Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 76 in total

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  1. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Ray M, Logan R, Sterne JA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM, et al.
    AIDS, 2010 Jan 02;24(1):123-37.
    PMID: 19770621 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

    DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

    RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/mortality*
  2. Lim A, Tan D, Price P, Kamarulzaman A, Tan HY, James I, et al.
    AIDS, 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1525-34.
    PMID: 17630546
    To examine the relationships between blood CD4 natural regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasma HIV RNA level, CD4 T-cell count and immune activation in untreated HIV-infected patients and immunodeficient patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART), using a novel phenotype to define Treg cells (CD25CD127CD4). Data were compared with established Treg cell markers (FoxP3, CTLA-4 and GITR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  3. Mendelsohn JB, Schilperoord M, Spiegel P, Balasundaram S, Radhakrishnan A, Lee CK, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2014 Feb;18(2):323-34.
    PMID: 23748862 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0494-0
    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  4. Culbert GJ, Bazazi AR, Waluyo A, Murni A, Muchransyah AP, Iriyanti M, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 05;20(5):1026-38.
    PMID: 26400080 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1198-4
    Negative attitudes toward HIV medications may restrict utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indonesian prisons where many people living with HIV (PLH) are diagnosed and first offered ART. This mixed-method study examines the influence of medication attitudes on ART utilization among HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners. Randomly-selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 102) completed face-to-face in-depth interviews and structured surveys assessing ART attitudes. Results show that although half of participants utilized ART, a quarter of those meeting ART eligibility guidelines did not. Participants not utilizing ART endorsed greater concerns about ART efficacy, safety, and adverse effects, and more certainty that ART should be deferred in PLH who feel healthy. In multivariate analyses, ART utilization was independently associated with more positive ART attitudes (AOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) and higher internalized HIV stigma (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.016). Social marketing of ART is needed to counteract negative ART attitudes that limit ART utilization among Indonesian prisoners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/psychology; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/utilization*
  5. Culbert GJ, Waluyo A, Wang M, Putri TA, Bazazi AR, Altice FL
    AIDS Behav, 2019 Aug;23(8):2048-2058.
    PMID: 30465106 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-018-2344-6
    With adequate support, people with HIV (PWH) may achieve high levels of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during incarceration. We examined factors associated with ART utilization and adherence among incarcerated PWH (N = 150) in Indonesia. ART utilization was positively associated with HIV status disclosure (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.5, 95% CI 1.2-24.1, p = 0.023), drug dependency (aOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.6, p = 0.022), health service satisfaction (aOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.2, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  6. Jamal Mohamed T, Teeraananchai S, Kerr S, Phongsamart W, Nik Yusoff NK, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2017 03;33(3):230-233.
    PMID: 27758114 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2016.0039
    We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in six Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and ≥1 of the following: (1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, (2) switch of ≥1 additional drug, or (3) a preceding HIV VL ≥1,000 copies/ml. Routine VL was having ≥1 test after ≥24 weeks of ART and ≥1 time/year thereafter. Factors associated with time to switch were evaluated with death and loss to follow-up as competing risks. A total of 2,398 children were included in this analysis. At ART initiation, the median (interquartile range) age was 6.0 (3.3-8.9) years, more than half had WHO stage 3 or 4, the median CD4 was 189 (47-456) cells/mm3, 93% were on NNRTI-based first-line ART, and 34% had routine VL monitoring. Treatment switch occurred in 17.6% of patients, at a median of 35 (22-49) months. After adjusting for country, sex, first ART regimen, and CD4% at ART initiation, children with routine VL monitoring were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.93) times more likely to be switched (p = .007). Scale-up of VL testing will lead to earlier identification of treatment failure, and it can help guide earlier switches to prevent resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  7. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods
  8. Kiertiburanakul S, Boettiger D, Ng OT, Van Kinh N, Merati TP, Avihingsanon A, et al.
    AIDS Res Ther, 2017;14:27.
    PMID: 28484509 DOI: 10.1186/s12981-017-0151-1
    BACKGROUND: Abacavir and rilpivirine are alternative antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. However, both drugs are only recommended for the patients who have pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL. In resource-limited settings, pre-treatment HIV RNA is not routinely performed and not widely available. The aims of this study are to determine factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL and to construct a model to predict this outcome.

    METHODS: HIV-infected adults enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database were eligible if they had an HIV RNA measurement documented at the time of ART initiation. The dataset was randomly split into a derivation data set (75% of patients) and a validation data set (25%). Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for study site. A prediction model and prediction scores were created.

    RESULTS: A total of 2592 patients were enrolled for the analysis. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 35.8 (29.9-42.5) years; CD4 count was 147 (50-248) cells/mm3; and pre-treatment HIV RNA was 100,000 (34,045-301,075) copies/mL. Factors associated with pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL were age <30 years [OR 1.40 vs. 41-50 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.80, p = 0.01], body mass index >30 kg/m2(OR 2.4 vs. <18.5 kg/m2; 95% CI 1.1-5.1, p = 0.02), anemia (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.40-2.10, p 350 cells/mm3(OR 3.9 vs. <100 cells/mm3; 95% CI 2.0-4.1, p 2000 cells/mm3(OR 1.7 vs. <1000 cells/mm3; 95% CI 1.3-2.3, p 25 yielded the sensitivity of 46.7%, specificity of 79.1%, positive predictive value of 67.7%, and negative predictive value of 61.2% for prediction of pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL among derivation patients.

    CONCLUSION: A model prediction for pre-treatment HIV RNA <100,000 copies/mL produced an area under the ROC curve of 0.70. A larger sample size for prediction model development as well as for model validation is warranted.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  9. Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF
    AIDS Rev, 2019;21(1):28-39.
    PMID: 30899114 DOI: 10.24875/AIDSRev.19000037
    Successful HIV treatment is contingent on sustained high levels of treatment adherence. Several barriers to optimal adherence have been documented. In this article, we first review the global burden of non-adherence among HIV/AIDS positive individuals on a public health scale. Second, we synthesized available evidence from different study designs and stratified across the European, African, and Asian literature to determine the factors influencing adherence to scheduled clinic appointments and medication non-adherence. Third, we discuss common measurement techniques that quantify the magnitude of non-adherence, their relative advantages and limitations in current practice. From January to May 2018, we reviewed guidelines, standard operating procedures, journal articles, and book chapters on treatment adherence among HIV patients receiving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. We searched PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the search terms "adherence," "adherence behavior," "medication adherence," and "HIV patients," or "HIV/AIDS," and "Antiretroviral Therapy" or "ART" or "ARVs" or "highly active ART " from 2000 to 2017. We also identified articles through searches of authors' files and previous research on HIV. We included only papers published in English in this review. We then generated a final list of reference on the basis of originality and the broad scope of this review. We found rich literature evidence of research findings and best practice recommendations on the importance of adherence in HIV/AIDS management, a general understanding of factors associated with non-adherence and approaches to investigating non-adherence behavior among different populations. We observed significant contextual differences exist with regard to barriers and burden of non-adherence among these populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  10. Oche OM, Sadiq UA, Oladigbolu RA, Chinna K
    Ann Afr Med, 2018 9 7;17(3):125-132.
    PMID: 30185681 DOI: 10.4103/aam.aam_39_17
    Background: In resource-scarce settings like Nigeria, access to conventional drugs and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is highly limited, hence the resort to use of traditional herbal medicine by a significant number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHAs). Traditional medicine (TM) continues to provide health coverage for most of the people in developing countries, and it is equally becoming increasingly popular in western countries.

    Aim: This study aims to present the status and use of TM and determine the factors associated with its use among patients with HIV/AIDS on highly active ART in a tertiary health institution in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria.

    Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study involving HIV/AIDS patients attending antiretroviral treatment center of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Nigeria. The study population comprised PLWHAs attending the ART clinic of the hospital (UDUTH). A total of 271 respondents were recruited into the study and administered a set of pretested structured questionnaire. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the ethical committee of the teaching hospital.

    Results: Only 11 (4.2%) of the respondents had used TM before, of whom 9 (5%) were females and 2 (2.7%) were males with P = 0.399. Only one of the respondents had side effects following the use of TM, and the most common reason for the use of TM was as a result of too much weight loss.

    Conclusion: Although the use of TM among the study participants in Sokoto was low, there is need to educate PLWHAs about the possible risks of interactions following the concurrent use of TM and ART.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  11. Azwa I, Khong SY
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2012 Dec;41(12):587-94.
    PMID: 23303117
    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  12. Petoumenos K, Choi JY, Hoy J, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Boyd M, et al.
    Antivir. Ther. (Lond.), 2017;22(8):659-668.
    PMID: 28291735 DOI: 10.3851/IMP3155
    BACKGROUND: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients.

    METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort. Factors associated with a low CD4:CD8 ratio (cutoff <0.2) prior to ART commencement, and with achieving a normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1) at 12 and 24 months post ART commencement were assessed using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: There were 591 patients from AHOD and 2,620 patients from TAHOD who met the inclusion criteria. TAHOD patients had a significantly (P<0.001) lower odds of having a baseline (prior to ART initiation) CD4:CD8 ratio greater than 0.2. After 12 months of ART, AHOD patients were more than twice as likely to achieve a normal CD4:CD8 ratio compared to TAHOD patients (15% versus 6%). However, after adjustment for confounding factors there was no significant difference between cohorts in the odds of achieving a CD4:CD8 ratio >1 (P=0.475).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly lower CD4:CD8 ratio prior to commencing ART in TAHOD compared to AHOD even after adjusting for confounders. However, after adjustment, there was no significant difference between the cohorts in odds of achieving normal ratio. Baseline CD4+ and CD8+ counts seem to be the main driver for this difference between these two populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  13. Hejazi N, Rajikan R, Choong CL, Sahar S
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:758.
    PMID: 23947428 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-758
    In the current two decades, dyslipidemia and increased blood glucose as metabolic abnormalities are the most common health threats with a high incidence among HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Scientific investigations and reports on lipid and glucose disorders among HIV infected communities are inadequate especially in those developing such as Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey was mainly aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities and associated risk factors among HIV infected population patients on ARV medication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  14. Chitra P, Bakthavatsalam B, Palvannan T
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2014 Sep;68(7):881-5.
    PMID: 25194446 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2014.07.017
    Rheumatoid arthritis in HIV patients undergoing HAART is associated with increased risk of side effect. Elevation of uric acid (UA) is important in tissue damage, deposition of crystal in joints leads to the development of rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group. Moreover; the ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea and uric acid/creatinine were also studied. To analyze the progression of HIV, the immunological parameters were correlated with uric acid. Our result showed a statistically high significant increase in uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C, urea and creatinine in the HAART complaint group when compared to HAART non-complaint group, early stage and control. The ratio of uric acid/cystatin C, uric acid/urea, uric acid/creatinine were significantly increased in the HAART complaint group. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between uric acid and cystatin C, urea, creatinine, absolute CD4 and CD8 count. The increased level of uric acid, RA factor, ANA, ESR, cystatin C and increased ratio of uric acid/cystatin C in the HAART complaint group might conclude the mechanism underlying the increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis in the HAART complaint group which may relate to the combined effects of low-grade inflammation and renal dysfunction.

    Study done in India
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects*
  15. Thabethe KR, Adefolaju GA, Hosie MJ
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2015 Apr;71:227-32.
    PMID: 25960241 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2015.03.001
    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer globally and it is one of three AIDS defining malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs and has been shown to play a significant role in reducing the incidence of some AIDS defining malignancies, although its effect on cervical cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cervical cancer and HAART. This was achieved by studying the expression of two signalling molecules expressed in cervical cancer; MUC1 and P65. Following the 24-hour treatment of a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2, with drugs, which are commonly used as part of HAART at their clinical plasma concentrations, real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence were used in order to study gene and protein expression. A one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test was conducted using JMP 11 software on both sets of data. The drug classified as a protease inhibitor (PI) (i.e. LPV/r) reduced MUC1 and P65 gene and protein expression more than the other drug tested. PIs are known to play a significant role in cell death; therefore, the cells were thought to be more susceptible to cell death following treatment with PIs. In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  16. Chitra P, Bakthavatsalam B, Palvannan T
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2011 May 12;412(11-12):1151-4.
    PMID: 21300045 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2011.01.037
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defines the end stage of Human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study was carried out to assess the serum β-2 microglobulin (B2M) as a marker for progression of HIV infected patients undergoing HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  17. Bere A, Tayib S, Kriek JM, Masson L, Jaumdally SZ, Barnabas SL, et al.
    Clin. Immunol., 2014 Feb;150(2):210-9.
    PMID: 24440646 DOI: 10.1016/j.clim.2013.12.005
    HIV-infected individuals experience more persistent HPV infections and are less likely to resolve genital warts. This study compared phenotype and functions of NK and T cells from genital warts and blood from 67 women. We compared in vitro functional responses of NK and T cells by multiparametric flow cytometry. HIV+ women had significantly lower frequencies of CD4 T cells in warts (p = 0.001) and blood (p = 0.001). While the distribution of NK cell subsets was similar, HIV+ women tended to have lower frequencies of CD56(Dim) NK cells in both blood (p = 0.0001) and warts (p = 0.006) than HIV- women. Wart NK cells from HIV+ women expressed significantly lower CD107a and produced IFN-γ. HAART status was not associated with differences in NK cell functionality. We conclude that wart NK cells from HIV+ women have defects in their ability to degranulate and/or secrete IFN-γ, which may provide insights into why HIV+ women fail to spontaneously resolve genital warts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  18. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  19. Lian YL, Heng BS, Nissapatorn V, Lee C
    Curr. HIV Res., 2007 Sep;5(5):484-9.
    PMID: 17896968
    Attempts to address the significant impact of HAART on medical variables on the Malaysian HIV/AIDS population have yet to be evaluated. This study aims to analyze the proportions of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) before and after HAART. A retrospective study was carried out on 128 new cases of HIV infected patients who first commenced HAART in 2004 at the national HIV reference center. Before commencement of HAART, 76 clinical episodes of ADIs were recorded in 52 patients. Most common being pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28.9%), PCP (27.6%) and disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (11.8%). During HAART, 8 clinical episodes of ADIs were documented in 7 patients with a median time of onset of 10 weeks after initiation of HAART (range, 4-36 weeks). The median CD4 count at the time of the commencement of HAART for these patients was 11 cells/mm(3). ADIs reported include PCP (2 episodes), disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2 episodes), extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (1 episode), esophageal candidiasis (1 episode), recurrent pneumonia (1 episode) and disseminated or extrapulmonary histoplasmosis (1 episode). Three (37.5%) of these occurred despite a reduction of viral load by at least 2 log(10) and an increased in the CD4 cell count. In conclusion, ADIs can still present after the initiation of successful HAART especially in those with CD4 counts below 100 cells/mm(3). In Malaysia, ADIs are the major causes of HIV/AIDS associated morbidity and mortality, thus increased awareness on the management of these illnesses is warranted especially in the months following HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  20. Yap FB, Thevarajah S, Asmah J
    Dermatol. Online J., 2010;16(7):2.
    PMID: 20673530
    Penicilliosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Penicillium marneffei. The infection is most commonly seen in Southeast Asia, Southern China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It is rarely seen among individuals of African descent. Here, we report a case of penicilliosis in an African man from Namibia who was studying in Malaysia. He presented with multiple umbilicated papules associated with cough, fever, loss of appetite, and weight. He also had urethral discharge and admitted to unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners. Histopathological examination of a skin papule showed the presence of multiple 2 to 4 microm intracellular yeast cells. Culture of the papule revealed Penicillium marneffei. The serology for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was positive. This case illustrates the need to recognize penicilliosis in any individuals staying or travelling to Southeast Asia and the need to look for underlying HIV infection in adults with umbilicated papules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
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