Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

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  1. Kwan YM, Meon S, Ho CL, Wong MY
    J. Plant Physiol., 2015 Feb 1;174:131-6.
    PMID: 25462975 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2014.10.003
    Nitric oxide associated 1 (NOA1) protein is implicated in plant disease resistance and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. A full-length cDNA encoding of NOA1 protein from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was isolated and designated as EgNOA1. Sequence analysis suggested that EgNOA1 was a circular permutated GTPase with high similarity to the bacterial YqeH protein of the YawG/YlqF family. The gene expression of EgNOA1 and NO production in oil palm root tissues treated with Ganoderma boninense, the causal agent of basal stem rot (BSR) disease were profiled to investigate the involvement of EgNOA1 during fungal infection and association with NO biosynthesis. Real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the transcript abundance of EgNOA1 in root tissues was increased by G. boninense treatment. NO burst in Ganoderma-treated root tissue was detected using Griess reagent, in advance of the up-regulation of the EgNOA1 transcript. This indicates that NO production was independent of EgNOA1. However, the induced expression of EgNOA1 in Ganoderma-treated root tissues implies that it might be involved in plant defense responses against pathogen infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  2. Masura SS, Parveez GK, Ti LL
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2011 Jul;49(7):701-8.
    PMID: 21549610 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.04.003
    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  3. Seng TY, Mohamed Saad SH, Chin CW, Ting NC, Harminder Singh RS, Qamaruz Zaman F, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2011;6(11):e26593.
    PMID: 22069457 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026593
    Enroute to mapping QTLs for yield components in oil palm, we constructed the linkage map of a FELDA high yielding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), hybrid cross. The parents of the mapping population are a Deli dura and a pisifera of Yangambi origin. The cross out-yielded the average by 8-21% in four trials all of which yielded comparably to the best current commercial planting materials. The higher yield derived from a higher fruit oil content. SSR markers in the public domain - from CIRAD and MPOB, as well as some developed in FELDA - were used for the mapping, augmented by locally-designed AFLP markers. The female parent linkage map comprised 317 marker loci and the male parent map 331 loci, both in 16 linkage groups each. The number of markers per group ranged from 8-47 in the former and 12-40 in the latter. The integrated map was 2,247.5 cM long and included 479 markers and 168 anchor points. The number of markers per linkage group was 15-57, the average being 29, and the average map density 4.7 cM. The linkage groups ranged in length from 77.5 cM to 223.7 cM, with an average of 137 cM. The map is currently being validated against a closely related population and also being expanded to include yield related QTLs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  4. Goh KM, Dickinson M, Supramaniam CV
    Physiol Plant, 2018 Mar;162(3):274-289.
    PMID: 28940509 DOI: 10.1111/ppl.12645
    Lignification of the plant cell wall could serve as the first line of defense against pathogen attack, but the molecular mechanisms of virulence and disease between oil palm and Ganoderma boninense are poorly understood. This study presents the biochemical, histochemical, enzymology and gene expression evidences of enhanced lignin biosynthesis in young oil palm as a response to G. boninense (GBLS strain). Comparative studies with control (T1), wounded (T2) and infected (T3) oil palm plantlets showed significant accumulation of total lignin content and monolignol derivatives (syringaldehyde and vanillin). These derivatives were deposited on the epidermal cell wall of infected plants. Moreover, substantial differences were detected in the activities of enzyme and relative expressions of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.11), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195). These enzymes are key intermediates dedicated to the biosynthesis of lignin monomers, the guaicyl (G), syringyl (S) and ρ-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. Results confirmed an early, biphasic and transient positive induction of all gene intermediates, except for CAD enzyme activities. These differences were visualized by anatomical and metabolic changes in the profile of lignin in the oil palm plantlets such as low G lignin, indicating a potential mechanism for enhanced susceptibility toward G. boninense infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  5. Masani MY, Parveez GK, Izawati AM, Lan CP, Siti Nor Akmar A
    Plasmid, 2009 Nov;62(3):191-200.
    PMID: 19699761 DOI: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2009.08.002
    One of the targets in oil palm genetic engineering programme is the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) in the oil palm leaf tissues. Production of PHB requires the use of phbA (beta-ketothiolase type A), phbB (acetoacetyl-CoA reductase) and phbC (PHB synthase) genes of Ralstonia eutropha, whereas bktB (beta-ketothiolase type B), phbB, phbC genes of R. eutropha and tdcB (threonine dehydratase) gene of Escherichia coli were used for PHBV production. Each of these genes was fused with a transit peptide (Tp) of oil palm acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) gene, driven by an oil palm leaf-specific promoter (LSP1) to genetically engineer the PHB/PHBV pathway to the plastids of the leaf tissues. In total, four transformation vectors, designated pLSP15 (PHB) and pLSP20 (PHBV), and pLSP13 (PHB) and pLSP23 (PHBV), were constructed for transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana and oil palm, respectively. The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene (bar) driven by CaMV35S promoter in pLSP15 and pLSP20, and ubiquitin promoter in pLSP13 and pLSP23 were used as the plant selectable markers. Matrix attachment region of tobacco (RB7MAR) was also included in the vectors to stabilize the transgene expression and to minimize silencing due to positional effect. Restriction digestion, PCR amplification and/or sequencing were carried out to ensure sequence integrity and orientation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics
  6. Chan PL, Rose RJ, Abdul Murad AM, Zainal Z, Low ET, Ooi LC, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e99774.
    PMID: 24927412 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099774
    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  7. Ting NC, Jansen J, Mayes S, Massawe F, Sambanthamurthi R, Ooi LC, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2014;15:309.
    PMID: 24767304 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-309
    Oil palm is an important perennial oil crop with an extremely long selection cycle of 10 to 12 years. As such, any tool that speeds up its genetic improvement process, such as marker-assisted breeding is invaluable. Previously, genetic linkage maps based on AFLP, RFLP and SSR markers were developed and QTLs for fatty acid composition and yield components identified. High density genetic maps of crosses of different genetic backgrounds are indispensable tools for investigating oil palm genetics. They are also useful for comparative mapping analyses to identify markers closely linked to traits of interest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  8. Low ET, Rosli R, Jayanthi N, Mohd-Amin AH, Azizi N, Chan KL, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e86728.
    PMID: 24497974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086728
    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  9. Ting NC, Zaki NM, Rosli R, Low ET, Ithnin M, Cheah SC, et al.
    J. Genet., 2010 Aug;89(2):135-45.
    PMID: 20861564
    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  10. Ting NC, Jansen J, Nagappan J, Ishak Z, Chin CW, Tan SG, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(1):e53076.
    PMID: 23382832 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053076
    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics
  11. Low ET, Alias H, Boon SH, Shariff EM, Tan CY, Ooi LC, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2008;8:62.
    PMID: 18507865 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-62
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  12. San CT, Shah FH
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2005 Dec;32(4):227-35.
    PMID: 16328884
    The mRNA differential display method was utilized to study the differential expression and regulation of genes in two species of oil palm, the commercially grown variety Elaeis guineensis, var. tenera and the South American species, Elaeis oleifera. We demonstrated the differential expression of genes in the mesocarp and kernel at the week of active oil synthesis (15 week after anthesis) during fruit development as compare to the roots and leaves and the isolation of tissue-specific and species-specific cDNA clones. A total of eight specific cDNA clones were isolated and their specificities were confirmed by Northern hybridization and classified into three groups. Group one contains four clones (KT3, KT4, KT5 and KT6) that are kernel-specific for E. guineensis, tenera and E. oleifera. The second group represents clone FST1, which is mesocarp and kernel-specific for E. guineensis, tenera and E. oleifera. The third group represents clones MLT1, MLT2 and MLO1 that are mesocarp and leaf-specific. Northern analysis showed that their expressions were developmentally regulated. Nucleotide sequencing and homology search in GenBank data revealed that clones KT3 and KT4 encode for the same maturation protein PM3. While clones MLT1 and MLT2 encode for S-ribonuclease binding protein and fibrillin, respectively. The other clones (KT5, KT6, FST1 and MLO1) did not display any significant homology to any known protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  13. Parveez GK, Rasid OA, Masani MY, Sambanthamurthi R
    Plant Cell Rep., 2015 Apr;34(4):533-43.
    PMID: 25480400 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-014-1722-4
    Oil palm is a major economic crop for Malaysia. The major challenges faced by the industry are labor shortage, availability of arable land and unstable commodity price. This has caused the industry to diversify its applications into higher value products besides increasing its yield. While conventional breeding has its limitations, biotechnology was identified as one of the tools for overcoming the above challenges. Research on biotechnology of oil palm began more than two decades ago leveraging a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemical studies, gene and promoter isolation, transformation vector construction and finally genetic transformation to produce the targeted products. The main target of oil palm biotechnology research is to increase oleic acid in the mesocarp. Other targets are stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, lycopene (carotenoid) and biodegradable plastics. Significant achievements were reported for the biochemical studies, isolation of useful oil palm genes and characterization of important promoters. A large number of transformation constructs for various targeted products were successfully produced using the isolated oil palm genes and promoters. Finally transformation of these constructs into oil palm embryogenic calli was carried out while the regeneration of transgenic oil palm harboring the useful genes is in progress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  14. Singh R, Ong-Abdullah M, Low ET, Manaf MA, Rosli R, Nookiah R, et al.
    Nature, 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):335-9.
    PMID: 23883927 DOI: 10.1038/nature12309
    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  15. Ibrahim ER, Hossain MA, Roslan HA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:348140.
    PMID: 25295258 DOI: 10.1155/2014/348140
    Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) is a perennial plant native to Southeast Asia and exploited mainly for the starch content in its trunk. Genetic improvement of sago palm is extremely slow when compared to other annual starch crops. Urgent attention is needed to improve the sago palm planting material and can be achieved through nonconventional methods. We have previously developed a tissue culture method for sago palm, which is used to provide the planting materials and to develop a genetic transformation procedure. Here, we report the genetic transformation of sago embryonic callus derived from suspension culture using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and gene gun systems. The transformed embryoids cells were selected against Basta (concentration 10 to 30 mg/L). Evidence of foreign genes integration and function of the bar and gus genes were verified via gene specific PCR amplification, gus staining, and dot blot analysis. This study showed that the embryogenic callus was the most suitable material for transformation as compared to the fine callus, embryoid stage, and initiated shoots. The gene gun transformation showed higher transformation efficiency than the ones transformed using Agrobacterium when targets were bombarded once or twice using 280 psi of helium pressure at 6 to 8 cm distance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  16. Jaligot E, Hooi WY, Debladis E, Richaud F, Beulé T, Collin M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(3):e91896.
    PMID: 24638102 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091896
    The mantled floral phenotype of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) affects somatic embryogenesis-derived individuals and is morphologically similar to mutants defective in the B-class MADS-box genes. This somaclonal variation has been previously demonstrated to be associated to a significant deficit in genome-wide DNA methylation. In order to elucidate the possible role of DNA methylation in the transcriptional regulation of EgDEF1, the APETALA3 ortholog of oil palm, we studied this epigenetic mark within the gene in parallel with transcript accumulation in both normal and mantled developing inflorescences. We also examined the methylation and expression of two neighboring retrotransposons that might interfere with EgDEF1 regulation. We show that the EgDEF1 gene is essentially unmethylated and that its methylation pattern does not change with the floral phenotype whereas expression is dramatically different, ruling out a direct implication of DNA methylation in the regulation of this gene. Also, we find that both the gypsy element inserted within an intron of the EgDEF1 gene and the copia element located upstream from the promoter are heavily methylated and show little or no expression. Interestingly, we identify a shorter, alternative transcript produced by EgDEF1 and characterize its accumulation with respect to its full-length counterpart. We demonstrate that, depending on the floral phenotype, the respective proportions of these two transcripts change differently during inflorescence development. We discuss the possible phenotypical consequences of this alternative splicing and the new questions it raises in the search for the molecular mechanisms underlying the mantled phenotype in the oil palm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  17. Ithnin M, Teh CK, Ratnam W
    BMC Genet., 2017 04 19;18(1):37.
    PMID: 28420332 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-017-0505-7
    BACKGROUND: The Elaeis oleifera genetic materials were assembled from its center of diversity in South and Central America. These materials are currently being preserved in Malaysia as ex situ living collections. Maintaining such collections is expensive and requires sizable land. Information on the genetic diversity of these collections can help achieve efficient conservation via maintenance of core collection. For this purpose, we have applied fourteen unlinked microsatellite markers to evaluate 532 E. oleifera palms representing 19 populations distributed across Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia.

    RESULTS: In general, the genetic diversity decreased from Costa Rica towards the north (Honduras) and south-east (Colombia). Principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed a single cluster indicating low divergence among palms. The phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis revealed clusters based on country of origin, indicating considerable gene flow among populations within countries. Based on the values of the genetic diversity parameters, some genetically diverse populations could be identified. Further, a total of 34 individual palms that collectively captured maximum allelic diversity with reduced redundancy were also identified. High pairwise genetic differentiation (Fst > 0.250) among populations was evident, particularly between the Colombian populations and those from Honduras, Panama and Costa Rica. Crossing selected palms from highly differentiated populations could generate off-springs that retain more genetic diversity.

    CONCLUSION: The results attained are useful for selecting palms and populations for core collection. The selected materials can also be included into crossing scheme to generate offsprings that capture greater genetic diversity for selection gain in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  18. Lau BYC, Othman A, Ramli US
    Protein J., 2018 12;37(6):473-499.
    PMID: 30367348 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9802-x
    Proteomics technologies were first applied in the oil palm research back in 2008. Since proteins are the gene products that are directly correspond to phenotypic traits, proteomic tools hold a strong advantage above other molecular tools to comprehend the biological and molecular mechanisms in the oil palm system. These emerging technologies have been used as non-overlapping tools to link genome-wide transcriptomics and metabolomics-based studies to enhance the oil palm yield and quality through sustainable plant breeding. Many efforts have also been made using the proteomics technologies to address the oil palm's Ganoderma disease; the cause and management. At present, the high-throughput screening technologies are being applied to identify potential biomarkers involved in metabolism and cellular development through determination of protein expression changes that correlate with oil production and disease. This review highlights key elements in proteomics pipeline, challenges and some examples of their implementations in plant studies in the context of oil palm in particular. We foresee that the proteomics technologies will play more significant role to address diverse issues related to the oil palm in the effort to improve the oil crop.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics
  19. Hayati A, Wickneswari R, Maizura I, Rajanaidu N
    Theor. Appl. Genet., 2004 May;108(7):1274-84.
    PMID: 14676949
    A total of 723 accessions of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from 26 populations representing ten countries in Africa and one Deli dura family were screened for allelic variation at seven enzyme loci from six enzyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis. On average, 54.5% of the loci were polymorphic (0.99 criterion). The average and effective number of alleles per locus was 1.80 and 1.35, respectively. Mean expected heterozygosity was 0.184, with values ranging from 0.109 (population 8, Senegal) to 0.261 (population 29, Cameroon). The genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST)=0.301), indicating high genetic divergence. The calculation of F(ST) by geographic zones revealed that the high F(ST) was largely due to F(ST) among populations in West Africa, suggesting diversifying selection in this region. The mean genetic distance across populations was 0.113. The lowest genetic distance (D) was observed between population 5 from Tanzania and population 7 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (0.000) and the highest was found between population 4 from Madagascar and population 13 from Sierra Leone (0.568). The total gene flow across oil palm populations was low, with an Nm of 0.576, enhancing genetic structuring, as evident from the high F(ST) values. UPGMA cluster analysis revealed three main clusters; the western outlying populations from Senegal and Sierra Leone were in one cluster but separated into two distinct sub-clusters; the eastern outlying populations from Madagascar were in one cluster; the populations from Angola, Cameroon, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria and Guinea were in one cluster. The Deli dura family seems to be closely related to population 6 from Guinea. Oil palm populations with high genetic diversity-i.e. all of the populations from Nigeria, Cameroon and Sierra Leone, population 6 of Guinea, population 1 of Madagascar and population 2 of Senegal should be used in improvement programmes, whereas for conservation purposes, oil palm populations with high allelic diversity (A(e)), which include populations 22 and 29 from Cameroon, populations 39 and 45 from Nigeria, population 6 from Guinea, populations 5 and 13 from Sierra Leone and population 1 from Madagascar should be selected for capturing as much genetic variation as possible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
  20. Hama-Ali EO, Alwee SS, Tan SG, Panandam JM, Ling HC, Namasivayam P, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2015 May;42(5):917-25.
    PMID: 25399079 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-014-3829-7
    Oil palm breeding has been progressing very well in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Despite this progress, there are still problems due to the difficulty of controlled crossing in oil palm. Contaminated/illegitimate progeny has appeared in some breeding programs; late and failure of detection by the traditional method causes a waste of time and labor. The use of molecular markers improves the integrity of breeding programs in perennial crops such as oil palm. Four half-sib families with a total of 200 progeny were used in this study. Thirty polymorphic single locus DNA microsatellites markers were typed to identify the illegitimate individuals and to obtain the correct parental and progeny assignments by using the CERVUS and COLONY programs. Three illegitimate palms (1.5%) were found, and 16 loci proved to be sufficient for sibship assignments without parental genotypes by using the COLONY program. The pairwise-likelihood score (PLS) method was better for half-sib family assignments than the full likelihood (FL) method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arecaceae/genetics*
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