Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 550 in total

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  1. Abas F, Hui LS, Ahmad S, Stanslas J, Israf DA, Shaari K, et al.
    Z Naturforsch C J Biosci, 2006 12 2;61(9-10):625-31.
    PMID: 17137104
    Nine derivatives of three natural diarylheptanoids, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, were prepared. Their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory and cytotoxic activities were evaluated and compared with those of the respective natural compounds. Curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), demethyldemethoxy-curcumin (C3), diacetyldemethoxycurcumin (AC2) and triacetyldemethylcurcumin (AC5) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than quercetin while products from demethylation of 1 and 2 exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity. Compounds AC2 and AC5 were found to be most active in inhibiting breast cancer cells (MCF-7) proliferation with IC50 values of 6.7 and 3.6 microM, respectively. The activity of AC2 is almost doubled and of AC5 almost tripled as compared to curcumin. Their selectivity towards different cell lines is also more noticeable. Compounds AC2 and AC5 also showed increased activity against a human prostate cancer cell line (DU-145) and non-small lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460) with IC50 values of 20.4, 16.3 and 18.3, 10.7 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  2. Salleh WMNHW, Khamis S
    Z Naturforsch C J Biosci, 2020 Nov 26;75(11-12):467-471.
    PMID: 32469335 DOI: 10.1515/znc-2020-0075
    Chemical composition and anticholinesterase activity of the essential oil of Pavetta graciliflora Wall. ex Ridl. (Rubiaceae) was examined for the first time. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and was fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 20 components were identified in the essential oil, which made up 92.85% of the total oil. The essential oil is composed mainly of β-caryophyllene (42.52%), caryophyllene oxide (25.33%), β-pinene (8.67%), and α-pinene (6.52%). The essential oil showed weak inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (I%: 62.5%) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (I%: 65.4%) assays. Our findings were shown to be very useful for the characterization, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic applications of the essential oil from P. graciliflora.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  3. Loganathan K, Moriya S, Parhar IS
    Zebrafish, 2018 10;15(5):473-483.
    PMID: 30102584 DOI: 10.1089/zeb.2018.1594
    Ambient light and temperature affect reproductive function by regulating kisspeptin and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates. Melatonin and melatonin receptors, as well as the two-pore domain K+ channel-related K+ (TREK) channels, are affected by light and/or temperature; therefore, these molecules could modulate kisspeptin and GnRH against ambient light and temperature. In this study, we investigated the effect of light and temperature, which affect melatonin levels in gene expression levels of TREK channels, kisspeptin, and GnRH. We first investigated the effects of different light and temperature conditions on brain melatonin concentrations by ELISA. Fish were exposed to either constant darkness, constant light, high temperature (35°C), or low temperature (20°C) for 72 h. Brain melatonin levels were significantly high under constant darkness and high temperature. We further investigated the effects of high brain melatonin levels by constant darkness and high temperature on gene expression levels of melatonin receptors (mt1, mt2, and mel1c), TREK channels (trek1b, trek2a, and trek2b), gnrh3, and kiss2 in the adult zebrafish brain by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fish were exposed to constant darkness or elevated temperatures (35°C) for 72 h. trek2a, kiss2, and gnrh3 levels were increased under constant darkness. High temperature decreased gene expression levels of mt1, mt2, mel1c, and gnrh3 in the preoptic area, whereas other genes remained unchanged. Melatonin receptors, TREK channels, gnrh3, and kiss2 responded differently under high melatonin conditions. The melatonin receptors and the TREK channels could play roles in the regulation of reproduction by environmental cues, especially ambient light and temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  4. Hani H, Allaudin ZN, Mohd-Lila MA, Sarsaifi K, Rasouli M, Tam YJ, et al.
    Xenotransplantation, 2017 05;24(3).
    PMID: 28397308 DOI: 10.1111/xen.12302
    BACKGROUND: Dead islets replaced with viable islets are a promising offer to restore normal insulin production to a person with diabetes. The main reason for establishing a new islet source for transplantation is the insufficiency of human donor pancreas while using xenogeneic islets perhaps assists this problem. The expression of PDX1 is essential for the pancreas expansion. In mature β-cells, PDX1 has several critical roles such as glucose sensing, insulin synthesis, and insulin secretion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) in treated caprine islets in culture and to assess the protective effects of antioxidant factors on the PDX1 gene in cultured caprine islets.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Purified islets were treated with serum-free, serum, IBMX, tocopherol, or IBMX and tocopherol media. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were carried out to compare the expression levels of PDX1 in treated purified islets cultured with different media.

    RESULTS: Islets treated with IBMX/tocopherol exhibited the highest fold change in the relative expression of PDX1 on day 5 post-treatment (relative expression: 6.80±2.08), whereas serum-treated islets showed the lowest fold changes in PDX1 expression on day 5 post-treatment (0.67±0.36), as compared with the expression on day 1 post-treatment. Insulin production and viability tests of purified islets showed superiority of islet at supplemented serum-free media with IBMX/tocopherol compared to other cultures (53.875%±1.59%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that supplemented serum-free medium with tocopherol and IBMX enhances viability and PDX1 gene expression compared to serum-added and serum-free media.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  5. Jamil NAM, Rashid NMN, Hamid MHA, Rahmad N, Al-Obaidi JR
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2017 Dec 04;34(1):1.
    PMID: 29204733 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-017-2385-4
    Tiger's milk mushroom is known for its valuable medicinal properties, especially the tuber part. However, wild tuber is very hard to obtain as it grows underground. This study first aimed to cultivate tiger's milk mushroom tuber through a cultivation technique, and second to compare nutritional and mycochemical contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and compound screening of the cultivated tuber with the wild tuber. Results showed an increase in carbohydrate content by 45.81% and protein content by 123.68% in the cultivated tuber while fat content reduced by 13.04%. Cultivated tuber also showed an increase of up to 64.21% for total flavonoid-like compounds and 62.51% of total β-D-glucan compared to the wild tuber. The antioxidant activity of cultivated tuber and wild tuber was 760 and 840 µg mL-1, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of boiled water extract of cultivated tuber against a human lung cancer cell line (A549) was 65.50 ± 2.12 µg mL-1 and against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7) was 19.35 ± 0.11 µg mL-1. β-D-glucan extract from the purification of boiled water extract of cultivated tuber showed cytotoxic activity at 57.78 ± 2.29 µg mL-1 against A549 and 33.50 ± 1.41 µg mL-1 against MCF7. However, the β-glucan extract from wild tuber did not show a cytotoxic effect against either the A549 or MCF7 cell lines. Also, neither of the extracts from cultivated tuber and wild tuber showed an effect against a normal cell line (MRC5). Compound profiling through by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) showed the appearance of new compounds in the cultivated tuber. In conclusion, our cultivated tuber of tiger's milk mushroom using a new recipe cultivation technique showed improved nutrient and bioactive compound contents, and antioxidant and cytotoxic activities compared to the wild tuber. Further investigations are required to obtain a better quality of cultivated tuber.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  6. Nur Azlina MF, Qodriyah HMS, Chua KH, Kamisah Y
    World J Gastroenterol, 2017 Aug 28;23(32):5887-5894.
    PMID: 28932080 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i32.5887
    AIM: To investigate and compare the effects of tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS).

    METHODS: Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) by oral gavage. After 28 d of treatment, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS one time for 3.5 h. Gastric lesions were measured and gastric tissues were obtained to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA expression.

    RESULTS: Rats exposed to WIRS for 3.5 h demonstrated the presence of considerable ulcers in the form of gastric erosion. The lesion index in the stressed control (S) group was increased (P < 0.001) compared to the tocotrienol treated and omeprazole treated groups. Stress led to a decrease in gastric VEGF (P < 0.001), bFGF (P < 0.001) and TGF-α (P < 0.001) mRNA levels and caused an increase in EGF mRNA (P < 0.001) that was statistically significant compared to the non-stressed control group. Although both treatment agents exerted similar ulcer reducing ability, only treatment with tocotrienol led to increased expression of VEGF (P = 0.008), bFGF (P = 0.001) and TGF-α (P = 0.002) mRNA.

    CONCLUSION: Tocotrienol provides gastroprotective effects in WIRS-induced ulcers. Compared to omeprazole, tocotrienol exerts a similar protective effect, albeit through multiple mechanisms of protection, particularly through up-regulation of growth factors that assist in repair of gastric tissue injuries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  7. Tan BL, Norhaizan ME, Huynh K, Yeap SK, Hazilawati H, Roselina K
    World J Gastroenterol, 2015 Aug 7;21(29):8826-35.
    PMID: 26269672 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8826
    To investigate the mechanistic action of brewers' rice in regulating the Wnt/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/Nrf2-signaling pathways during colon carcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  8. Jaganathan SK, Supriyanto E, Mandal M
    World J Gastroenterol, 2013 Nov 21;19(43):7726-34.
    PMID: 24282361 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7726
    AIM: To investigate the events associated with the apoptotic effect of p-Coumaric acid, one of the phenolic components of honey, in human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-15) cells.

    METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tertazolium-bromide assay was performed to determine the antiproliferative effect of p-Coumaric acid against colon cancer cells. Colony forming assay was conducted to quantify the colony inhibition in HCT 15 and HT 29 colon cancer cells after p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium Iodide staining of the HCT 15 cells using flow cytometry was done to study the changes in the cell cycle of treated cells. Identification of apoptosis was done using scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph evaluation of HCT 15 cells after exposing to p-Coumaric acid. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of HCT 15 cells exposed to p-Coumaric acid was evaluated using 2', 7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate. Mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 was assessed using rhodamine-123 with the help of flow cytometry. Lipid layer breaks associated with p-Coumaric acid treatment was quantified using the dye merocyanine 540. Apoptosis was confirmed and quantified using flow cytometric analysis of HCT 15 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment after staining with YO-PRO-1.

    RESULTS: Antiproliferative test showed p-Coumaric acid has an inhibitory effect on HCT 15 and HT 29 cells with an IC₅₀ (concentration for 50% inhibition) value of 1400 and 1600 μmol/L respectively. Colony forming assay revealed the time-dependent inhibition of HCT 15 and HT 29 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium iodide staining of treated HCT 15 cells showed increasing accumulation of apoptotic cells (37.45 ± 1.98 vs 1.07 ± 1.01) at sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle after p-Coumaric acid treatment. HCT-15 cells observed with photomicrograph and scanning electron microscope showed the signs of apoptosis like blebbing and shrinkage after p-Coumaric acid exposure. Evaluation of the lipid layer showed increasing lipid layer breaks was associated with the growth inhibition of p-Coumaric acid. A fall in mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing ROS generation was observed in the p-Coumaric acid treated cells. Further apoptosis evaluated by YO-PRO-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment.

    CONCLUSION: These results depicted that p-Coumaric acid inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through ROS-mitochondrial pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  9. Siti HN, Kamisah Y, Kamsiah J
    Vascul. Pharmacol., 2015 Aug;71:40-56.
    PMID: 25869516 DOI: 10.1016/j.vph.2015.03.005
    The concept of mild chronic vascular inflammation as part of the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease, most importantly hypertension and atherosclerosis, has been well accepted. Indeed there are links between vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. However, there are still gaps in our understanding regarding this matter that might be the cause behind disappointing results of antioxidant therapy for cardiovascular risk factors in large-scale long-term randomised controlled trials. Apart from the limitations of our knowledge, limitations in methodology and assessment of the body's endogenous and exogenous oxidant-antioxidant status are a serious handicap. The pleiotropic effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammation that are shown by some well-established antihypertensive agents and statins partly support the idea of using antioxidants in vascular diseases as still relevant. This review aims to provide an overview of the links between oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors, importantly focusing on blood pressure regulation and atherosclerosis. In view of the potential benefits of antioxidants, this review will also examine the proposed role of vitamin C, vitamin E and polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases as well as the success or failure of antioxidant therapy for cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  10. Malahubban M, Alimon AR, Sazili AQ, Fakurazi S, Zakry FA
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Sep;30(3):467-80.
    PMID: 24189677 MyJurnal
    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  11. Koriem KM, Abdelhamid AZ, Younes HF
    Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 2013 Feb;23(2):134-43.
    PMID: 22992185 DOI: 10.3109/15376516.2012.730561
    Caffeic acid (CA) (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acid is the major subgroup of phenolic compounds. Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent addictive psychostimulant. Chronic use and acute METH intoxication can cause substantial medical consequences, including spleen, kidney, liver and heart. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CA to protect against oxidative stress and DNA damage to various organs in METH toxicity. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 was injected (i.p) with saline (1 mL/kg) while groups 2,3 and 4 were injected (i.p) with METH (10 mg/kg) twice a day over five days period. Where 100 & 200 mg/kg of CA were injected (i.p) into groups 3 and 4, respectively one day before exposure to METH injections. Tissue antioxidants and DNA content were evaluated in different tissues. METH decreased glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels while increased malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and protein carbonyl levels in brain (hypothalamus), liver, and kidney tissues of rats. METH increased hyperdiploidy in these tissues and DNA damage results. Prior treatment of CA to animals exposed to METH restores the above parameters to the normal levels and preserves the DNA content of these tissues. These results were supported by histopathological investigations. In conclusion, METH induced oxidative stress and DNA damage and pretreatment of CA before METH injections prevented tissue oxidative stress and DNA damage in METH-treated animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  12. Inayat-Hussain SH, Osman AB, Din LB, Taniguchi N
    Toxicol Lett, 2002 May 28;131(3):153-9.
    PMID: 11992734
    Plant styryl-lactone derivatives isolated from Goniothalamus sp. are potential compounds for cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we have examined the mechanisms of apoptosis induced by altholactone, a stryl-lactone isolated from the Malaysian plant G. malayanus on human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Flow cytometric analysis of the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) using the annexin V/PI method on altholactone treated HL-60 cells showed a concentration-dependent increase of apoptosis from concentrations ranging from 10.8 (2.5 microg/ml) to 172.4 microM (40 microg/ml). Pre-treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (1 mM) completely abrogated apoptosis induced by altholactone, suggesting for the involvement of oxidative stress. Further flow cytometric assessment of the level of intracellular peroxides using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) confirmed that altholactone induced an increase in cellular oxidative stress in HL-60 cells which was suppressed by N-acetylcysteine. In summary, our results demonstrate for the first time that altholactone induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells occurs via oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  13. Muhsain SN, Lang MA, Abu-Bakar A
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2015 Jan 1;282(1):77-89.
    PMID: 25478736 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2014.11.010
    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200mgpyrazole/kg/day for 3days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  14. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Hussaini J, Khor GH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:908098.
    PMID: 25485304 DOI: 10.1155/2014/908098
    To estimate the impact of ellagic acid (EA) towards healing tooth socket in diabetic animals, after tooth extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  15. Farzinebrahimi R, Mat Taha R, Rashid K, Syafawati Yaacob J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:407284.
    PMID: 24967432 DOI: 10.1155/2014/407284
    The leaf of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis was used as explants and was cultured on MS and WPM media supplemented with various concentrations of NAA, IAA, 2,4-D, IBA, TDZ, and Kn (0 to 5 mg L(-1) with 0.5 increment). After six months, the higher percentage of callus (100%) and the best dry and fresh weight of callus were formed on WPM medium supplemented with 2,4-D and NAA (2.0-3.0 mg L(-1)) and this amount was decreased from (84%) to (69%) when this media supplemented with Kinetin and TDZ (1 mg L(-1)) respectively were used. Leaf segments cultured on WPM media added with Kn (1 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (2 mg L(-1)) yielded the least amount of callus. It was found that WPM media added with IAA (4.5-5.0 mg L(-1)) were optimum for root induction from G. jasminoides plantlets. Antibacterial screening of leaf extracts (in vivo) showed no inhibitory effect against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. cereus, in contrast to callus extracts from leaf cultures supplemented with NAA, which showed inhibition activity against E. coli and B. cereus. The callus extracts from leaf cultures grown on both MS and WPM media showed higher antioxidant and superoxide dismutase activities than leaf extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  16. Devaraj S, Ismail S, Ramanathan S, Yam MF
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:353128.
    PMID: 25133223 DOI: 10.1155/2014/353128
    Curcuma xanthorrhiza (CX) has been used for centuries in traditional system of medicine to treat several diseases such as hepatitis, liver complaints, and diabetes. It has been consumed as food supplement and "jamu" as a remedy for hepatitis. Hence, CX was further explored for its potential as a functional food for liver related diseases. As such, initiative was taken to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of CX rhizome. Antioxidant activity of the standardized CX fractions was determined using in vitro assays. Hepatoprotective assay was conducted against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced hepatic damage in rats at doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of hexane fraction. Highest antioxidant activity was found in hexane fraction. In the case of hepatoprotective activity, CX hexane fraction showed significant improvement in terms of a biochemical liver function, antioxidative liver enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activity. Good recovery was observed in the treated hepatic tissues histologically. Hence, the results concluded that CX hexane fraction possessed prominent hepatoprotective activities which might be due to its in vitro antioxidant activity. These findings also support the use of CX as a functional food for hepatitis remedy in traditional medicinal system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  17. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:523120.
    PMID: 25147852 DOI: 10.1155/2014/523120
    Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%-80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40-70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20-40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
  18. Ramaiya SD, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:167309.
    PMID: 25028673 DOI: 10.1155/2014/167309
    This study focused on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaves and stems of Passiflora quadrangularis, P. maliformis, and P. edulis extracted using three solvents: petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol. The maximum extraction yields of antioxidant components from the leaves and stems were isolated using methanol extracts of P. edulis (24.28%) and P. quadrangularis (9.76%), respectively. Among the leaf extracts, the methanol extract of P. maliformis had the significantly highest TPC and the strongest antioxidant activity, whereas among the stem extracts, the methanol extract of P. quadrangularis showed the highest phenolic amount and possessed the strongest antioxidant activity. The antibacterial properties of the Passiflora species were tested using the disc diffusion method against 10 human pathogenic bacteria. The largest inhibition zone was observed for the methanol extract of P. maliformis against B. subtilis. Generally, extracts from the Passiflora species exhibit distinct inhibition against Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria. Based on the generated biplot, three clusters of bacteria were designated according to their performance towards the tested extracts. The present study revealed that methanol extracts of the Passiflora contain constituents with significant phenolic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  19. Islam MK, Biswas NN, Saha S, Hossain H, Jahan IA, Khan TA, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:869537.
    PMID: 24707219 DOI: 10.1155/2014/869537
    Different parts of the medicinal plant Zanthoxylum budrunga Wall enjoy a variety of uses in ethnobotanical practice in Bangladesh. In the present study, a number of phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were done on the ethanol extract of Z. budrunga seeds (ZBSE) to evaluate its antinociceptive and antioxidant potential. ZBSE was also subjected to HPLC analysis to detect the presence of some common antioxidants. In acetic acid induced writhing test in mice, ZBSE showed 65.28 and 74.30% inhibition of writhing at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg and the results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In hot-plate test, ZBSE raised the pain threshold significantly (P < 0.001) throughout the entire observation period. In DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 of ZBSE was observed at 82.60 μg/mL. The phenolic content was found to be 338.77 mg GAE/100 g of dried plant material. In reducing power assay, ZBSE showed a concentration dependent reducing ability. HPLC analysis indicated the presence of caffeic acid with a concentration of 75.45 mg/100 g ZBSE. Present investigation supported the use of Zanthoxylum budrunga seed in traditional medicine for pain management. Constituents including caffeic acid and other phenolics might have some role in the observed activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology*
  20. Ablat A, Mohamad J, Awang K, Shilpi JA, Arya A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:786130.
    PMID: 24688431 DOI: 10.1155/2014/786130
    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05) in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05) of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min) compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antioxidants/pharmacology
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