This study aimed to develop a three-dimensional finite element model of a functionally graded femoral prosthesis. The model consisted of a femoral prosthesis created from functionally graded materials (FGMs), cement, and femur. The hip prosthesis was composed of FGMs made of titanium alloy, chrome-cobalt, and hydroxyapatite at volume fraction gradient exponents of 0, 1, and 5, respectively. The stress was measured on the femoral prosthesis, cement, and femur. Stress on the neck of the femoral prosthesis was not sensitive to the properties of the constituent material. However, stress on the stem and cement decreased proportionally as the volume fraction gradient exponent of the FGM increased. Meanwhile, stress became uniform on the cement mantle layer. In addition, stress on the femur in the proximal part increased and a high surface area of the femoral part was involved in absorbing the stress. As such, the stress-shielding area decreased. The results obtained in this study are significant in the design and longevity of new prosthetic devices because FGMs offer the potential to achieve stress distribution that more closely resembles that of the natural bone in the femur.
Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.
Recently, porous magnesium and its alloys are receiving great consideration as biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering application. However, they presented poor antibacterial performance and corrosion resistance which limited their clinical applications. In this study, Mg-Zn (MZ) scaffold containing different concentrations of tetracycline (MZ-xTC, x = 1, 5 and 10%) were fabricated by space holder technique to meet the desirable antibacterial activity and corrosion resistance properties. The MZ-TC contains total porosity of 63-65% with pore sizes in the range of 600-800 μm in order to accommodate bone cells. The MZ scaffold presented higher compressive strength and corrosion resistance compared to pure Mg scaffold. However, tetracycline incorporation has less significant effect on the mechanical and corrosion properties of the scaffolds. Moreover, MZ-xTC scaffolds drug release profiles show an initial immediate release which is followed by more stable release patterns. The bioactivity test reveals that the MZ-xTC scaffolds are capable of developing the formation of HA layers in simulated body fluid (SBF). Next, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were utilized to assess the antimicrobial activity of the MZ-xTC scaffolds. The findings indicate that those scaffolds that incorporate a high level concentration of tetracycline are tougher against bacterial organization than MZ scaffolds. However, the MTT assay demonstrates that the MZ scaffolds containing 1 to 5% tetracycline are more effective to sustain cell viability, whereas MZ-10TC shows some toxicity. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MZ-(1-5)TC was considerably higher than that of MZ-10TC on the 3 and 7 days, implying higher osteoblastic differentiation. All the findings suggest that the MZ-xTC scaffolds containing 1 to 5% tetracycline is a promising candidate for bone tissue healing due to excellent antibacterial activity and biocompatibility.
This study describes a sago starch-based film by incorporation of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and nano titanium dioxide (TiO2-N). Different concentrations (i.e., 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%, w/w) of TiO2-N and CEO (i.e., 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%, v/w) were incorporated into sago starch film, and the physicochemical, barrier, mechanical, and antimicrobial properties of the bionanocomposite films were estimated. Incorporation of CEO into the sago starch matrix increased oxygen and water vapor permeability of starch films while increasing TiO2-N concentration decreased barrier properties. Moisture content also decreased from 12.96% to 8.04%, solubility in water decreased from 25% to 13.7%, and the mechanical properties of sago starch films improved. Sago starch bionanocomposite films showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Results also showed that incorporation of TiO2-N and CEO had synergistic effects on functional properties of sago starch films. In summary, sago starch films incorporated with both TiO2-N and CEO shows potential application for active packaging in food industries such as fresh pistachio packaging.
Recently, surface engineered biomaterials through surface modification are extensively investigated due to its potential to enhance cellular homing and migration which contributes to a successful drug delivery process. This study is focused on osteoblasts response towards surface engineered using a simple sodium hydroxide (NaOH) hydrolysis and growth factors conjugated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres. In this study, evaluation of the relationship of NaOH concentration with the molecular weight changes and surface morphology of PLA microspheres specifically wall thickness and porosity prior to in vitro studies was investigated. NaOH hydrolysis of 0.1 M, 0.3 M and 0.5 M were done to introduce hydrophilicity on the PLA prior to conjugation with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Morphology changes showed that higher concentration of NaOH could accelerate the hydrolysis process as the highest wall thickness was observed at 0.5 M NaOH with ~3.52 µm. All surface modified and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres wells enhanced the migration of the cells during wound healing process as wound closure was 100% after 3 days of treatment. Increase in hydrophilicity of the surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres provides favorable surface for cellular attachment of osteoblast, which was reflected by positive DAPI staining of the cells' nucleus. Surface modified and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres were also able to enhance the capability of the PLA in facilitating the differentiation process of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteogenic lineage since only positive stain was observed on surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres. These results indicated that the surface engineered and growth factors conjugated PLA microspheres were non-toxic for biological environments and the improved hydrophilicity made them a potential candidate as a drug delivery vehicle as the cells can adhere, attach and proliferate inside it.
In present study, a new composition of glass-ceramic was synthesized based on the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass system. Heat treatment of glass powder was carried out in 2 stages: 600 °C as the nucleation temperature and different temperature on crystallization at 850, 950 and 1000 °C. The glass-ceramic heat-treated at 950 °C was selected as bioactive filler in commercial PMMA bone cement; (PALACOS® LV) due to its ability to form 2 high crystallization phases in comparison with 850 and 1000 °C. The results of this newly glass-ceramic filled PMMA bone cement at 0-16 wt% of filler loading were compared with those of hydroxyapatite (HA). The effect of different filler loading on the setting properties was evaluated. The peak temperature during the polymerization of bone cement decreased when the liquid to powder (L/P) ratio was reduced. The setting time, however, did not show any trend when filler loading was increased. In contrast, dough time was observed to decrease with increased filler loading. Apatite morphology was observed on the surface of the glass-ceramic and selected cement after bioactivity test.
Implants are widely used in the human body for the replacement of affected bones. Fatigue failure is one of the serious concerns for implants. Therefore, understanding of the underlying mechanism leading to fatigue failure is important for the longevity of biomaterial implants. In this paper, the fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth of titanium alloy biomaterial Ti-27Nb has been experimentally investigated. The Ti-27Nb material is tested for fatigue crack growth in different environmental conditions representing the ambient and in vitro environments for 504 hours and 816 hours, respectively. Fractography of the tested specimen is conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results of the fatigue crack growth propagation of the ambient and in vitro samples are similar in the Paris crack growth region. However, in the threshold region, the crack growth rate is higher for the Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) treated specimen. The fracture surface morphology of in vitro samples shows brittle fracture as compared to ambient specimens with significant plasticity and striations marks. It is proposed that a similar investigation may be conducted with specimens treated in SBF for prolonged periods to further ascertain the findings of this study.
Bovine pericardium has widely been used for grafts in cardiac surgery and seems to have suitable properties for use as a dural graft. We report our experience of using locally processed bovine pericardium for dural grafts in 22 patients undergoing cranial operations.
Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
This study was designed to investigate the surface properties especially surface porosity of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) using scanning electron microscopy. PHB granules were sprinkled on the double-sided sticky tape attached on a SEM aluminium stub and sputtered with gold(10nm thickness) in a Polaron SC515 Coater, following which the samples were placed into the SEM specimen chamber for viewing and recording. Scanning electron micrographs with different magnification of PHB surface revealed multiple pores with different sizes.
Polymeric nanoparticles are widely used for drug delivery due to their biodegradability property. Among the wide array of polymers, chitosan has received growing interest among researchers. It was widely used as a vehicle in polymeric nanoparticles for drug targeting. This review explored the current research on the antimicrobial activity of chitosan nanoparticles (ChNP) and the impact on the clinical applications. The antimicrobial activities of ChNP were widely reported against bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. For pharmaceutical applications, ChNP were used as antimicrobial coating for promoting wound healing, preventing infections and combating the rise of infectious disease. Besides, ChNP also exhibited significant inhibitory on foodborne microorganisms, particularly on fruits and vegetables. It is noteworthy that ChNP can be also applied to deliver antimicrobial drugs, which further enhance the efficiency and stability of the antimicrobial agent. The present review addresses the potential antimicrobial applications of ChNP from these few aspects.
The ability to construct self-healing scaffolds that are injectable and capable of forming a designed morphology offers the possibility to engineer sustainable materials. Herein, we introduce supramolecular nested microbeads that can be used as building blocks to construct macroscopic self-healing scaffolds. The core-shell microbeads remain in an "inert" state owing to the isolation of a pair of complementary polymers in a form that can be stored as an aqueous suspension. An annealing process after injection effectively induces the re-construction of the microbead units, leading to supramolecular gelation in a preconfigured shape. The resulting macroscopic scaffold is dynamically stable, displaying self-recovery in a self-healing electronic conductor. This strategy of using the supramolecular assembled nested microbeads as building blocks represents an alternative to injectable hydrogel systems, and shows promise in the field of structural biomaterials and flexible electronics.
The complex architecture of the cortical part of the bovine-femur was examined to develop potential tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. Weight-change and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that significant phase transformation and morphology conversion of the bone occur at 500-750°C and 750-900°C, respectively. Another breakthrough finding was achieved by determining a sintering condition for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystal from bovine bone via XRD technique. Scanning electron microscopy results of morphological growth suggests that the concentration of polymer fibrils increases (or decreases, in case of apatite crystals) from the distal to proximal end of the femur. Energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray, Fourier transform infrared, micro-computer tomography, and mechanical studies of the actual composition also strongly support our microscopic results and firmly indicate the functionally graded material properties of bovine-femur. Bones sintered at 900 and 1000°C show potential properties for soft and hard TE applications, respectively.
The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process.
This study aimed to investigate the structural, physical and mechanical behavior of composites and functionally graded materials (FGMs) made of stainless steel (SS-316L)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and SS-316L/calcium silicate (CS) employing powder metallurgical solid state sintering. The structural analysis using X-ray diffraction showed that the sintering at high temperature led to the reaction between compounds of the SS-316L and HA, while SS-316L and CS remained intact during the sintering process in composites of SS-316L/CS. A dimensional expansion was found in the composites made of 40 and 50 wt% HA. The minimum shrinkage was emerged in 50 wt% CS composite, while the maximum shrinkage was revealed in samples with pure SS-316L, HA and CS. Compressive mechanical properties of SS-316L/HA decreased sharply with increasing of HA content up to 20 wt% and gradually with CS content up to 50 wt% for SS-316L/CS composites. The mechanical properties of the FGM of SS-316L/HA dropped with increase in temperature, while it was improved for the FGM of SS-316L/CS with temperature enhancement. It has been found that the FGMs emerged a better compressive mechanical properties compared to both the composite systems. Therefore, the SS-316L/CS composites and their FGMs have superior compressive mechanical properties to the SS-316L/HA composites and their FGMs and also the newly developed FGMs of SS-316L/CS with improved mechanical and enhanced gradation in physical and structural properties can potentially be utilized in the components with load-bearing application.
Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events.
A novel injectable calcium phosphate bone cement (osteopaste) has been
developed. Its potential application in orthopaedics as a filler of bone defects has been
studied. The biomaterial was composed of tetra-calcium phosphate (TTCP) and tricalcium
phosphate (TCP) powder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
healing process of osteopaste in rabbit tibia.(Copied from article).
This study utilizes the technique of self-assembly to fabricate arrays of nanoislands on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates with miscut of 10° toward <110> direction. These self-assembled nanostructures were annealed at 1100°C for 5h upon doping with 10mol% gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) by powder-suspension based method. X-Ray diffraction result showed that the miscut substrate after doping GDC was in the cubic phase. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) illustrates that the nanopatterned material contains all the elements from the GDC source and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. It also demonstrates a higher surface roughness and a more hydrophilic surface. The nanostructured materials were subsequently used for an in vitro study using a human fetal osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). An improved spreading, enhanced cell proliferation and up-regulated alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) were observed on the nanopatterned substrates compared to the control substrates. Calcium deposits, which were stained positively by Alizarin Red S, appeared to be more abundant on the nanopatterned surfaces on day 7. The overall findings suggest that post fabrication treatment with surface modification such as creating a nanostructure (e.g. nanopatterns) can improve biocompatibility.
316L stainless steel is a common biomedical material. Currently, biomedical parts are produced through powder injection molding (PIM). Carbon control is the most critical in PIM. Improper debinding can significantly change the properties of the final product. In this work, thermal debinding and sintering were performed in two different furnaces (i.e. laboratory and commercially available furnaces) to study the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Debounded samples were sintered in different atmospheres. The samples sintered in inert gas showed enhanced mechanical properties compared with wrought 316L stainless steel and higher corrosion rate than those sintered in the vacuum furnace. The densification and tensile strength of the hydrogen sintered samples increased up to 3% and 51%, respectively, compared with those of the vacuum-sintered samples. However, the samples sintered in inert gas also exhibited reduced ductility and corrosion resistance. This finding is attributed to the presence of residual carbon in debonded samples during debinding.
Coconut Shell (CS) as agricultural lignocellulosic biomaterial and agro-waste is predominantly available in India, Malaysia, Nigeria, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. It has proven to have effective durability characteristic, good abstractive resistance, high toughness, and good adsorption properties, and is most suitable for long standing use in many applications such as reinforcement, source of energy, fillers as well as activated carbon and its performance, efficiency and effectiveness depend wholly on whether is in form of nano-, micro-, and macro- particles. In this data, effects of milling time on morphological characteristics was experimented using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The SEM images were taken at magnifications of 1.00kx, 2.00kx and 5.00kx which gives respective 50 µm, 20 µm and 10 µm in different milling time of 0, 20, 40 and 60 mins. Digital Vibratory Disc Milling Machine (VDMM) rated 380 V/50 Hz at 940 rpm was employed for the grinding and the morphology of the milled nanoparticles were characterised. It was revealed from the data collected that 0 min (i.e. 75 µm sieved) has the highest mean area value of 16.105 µm2 and area standard deviation of 200.738 µm2 with least value of a number of particle size distribution of 809 µm. In contrast, 60 mins milled has the lowest values for mean area and area standard deviation of 8.945 µm2 and 115.851 µm2 respectively with the highest number of particle size distribution of 2032 µm. It was observed that milling time increases the number of particle sizes distributions and reduces the area of particle size.