Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 915 in total

  1. Tay TF, Maheran M, Too SL, Hasidah MS, Ismail G, Embi N
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):551-67.
    PMID: 23202600
    The disease melioidosis, caused by the soil bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei, often manifests as acute septicemia with high fatality. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) plays a key role during the inflammatory response induced by bacteria. We used a murine model of acute melioidosis to investigate the effects of LiCl, a GSK3 inhibitor on experimental animal survivability as well as TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-1Ra cytokine levels in blood, lung, liver and spleen of B. pseudomallei-infected mice. Our results showed that administration of 100 μg/g LiCl improved survivability of mice infected with 5 X LD50 of B. pseudomallei. Bacterial counts in spleen, liver and lungs of infected mice administered with LiCl were lower than non-treated controls. Our data also revealed that GSK3β is phosphorylated in the spleen, liver and lung of animals infected with B. pseudomallei. However in infected animals administered with LiCl, higher levels of pGSK3 were detected in the organs. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra) in sera and organs tested were elevated significantly following B. pseudomallei infection. With GSK3β inhibition, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β) were significantly decreased in all the samples tested whilst the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 (spleen and lung) and IL-1Ra (spleen, liver and sera) were further elevated. This study represents the first report implicating GSK3β in the modulation of cytokine production during B. pseudomallei infection thus reiterating the important role of GSK3β in the inflammatory response caused by bacterial pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria; Bacterial Load
  2. Chan KG, Wong CS, Yin WF, Sam CK, Koh CL
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2010 Oct;98(3):299-305.
    PMID: 20376561 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-010-9438-0
    A bacterial strain, KM1S, was isolated from a Malaysian rainforest soil sample by using a defined enrichment medium that specifically facilitates selection of quorum quenching bacteria. KM1S was clustered closely to Bacillus cereus by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. It degraded N-3-oxo-hexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone in vitro rapidly at 4.98 and 6.56 microg AHL h(-1) per 10(9) CFU/ml, respectively, as determined by the Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography. The aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of N-acylhomoserine lactones, of KM1S was amplified and cloned. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of the motif (106)HXDH-59 amino acids-H(169)-21 amino acids-D(191) for N-acylhomoserine lactone lactonases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria
  3. Teo HG, Wong JY, Ting TLL
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Oct 20;2017.
    PMID: 29054893 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221150
    A previously healthy man presented with fever for 2 days and rapidly progressive purpuric rash for 1 day. He progressed into hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation and refractory shock despite resuscitation and early antibiotic commencement. Blood culture grew Streptococcus pneumoniae This case report highlights the fact that purpura fulminans can be a rare presentation of S. pneumoniae infection as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Positive Bacteria
  4. Lai JC, Lai HY, Nalamolu KR, Ng SF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 08 02;189:277-89.
    PMID: 27208868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blechnum orientale Linn. (B. orientale) is a fern traditionally used by the natives as a poultice to treat wounds, boils, ulcers, blisters, abscesses, and sores on the skin.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions. These fractions were tested for phytochemical composition, tannin content, antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The bioactive fraction was formulated into a sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel. The extract-loaded hydrogels were then characterized and tested on excision ulcer wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound size was measured for 14 days. Histopathological studies were conducted on the healed wound tissues to observe for epithelisation, fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis. All possible mean values were subjected to statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc with Tukey's T-test (P<0.05).

    RESULTS: One fraction exhibited strong antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The fraction was also highly saturated with tannins, particularly condensed tannins. Fraction W5-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to three standards (α-Tocopherol, BHT and Trolox-C). Antibacterial activity was also present, and notably bactericidal towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 0.25mg/ml. The extract-loaded hydrogels exhibited shear-thinning properties, with high moisture retention ability. The bioactive fraction at 4% w/w was shown to be able to close diabetic wounds by Day 12 on average. Other groups, including controls, only exhibited wound closure by Day 14 (or not at all). Histopathological studies had also shown that extract-treated wounds exhibited re-epithelisation, higher fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis.

    CONCLUSION: The ethnopharmacological effects of using B. orientale as a topical treatment for external wounds was validated and was also significantly effective in treating diabetic ulcer wounds. Thus, B. orientale extract hydrogel may be presented as a potential treatment for diabetic ulcer wounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Bacteria/drug effects; Bacteria/growth & development
  5. NA Bahaman, Raha Ahmad Raus, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Al Mamun, Abdullah, Noor Suhana Adzahar, Dayang Fredalina Basri
    Introduction: Traditionally, Mallotus paniculatus (Balik Angin) plant is used in the treatment of various
    diseases in rural areas such as remedy after childbirth, wound healing and fever. In this present study, four
    medicinal properties of the plant were investigated which included antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer and
    antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Potential medicinal compounds were extracted from the plant
    leaves by sonication with 3 different solvents namely ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane respectively. The
    antibacterial and antifungal properties were determined using disc diffusion agar and broth dilution assay,
    the antioxidant activity by DPPH scavenging assay and the anticancer effect by MTT assay. Results: From the
    screening of the medicinal properties, M. paniculatus leave extracts were shown to possess antibacterial,
    antioxidant and anticancer properties but not antifungal properties. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of
    the leave were active against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) but not
    gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli). The antioxidant activity of the
    ethanolic crude extract was high; with IC50 of 30 μg/ml comparable with the positive controls; ascorbic acid
    and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Both ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts were cytotoxic against breast
    cancer (MCF7), colon cancer (HT-29), cervix cancer (Hela) cell lines. Conclusion: M. paniculatus leave
    extract has many potential medicinal values for further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria
  6. Musa HI, Hassan L, Shamsuddin ZH, Panchadcharam C, Zakaria Z, Aziz SA
    Environ Monit Assess, 2018 Mar 22;190(4):241.
    PMID: 29569066 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6613-7
    Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a life-threatening infection in both humans and animals. Water is an important reservoir of the bacteria and may serve as a source of environmental contamination leading to infection. B. pseudomallei has an unusual ability to survive in water for a long period. This paper investigates physicochemical properties of water associated with the presence of B. pseudomallei in water supply in small ruminant farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Physicochemical properties of water samples taken from small ruminant farms that included temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO2), optical density (OD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured after which the samples were cultured for B. pseudomallei. Multivariable logistic regression model revealed that slightly acidic water pH and higher COD level were significantly associated with the likelihood of the B. pseudomallei presence in the water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  7. Saeed OA, Sazili AQ, Akit H, Alimon AR, Samsudin AAB
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2018 Dec;50(8):1859-1864.
    PMID: 29948778 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-018-1636-1
    This study investigated the effect of different levels of corn supplementation as energy source into palm kernel cake-urea-treated rice straw basal diet on urinary excretion of purine derivatives, nitrogen utilization, rumen fermentation, and rumen microorganism populations. Twenty-seven Dorper lambs were randomly assigned to three treatment groups and kept in individual pens for a 120-day period. The animals were subjected to the dietary treatments as follows: T1: 75.3% PKC + 0% corn, T2: 70.3% PKC + 5% corn, and T3: 65.3% PKC + 10% corn. Hypoxanthine and uric acid excretion level were recorded similarly in lambs supplemented with corn. The microbial N yield and butyrate level was higher in corn-supplemented group, but fecal N excretion, T3 has the lowest level than other groups. Lambs fed T3 had a greater rumen protozoa population while the number of R. flavefaciens was recorded highest in T2. No significant differences were observed for total bacteria, F. succinogenes, R. albus, and methanogen population among all treatment. Based on these results, T3 could be fed to lambs without deleterious effect on the VFA and N balance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria
  8. Ko WC, Stone GG
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob, 2020 Apr 01;19(1):14.
    PMID: 32238155 DOI: 10.1186/s12941-020-00355-1
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance among nosocomial Gram-negative pathogens is a cause for concern in the Asia-Pacific region. The aims of this study were to measure the rates of resistance among clinical isolates collected in Asia-Pacific countries, and to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of ceftazidime-avibactam and comparators against these isolates.

    METHODS: CLSI broth microdilution methodology was used to determine antimicrobial activity and EUCAST breakpoints version 9.0 were used to determine rates of susceptibility and resistance. Isolates were also screened for the genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or carbapenemases (including metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs]).

    RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2017, this study collected a total of 7051 Enterobacterales isolates and 2032 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospitalized patients in Australia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand. In the Asia-Pacific region, Enterobacterales isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (17.9%) were more frequently identified than isolates that were carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.7%) or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (1.7%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of P. aeruginosa were more commonly identified (23.4%) than isolates that were ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative (0.4%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative (0.3%), or carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive (3.7%). More than 90% of all Enterobacterales isolates, including the ESBL-positive, carbapenemase-negative subset and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-negative subset, were susceptible to amikacin and ceftazidime-avibactam. Among the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset of Enterobacterales, susceptibility to the majority of agents was reduced, with the exception of colistin (93.4%). Tigecycline was active against all resistant subsets of the Enterobacterales (MIC90, 1-4 mg/L) and among Escherichia coli isolates, > 90% from each resistant subset were susceptible to tigecycline. More than 99% of all P. aeruginosa isolates, including MDR isolates and the carbapenemase-positive, MBL-positive subset, were susceptible to colistin.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, amikacin, ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin and tigecycline appear to be potential treatment options for infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria
  9. Khosravi Y, Ling LC, Loke MF, Shailendra S, Prepageran N, Vadivelu J
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 May;271(5):1227-33.
    PMID: 23880921 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-013-2637-3
    This study aims to assess the association between microbial composition, biofilm formation and chronic otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Malaysia. A total of 45 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic suppurative otitis media and 15 asymptomatic control patients were studied. Swab samples were obtained from these subjects. Samples were studied by conventional microbiological culturing, PCR-based microbial detection and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Streptococcus species were detected in subjects of both patient and control groups. Biofilm was observed in approximately half of the smear prepared from swab samples obtained from subjects of the patient group. Most of these were polymicrobial biofilms. S. aureus biofilm was most prevalent among nasal samples while H. influenzae biofilm was more common among ear and throat samples. Results from this study supported the hypothesis that chronic otorhinolaryngologic diseases may be biofilm related. Due to the presence of unculturable bacteria in biofilms present in specimens from ear, nose and throat, the use of molecular methods in combination with conventional microbiological culturing has demonstrated an improvement in the detection of bacteria from such specimens in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development*
  10. Lai HY, Lim YY, Kim KH
    PMID: 20429956 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-15
    Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
  11. Khoo JJ, Chen F, Kho KL, Ahmad Shanizza AI, Lim FS, Tan KK, et al.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 2016 07;7(5):929-937.
    PMID: 27132518 DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2016.04.013
    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/isolation & purification*; DNA, Bacterial/genetics
  12. Kumar S, Narasimhan B, Lim SM, Ramasamy K, Mani V, Shah SAA
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2019;19(7):609-621.
    PMID: 30526456 DOI: 10.2174/1389557519666181210162413
    BACKGROUND: A series of 6, 6'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(4-(4-bromophenyl)pyrimidin-2-amine) derivatives has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and its chemical structures was confirmed by FT-IR, 1H/13C-NMR spectral and elemental analyses. The molecular docking study was carried out to find the interaction between active bis-pyrimidine compounds with CDK-8 protein. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of the synthesized compounds was determined against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species as well fungal species by tube dilution technique. Antimicrobial results indicated that compound 11y was found to be most potent one against E. coli (MICec = 0.67 µmol/mL) and C. albicans (MICca = 0.17 µmol/mL) and its activity was comparable to norfloxacin (MIC = 0.47 µmol/mL) and fluconazole (MIC = 0.50 µmol/mL), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Anticancer screening of the synthesized compounds using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay demonstrated that compounds 2y (IC50 = 0.01 µmol/mL) and 4y (IC50= 0.02 µmol/mL) have high antiproliferative potential against human colorectal carcinoma cancer cell line than the reference drug (5- fluorouracil) and these compounds also showed best dock score with better potency within the ATP binding pocket and may also be used lead for rational drug designing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects
  13. Kamaruzzaman NF, Tan LP, Hamdan RH, Choong SS, Wong WK, Gibson AJ, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Jun 04;20(11).
    PMID: 31167476 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112747
    Antimicrobial resistance is now considered a major global challenge; compromising medical advancements and our ability to treat infectious disease. Increased antimicrobial resistance has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases worldwide. The lack of discovery of novel compounds from natural products or new classes of antimicrobials, encouraged us to recycle discontinued antimicrobials that were previously removed from routine use due to their toxicity, e.g., colistin. Since the discovery of new classes of compounds is extremely expensive and has very little success, one strategy to overcome this issue could be the application of synthetic compounds that possess antimicrobial activities. Polymers with innate antimicrobial properties or that have the ability to be conjugated with other antimicrobial compounds create the possibility for replacement of antimicrobials either for the direct application as medicine or implanted on medical devices to control infection. Here, we provide the latest update on research related to antimicrobial polymers in the context of ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) pathogens. We summarise polymer subgroups: compounds containing natural peptides, halogens, phosphor and sulfo derivatives and phenol and benzoic derivatives, organometalic polymers, metal nanoparticles incorporated into polymeric carriers, dendrimers and polymer-based guanidine. We intend to enhance understanding in the field and promote further work on the development of polymer based antimicrobial compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry; Bacteria/drug effects; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy; Bacterial Infections/microbiology; Bacterial Infections/epidemiology
  14. Surendra TV, Mohana Roopan S, Khan MR
    Biotechnol Prog, 2019 07;35(4):e2823.
    PMID: 31017346 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2823
    The rare earth metal oxide nanoparticles such as gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2 O3 NPs) have been synthesized by green synthesis process using methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (M oleifera) peel. In this process, the Gd2 O3 NPs formation was observed at 280-300 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD pattern of the synthesized Gd2 O3 NPs was exactly matched with JCPDS No 3-065-3181which confirms the crystalline nature of Gd2 O3 NPs. In addition, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was stated that Gd and O elements were present as 70.31 and 29.69%, respectively in Gd2 O3 NPs. The SEM and TEM analysis were said Gd2 O3 NPs are in rod shape and 26 ± 2 nm in size. Further the synthesized Gd2 O3 NPs were confirmed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The synthesized Gd2 O3 NPs were further examined for anti-fungal activity against Alternaria saloni (A saloni) and Sclerrotium rolfsii (S rolfsii) and it showed moderate activity. Also, Gd2 O3 NPs evaluated as good antibacterial agent against different Gram +ve and Gram -ve bacteria. Moreover, the toxicity of the Gd2 O3 NPs on red blood cells (RBCs) of the human blood was determined using hemolytic assay, the obtained results were stated the synthesized Gd2 O3 NPs are nontoxic to the human erythrocytes. The photocatalytic activity against malachite green (MG) dye was tested and confirmed as 92% of dye was degraded within 2 hr by Gd2 O3 NPs. The results were stated the green synthesized Gd2 O3 NPs are good anti-fungal agents, nontoxic and we can use as a photocatalyst. Copyright © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry*; Bacteria/drug effects
  15. Yu L, Lu M, Zhang W, Alarfaj AA, Hirad AH, Zhang H
    Microb Pathog, 2020 Apr;141:103960.
    PMID: 31953224 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103960
    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among the children and adults that results upper and lower respiratory tract infections.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to inspect the ameliorative action of A. chinensis synthesized ZnONPs against M. pneumoniae infected pneumonia mice model.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnO NPs was synthesized from Albizia chinensis bark extract and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analyses. The antibacterial effectual of synthesized ZnONPs were examined against clinical pathogens. The pneumonia was induced to BALB/c mice via injecting the M. pneumoniae and treated with synthesized ZnONPs, followed by the total protein content, total cell counts and inflammatory mediators level was assessed in the BALF of experimental animals. The Histopathological investigation was done in the lung tissues of test animals.

    RESULTS: The outcomes of this work revealed that the formulated ZnONPs was quasi-spherical, radial and cylindrical; the size was identified as 116.5 ± 27.45 nm in diameter. The in vitro antimicrobial potential of formulated ZnO-NPs displayed noticeable inhibitory capacity against the tested fungal and bacterial strains. The administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs in MP infected mice model has significantly reduced the levels of total protein, inflammatory cells, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor (TGF). Besides, the histopathological examination of MP infected mice lung tissue showed the cellular arrangements were effectively retained after administration of synthesized ZnO-NPs.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, synthesized ZnO-NPs alleviate pneumonia progression via reducing the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cells in MP infected mice model.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis*; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry; Bacteria/drug effects
  16. Teh CH, Nazni WA, Nurulhusna AH, Norazah A, Lee HL
    BMC Microbiol, 2017 Feb 16;17(1):36.
    PMID: 28209130 DOI: 10.1186/s12866-017-0936-3
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is currently a major global issue. As the rate of emergence of antimicrobial resistance has superseded the rate of discovery and introduction of new effective drugs, the medical arsenal now is experiencing shortage of effective drugs to combat diseases, particularly against diseases caused by the dreadful multidrug-resistant strains, such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The ability of fly larvae to thrive in septic habitats has prompted us to determine the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of larval extract of flies, namely Lucilia cuprina, Sarcophaga peregrina and Musca domestica against 4 pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli] via a simple and sensitive antibacterial assay, resazurin-based turbidometric (TB) assay as well as to demonstrate the preliminary chemical profile of larval extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: The resazurin-based TB assay demonstrated that the L. cuprina larval extract was inhibitory against all tested bacteria, whilst the larval extract of S. peregrina and M. domestica were only inhibitory against the MRSA, with a MIC of 100 mg ml(-1). Subsequent sub-culture of aliquots revealed that the larval extract of L. cuprina was bactericidal against MRSA whilst the larval extracts of S. peregrina and M. domestica were bacteriostatic against MRSA. The GC-MS analysis had quantitatively identified 20 organic compounds (fatty acids or their derivatives, aromatic acid esters, glycosides and phenol) from the larval extract of L. cuprina; and 5 fatty acid derivatives with known antimicrobial activities from S. peregrina and M. domestica.

    CONCLUSION: The resazurin-based turbidometric assay is a simple, reliable and feasible screening assay which evidently demonstrated the antibacterial activity of all fly larval extracts, primarily against the MRSA. The larval extract of L. cuprina exerted a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The present study revealed probable development and use of novel and effective natural disinfectant(s) and antibacterial agent(s) from flies and efforts to screen more fly species for antibacterial activity using resazurin-based TB assay should be undertaken for initial screening for subsequent discovery and isolation of potential novel antimicrobial substances, particularly against the multi-drug resistant strains.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry; Bacteria/drug effects
  17. Faheem, Kumar BK, Sekhar KVGC, Kunjiappan S, Jamalis J, Balaña-Fouce R, et al.
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2021;21(4):398-425.
    PMID: 33001013 DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666201001130114
    β-Carboline, a naturally occurring indole alkaloid, holds a momentous spot in the field of medicinal chemistry due to its myriad of pharmacological actions like anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, antimalarial, neuropharmacological, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic among others. β-Carbolines exhibit their pharmacological activity via diverse mechanisms. This review provides a recent update (2015-2020) on the anti-infective potential of natural and synthetic β-carboline analogs focusing on its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antimalarial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal properties. In cases where enough details are available, a note on its mechanism of action is also added.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemical synthesis; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry; Bacteria/drug effects; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
  18. Yusoff MM, Ibrahim H, Hamid NA
    Chem Biodivers, 2011 May;8(5):916-23.
    PMID: 21560240 DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201000270
    Two poorly studied, morphologically allied Alpinia species endemic to Borneo, viz., A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii, were investigated here for their rhizome essential oil. The oil compositions and antimicrobial activities were compared with those of A. galanga, a better known plant. A fair number of compounds were identified in the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, with large differences in the oil composition between the three species. The rhizome oil of A. galanga was rich in 1,8-cineole (29.8%), while those of A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii were both found to be extremely rich in (E)-methyl cinnamate (36.4 and 67.8%, resp.). The three oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungal species. The efficiency of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus var. aureus was found to decline in the order of A. nieuwenhuizii>A. ligulata ∼ A. galanga, while that of Escherichia coli decreased in the order of A. galanga>A. nieuwenhuzii ∼ A. ligulata. Only the A. galanga oil inhibited the other bacteria and the fungi tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/drug effects; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
  19. Nallappan D, Fauzi AN, Krishna BS, Kumar BP, Reddy AVK, Syed T, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:5125681.
    PMID: 34631882 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5125681
    Studies on green biosynthesis of newly engineered nanoparticles for their prominent medicinal applications are being the torch-bearing concerns of the state-of-the-art research strategies. In this concern, we have engineered the biosynthesized Luffa acutangula silver nanoparticles of flavonoid O-glycosides in the anisotropic form isolated from aqueous leave extracts of Luffa acutangula, a popular traditional and ayurvedic plant in south-east Asian countries. These were structurally confirmed by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy accessed with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectral analyses followed by the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallographic studies and found them with the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Medicinally, we have explored their significant antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS assays), antibacterial (disc diffusion assay on E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. fecilis, and S. boydii), and anticancer (MTT assay on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, U87, and DBTRG cell lines) potentialities which augmented the present investigation. The molecular docking analysis of title compounds against 3NM8 (DPPH) and 1DNU (ABTS) proteins for antioxidant activity; 5FGK (Gram-Positive Bacteria) and 1AB4 (Gram-Negative Bacteria) proteins for antibacterial activity; and 4GBD (MCF-7), 5FI2 (MDA-MB-231), 1D5R (U87), and 5TIJ (DBTRG) proteins for anticancer activity has affirmed the promising ligand-protein binding interactions among the hydroxy groups of the title compounds and aspartic acid of the concerned enzymatic proteins. The binding energy varying from -9.1645 to -7.7955 for Cosmosioside (1, Apigenin-7-glucoside) and from -9.2690 to -7.8306 for Cynaroside (2, Luteolin-7-glucoside) implies the isolated compounds as potential bioactive compounds. In addition, the performed studies like QSAR, ADMET, bioactivity properties, drug scores, and toxicity risks confirmed them as potential drug candidates and aspartic acid receptor antagonists. This research auxiliary augmented the existing array of phytological nanomedicines with new drug candidates that are credible with multiple bioactivities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology*; Bacteria/drug effects
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