7):3231-43.
    PMID: 25649443 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-015-1499-0
    Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) pulp, peel and whole fruit were extracted with various solvents such as hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol. The antioxidant activity of these extracts were examined using the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test. IC50 was 55 ± 5.89 μg/ml for the pulp part of methanol extract. In the β-carotene bleaching assay, the antioxidant activity was 90.02 ± 1.51 % for the positive control (Trolox) and 88.34 ± 1.31 % for the pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the crude extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure; methanol pulp part demonstrated the highest phenol content value of 781 ± 52.97 mg GAE/g of dry sample. While the total flavonoid content was determined using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, the highest value of 6213.33 ± 142.22 mg QE/g was indicated by pulp part of the fruit methanol extract. The antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was tested using disc diffusion method against pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans. Methanol extract of pulp part was recorded to have the highest zone of inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBC/minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) for the extracts were also determined using the microdilution method ranging from 4000 to 63 μg/ml against pathogenic microbes. The MBC/MFC values varied from 250 to 4000 μg/ml. A correlation between antioxidant activity assays, antimicrobial activity and phenolic content was established. The results shows that the various parts of A. altilis fruit extracts promising antioxidant activities have potential bioactivities due to high content of phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  16. Si LY, Kamisah Y, Ramalingam A, Lim YC, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2017 Jul;42(7):765-772.
    PMID: 28249121 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0506
    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) plays an important role in the initiation of cardiovascular diseases. Roselle, enriched with antioxidants, demonstrates high potential in alleviating hypertension. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of roselle supplementation of VED and remodelling in a rodent model with prolonged nicotine administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were administered with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine for 28 days to induce VED. The rats were given either aqueous roselle (100 mg/kg) or normal saline orally 30 min prior to nicotine injection daily. One additional group of rats served as control. Thoracic aorta was isolated from rats to measure vascular reactivity, vascular remodelling and oxidative stress. Roselle significantly lowered aortic sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction (Endo-(+) Cmax = 234.5 ± 3.9%, Endo-(-) Cmax = 247.6 ± 5.2%) compared with untreated nicotine group (Endo-(+) Cmax = 264.5 ± 6.9%, Endo-(-) Cmax = 276.5 ± 6.8%). Roselle also improved aortic response to endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (Endo-(+) Rmax = 73.2 ± 2.1%, Endo-(-) Rmax = 26.2 ± 0.8%) compared to nicotine group (Endo-(+) Rmax = 57.8 ± 1.7%, Endo-(-) Rmax = 20.9 ± 0.8%). In addition, roselle prevented an increase in intimal media thickness and elastic lamellae proliferation to preserve vascular architecture. Moreover, we also observed a significantly lowered degree of oxidative stress in parallel with increased antioxidant enzymes in aortic tissues of the roselle-treated group. This study demonstrated that roselle prevents VED and remodelling, and as such it has high nutraceutical value as supplement to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  17. Naidu KR, Kumar KS, Arulselvan P, Reddy CB, Lasekan O
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2012 Dec;345(12):957-63.
    PMID: 23015406 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201200192
    A series of α-hydroxyphosphonates were synthesized from the reaction of aldehyde (1) with triethylphosphite (2) in the presence of oxone and evaluated for their antioxidant properties against lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The majority of the compounds showed promising antioxidant activity. Diethyl anthracen-9-yl (hydroxy) methylphosphonate (3n) is the most potent and biologically active compound against free radicals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  18. Khaledi H, Alhadi AA, Yehye WA, Ali HM, Abdulla MA, Hassandarvish P
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2011 Nov;344(11):703-9.
    PMID: 21953995 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201000223
    A new series of gallic hydrazones containing an indole moiety was synthesized through the reaction of gallic hydrazide and different indole carboxaldehydes. Their antioxidant activities were determined on DPPH radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The in-vitro cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against HCT-116 (human colon cancer cell line) and MCF-7 (estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell line) by the MTT method. An attempt to correlate the biological results with their structural characteristics has been done. A limited positive structure activity relationship was found between cytotoxic and antioxidant activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  19. Rahmat A, Kumar V, Fong LM, Endrini S, Sani HA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(3):308-11.
    PMID: 15331345
    Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infections and degenerative diseases. Literature shows that the antioxidant activity is high on herbal and vegetable plants. Realizing the fact, this research was carried out to determine total antioxidant activity and the potential anticancer properties in three types of selected local vegetable shoots such as Diplazium esculentum (paku shoot), Manihot utillissima (tapioca shoot) and Sauropous androgynus (cekur manis). The research was also done to determine the effect of boiling, on total antioxidant activity whereby samples of fresh shoots are compared with samples of boiled shoots. In every case, antioxidant activity is compared to alpha-tocopherol and two methods of extraction used are the organic and the aqueous methods. Besides that, two research methods used were the ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) with absorbance of 500nm and 532nm respectively. Oneway ANOVA test at P<0.05 determines significant differences between various samples. In the cytotoxic study, the ethanolic extract and several cell lines i.e. breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7), colon cancer (Caco-2), liver cancer (HepG2) and normal liver (Chang liver) were used. The IC(50)-value was determined by using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The antioxidant study found that all the samples in both aqueous and organic extraction were significantly different. The total antioxidant activity values of aqueous extract in descending order are as follows: M. utilissima (fresh) >D. esculentum (fresh) >S.androgynus (fresh) > M.utilissima (boiled) > D. esculentum (boiled) > S.androgynus (boiled). It also was found that S.androgynus shoots ethanolic extract was able to inhibit the viability of the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 with the IC50 value of 53.33 micrograms/ml. However, S.androgynus shoots and D. esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not inhibit the viability of MDA-MB-231 cell line. While, the tapioca shoot ethanolic extract was able to inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cell line with the IC(50) value of 52.49 micrograms/ml. S.androgynus shoots and D.esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not give an IC(50) value against the MCF-7 cell line. S.androgynus, tapioca and D.esculentum shoots ethanolic extracts did not show cytotoxic effect against the Caco-2 and HepG2. There was no IC(50)-value from any sample against Chang Liver cell line. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of both fresh and boiled samples were higher than alpha-tocopherol, although fresh vegetable shoots were found to be higher in antioxidant activity compared to boiled shoots. This study also suggested that S.androgynus shoots and tapioca shoots have potential as an anticancer agent against certain breast tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  20. Har CH, Keong CK
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):374-80.
    PMID: 16326644
    The effects of tocotrienols on murine liver cell viability and their apoptotic events were studied over a dose range of 0-32 microg mL(-1). Normal murine liver cells (BNL CL.2) and murine liver cancer cells (BNL 1ME A.7R.1) were treated with tocotrienols (T(3)), alpha tocopherol (alpha-T) and the chemo drug, Doxorubicin (Doxo, as a positive control). Cell viability assay showed that T(3) significantly (P < or = 0.05) lowered the percentage of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cell viability in a dose-responsive manner (8-16 microg mL(-1)), whereas T did not show any significant (P>0.05) inhibition in cell viability with increasing treatment doses of 0-16 microg mL(-1). The IC(50) for tocotrienols were 9.8, 8.9, 8.1, 9.7, 8.1 and 9.3 microg mL(-1) at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours respectively. Early apoptosis was detected 6 hours following T(3) treatment of BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, using Annexin V-FITC fluorescence microscopy assay for apoptosis, but none were observed for the non-treated liver cancer cells at the average IC(50) of 8.98 microg mL(-1) tocotrienols for liver cancer cells. Several apoptotic bodies were detected in BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells at 6 hours post-treatment with tocotrienols (8.98 microg mL(-1)) using Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide fluorescence assay. However, only a couple of apoptotic bodies were seen in the non-treated liver cancer cells and the BNL CL.2 normal liver cells. Some mitotic bodies were also observed in the T(3)-treated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells but were not seen in the untreated BNL 1ME A.7R.1 cells and the BNL CL.2 liver cells. Following T(3)-treatment (8.98 microg mL(-1)) of the BNL 1ME A.7R.1 liver cancer cells, 24.62%, 25.53% and 44.90% of the cells showed elevated active caspase 3 activity at 9, 12 and 24 hours treatment period, respectively. DNA laddering studies indicated DNA fragmentation occurred in the T(3)-treated liver cancer cells, BNL 1ME A.7R.1 but not in non-treated liver cancer cells and the T(3)-treated and non-treated normal liver cells. These results suggest that tocotrienols were able to reduce the cell viability in the murine liver cancer cells at a dose of 8-32 microg mL(-1) and that this decrease in percentage cell viability may be due to apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
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