In this study, biodegradable composite films were prepared by using thermoplastic cornstarch matrix and corn husk fiber as a reinforcing filler. The composite films were manufactured via a casting technique using different concentrations of husk fiber (0-8%), and fructose as a plasticizer at a fixed amount of 25% for starch weight. The Physical, thermal, morphological, and tensile characteristics of composite films were investigated. The findings indicated that the incorporation of husk fiber, in general, enhanced the performance of the composite films. There was a noticeable reduction in the density and moisture content of the films, and soil burial assessment showed less resistance to biodegradation. The morphological images presented a consistent structure and excellent compatibility between matrix and reinforcement, which reflected on the improved tensile strength and young modulus as well as the crystallinity index. The thermal stability of composite films has also been enhanced, as evidenced by the increased onset decomposition temperature of the reinforced films compared to neat film. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed increasing in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following fiber loading. The composite materials prepared using corn husk residues as reinforcement responded to community demand for agricultural and polymeric waste disposal and added more value to waste management.
The success of wound healing depends upon the proper growth of vascular system in time in the damaged tissues. Poor blood supply to wounded tissues or tissue engineered grafts leads to the failure of wound healing or rejection of grafts. In present paper, we report the synthesis of novel organosoluble and pro-angiogenic chitosan derivative (CSD) by the reaction of chitosan with 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid and triethylorthoformate (TEOF). The synthesized material was characterized by FTIR and 13C-NMR to confirm the incorporated functional groups and new covalent connectivities. Biodegradability of the synthesized chitosan derivative was tested in the presence of lysozyme and was found to be comparable with CS. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis effect of new derivative was determined against gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells and was found to be non-toxic. The CSD was found to be soluble in majority of organic solvents. It was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to form composite scaffolds. From an ex ovo CAM assay, it was noted that CSD stimulated the angiogenesis.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanocrystals derived from cockle shells emerge to present a good concert in bone tissue engineering because of their potential to mimic the composition, structure, and properties of native bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological response of CaCO3 nanocrystals on hFOB 1.19 and MC3T3 E-1 osteoblast cells in vitro. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays, and LDH was measured to determine the effect of CaCO3 nanocrystals on cell membrane integrity. Cellular morphology was examined by SEM and fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that CaCO3 nanocrystals had no toxic effects to some extent. Cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and protein synthesis were enhanced by the nanocrystals when compared to the control. Cellular interactions were improved, as indicated by SEM and fluorescent microscopy. The production of VEGF and TGF-1 was also affected by the CaCO3 nanocrystals. Therefore, bio-based CaCO3 nanocrystals were shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation and improve the osteointegration process.
Collecting information from previous investigations and expressing it in a scientometrics study can be a priceless guide to getting a complete overview of a specific research area. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelated connection between alginate, gelatine, and hydroxyapatite within the scope of bone tissue and scaffold. A review of traditional literature with data mining procedures using bibliometric analyses was considered to identify the evolution of the selected research area between 2009 and 2019. Bibliometric methods and knowledge visualization technologies were implemented to investigate diverse publications based on the following indicators: year of publication, document type, language, country, institution, author, journal, keyword, and number of citations. An analysis using a bibliometric study found that 7446 papers were located with the keywords "bone tissue" and "scaffold", and 1767 (alginate), 185 (gelatine), 5658 (hydroxyapatite) papers with those specific sub keywords. The number of publications that relate to "tissue engineering" and bone more than doubled between 2009 (1352) and 2019 (2839). China, the United States and India are the most productive countries, while Sichuan University and the Chinese Academy of Science from China are the most important institutions related to bone tissue scaffold. Materials Science and Engineering C is the most productive journal, followed by the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. This paper is a starting point, providing the first bibliometric analysis study of bone tissue and scaffold considering alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite. A bibliometric analysis would greatly assist in giving a scientific insight to support desired future research work, not only associated with bone tissue engineering applications. It is expected that the analysis of alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite in terms of 3D bioprinting, clinical outcomes, scaffold architecture, and the regenerative medicine approach will enhance the research into bone tissue engineering in the near future. Continued studies into these research fields are highly recommended.
The appearance of dental porcelains is comparable to natural teeth. This study discusses the effect of Y2O3 addition to the fluorescent property of dental porcelains. The composition of dental porcelains contained Y2O3 as the fluorescent agent and base frit. The combinations of Y2O3 added consist of a series with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 wt% respectively, based on the total composition. In the extreme condition, fluorescent agents are added from 5.0 up to 10.0 wt%. In order to enhance the fluorescent property of dental porcelains, an opacifiying agent, cerium oxide (CeO2) was also added to dental porcelains composition. The fluorescent property was determined using Spectroline EF-1400C/F that emits 240 nm wavelength ultraviolet light. The microstructure was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result shows that, the fluorescent properties displayed are similar to natural teeth when subjected to ultraviolet light. SEM micrograph was able to show the fluorescent agent dispersed in glass phase. Increasing additions of Y2O3 gave the fluorescent properties near to natural teeth.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been earmarked as suitable for implantation within the human of its chemical makeup to human bone. In this paper, HA powders were synthesized via the precipitation method where phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was titrated into calcium hydroxide solution [Ca(OH)2]. Two parameters such as temperature and stirring rate were identified as factors that influenced the amount and purity of HA powder. Phase identification of the synthesized powder was done using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that HA phase can be synthesized from this titration process of Ca(OH)2 and H3PO4 with yield amount of HA powder around 45 - 61 grams but with less than hundred percent purity. In order to study the effect of heat treatment to HA crystals structure, HA powder was calcined at 850 degrees C for 2 hours. It's found that the degree of crystallinity increases after calcination because of lattice expansion when the materials were heated at higher temperature
Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium.
This study is focusing to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold using hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with improved cellular adhesion profiles and stability. The combination of HEC and PVA were synthesized using freeze-drying technique and characterized using SEM, ATR-FTIR, TGA, DSC, and UTM. Pore size of HEC/PVA (2-40 μm) scaffolds showed diameter in a range of both pure HEC (2-20 μm) and PVA (14-70 μm). All scaffolds revealed high porosity above 85%. The water uptake of HEC was controlled by PVA cooperation in the polymer matrix. After 7 days, all blended scaffolds showed low degradation rate with the increased of PVA composition. The FTIR and TGA results explicit possible chemical interactions and mass loss of blended scaffolds, respectively. The Tg values of DSC curved in range of HEC and PVA represented the miscibility of HEC/PVA blend polymers. Higher Young's modulus was obtained with the increasing of HEC value. Cell-scaffolds interaction demonstrated that human fibroblast (hFB) cells adhered to polymer matrices with better cell proliferation observed after 7 days of cultivation. These results suggested that biocompatible of HEC/PVA scaffolds fabricated by freeze-drying method might be suitable for skin tissue engineering applications.
In this study, randomly oriented hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol (HEC/PVA) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The blend solutions of HEC/PVA with different weight ratio of HEC to PVA were prepared using water as solvent to fabricate nanofibers. These nanofibrous scaffolds were coated with bone-like apatite by immersing into 10x simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time periods. The morphology and structure of the nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC. FESEM-EDS and FTIR analysis were used to confirm the deposition of apatite on the surface of nanofibers. The results of this study suggest that this apatite coated nanofibrous scaffolds could be a suitable biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.
Gelatin possesses biological properties that resemble native skin and can potentially be fabricated as a skin substitute for full-thickness wound treatment. The native property of gelatin, whereby it is easily melted and degraded at body temperature, could prevent its biofunctionality for various applications. This study aimed to fabricate and characterise buffalo gelatin (Infanca halal certified) crosslinked with chemical type crosslinker (genipin and genipin fortified with EDC) and physicaly crosslink using the dihydrothermal (DHT) method. A porous gelatin sponge (GS) was fabricated by a freeze-drying process followed by a complete crosslinking via chemical-natural and synthetic-or physical intervention using genipin (GNP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) (EDC) and dihydrothermal (DHT) methods, respectively. The physicochemical, biomechanical, cellular biocompatibility and cell-biomaterial interaction of GS towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and dermal fibroblasts (HDF) were evaluated. Results showed that GS had a uniform porous structure with pore size ranging between 60 and 200 µm with high porosity (>78.6 ± 4.1%), high wettability (<72.2 ± 7.0°), high tensile strain (>13.65 ± 1.10%) and 14 h of degradation rate. An increase in the concentration and double-crosslinking approach demonstrated an increment in the crosslinking degree, enzymatic hydrolysis resistance, thermal stability, porosity, wettability and mechanical strength. The GS can be tuned differently from the control by approaching the GS via a different crosslinking strategy. However, a decreasing trend was observed in the pore size, water retention and water absorption ability. Crosslinking with DHT resulted in large pore sizes (85-300 µm) and low water retention (236.9 ± 18.7 g/m2·day) and a comparable swelling ratio with the control (89.6 ± 7.1%). Moreover no changes in the chemical content and amorphous phase identification were observed. The HEK and HDF revealed slight toxicity with double crosslinking. HEK and HDF attachment and proliferation remain similar to each crosslinking approach. Immunogenicity was observed to be higher in the double-crosslinking compared to the single-crosslinking intervention. The fabricated GS demonstrated a dynamic potential to be tailored according to wound types by manipulating the crosslinking intervention.
Lactoferrin (Lf) nanoparticles have been developed as a carrier of drugs and gene. Two main methods, desolvation technique and emulsification method, for preparation of protein nanoparticles have been reported so far, but most of the previous reports of Lf nanoparticles preparation are limited to emulsification method. In this study, we investigated the optimal conditions by desolvation technique for the preparation of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine Lf (bLf) nanoparticles within the size range of 100-200 nm, and evaluated their properties as a carrier for oral and intravenous drug delivery. The experimental results of dynamic light scattering and Transmission Electron Microscope suggested that glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bLf nanoparticles with 150 nm in size could be produced by addition of 2-propanol as the desolvating solvent into the bLf solution adjusted to pH 6, followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. These cross-linked bLf nanoparticles were found to be compatible to blood components and resistant against rapid degradation by pepsin. Thus, cross-linked bLf nanoparticles prepared by desolvation technique can be applied as a drug carrier for intravenous administration and oral delivery.
The degradation and mechanical properties of potential polymeric materials used for green manufacturing are significant determinants. In this study, cellulose nanofibre was prepared from Schizostachyum brachycladum bamboo and used as reinforcement in the PLA/chitosan matrix using melt extrusion and compression moulding method. The cellulose nanofibre(CNF) was isolated using supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was characterised with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, zeta potential and particle size analysis. The mechanical, physical, and degradation properties of the resulting biocomposite were studied with moisture content, density, thickness swelling, tensile, flexural, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and biodegradability analysis. The TEM, FT-IR, and particle size results showed successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre using this method. The result showed that the physical, mechanical, and degradation properties of PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite were significantly enhanced with cellulose nanofibre. The density, thickness swelling, and moisture content increased with the addition of CNF. Also, tensile strength and modulus; flexural strength and modulus increased; while the elongation reduced. The carbon residue from the thermal degradation and the glass transition temperature of the PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite was observed to increase with the addition of CNF. The result showed that the biocomposite has potential for green and sustainable industrial application.
In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.
Chitosan, as a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, is characterized by anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. It lately has received a widespread interest for use as the pulmonary particulate backbone materials of drug carrier for the treatment of infectious disease and cancer. The success of chitosan as pulmonary particulate drug carrier is a critical interplay of their mucoadhesive, permeation enhancement and site/cell-specific attributes. In the case of nanocarriers, various microencapsulation and micro-nano blending systems have been devised to equip them with an appropriate aerodynamic character to enable efficient pulmonary aerosolization and inhalation. The late COVID-19 infection is met with acute respiratory distress syndrome and cancer. Chitosan and its derivatives are found useful in combating HCoV and cancer as a function of their molecular weight, substituent type and its degree of substitution. The interest in chitosan is expected to rise in the next decade from the perspectives of drug delivery in combination with its therapeutic performance.
Introduction: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is one of the available treatments for vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most common bone substitute used in the procedure, but it has several disadvantages. Bioceramic material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), has better biological activity compared to PMMA. The aim of this study was to find an optimal biomaterial compound which offers the best mechanical and biological properties to be used in PV. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study with goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) as an animal model. The animals' vertebral columns were injected with PMMA-HA compound. Animal samples were divided into four groups, and each group received a different proportion of PMMA:HA compound. The mechanical and biological effects of the compound on the bone were then analysed. The mechanical effect was assessed by measuring the vertebral body's compressive strength. Meanwhile, the biological effect was assessed by analysing the callus formation in the vertebral body. Results: The optimal callus formation and compressive strength was observed in the group receiving PMMA:HA with a 1:2 ratio. Conclusion: A mixture of PMMA and HA increases the quality of callus formation and the material's compressive strength. The optimum ratio of PMMA:HA in the compound is 1:2.
The topography at the micro/nanoscale level for biomaterial surfaces has been thought to play vital roles in their interactions with cells. However, discovering the interdisciplinary mechanisms underlying how cells respond to micro-nanostructured topography features still remains a challenge. In this work, ∼37 μm 3D printing used titanium microspheres and their further hierarchical micro-nanostructured spheres through hydrothermal treatment were adopted to construct typical model surface topographies to study the preosteoblastic cell responses (adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation). We here demonstrated that not only the hierarchical micro-nanostructured surface topography but also their distribution density played critical role on cell cytocompatibility. The microstructured topography feature surface with middle-density distributed titanium microspheres showed significantly enhanced cell responses, which might be attributed to the better cellular interaction due to the cell aggregates. However, the hierarchical micro-nanostructured topography surface, regardless of the distribution density of titanium microspheres, improved the cell-surface interactions because of the enhanced initial protein adsorption, thereby reducing the cell aggregates and consequently their responses. This work, therefore, provides new insights into the fundamental understanding of cell-material interactions and will have a profound impact on further designing micro-nanostructured topography surfaces to control cell responses.
The effect of electron beam radiation on ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer/polypropylene blends is studied as an attempt to develop radiation sterilizable polypropylene/ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer blends suitable for medical devices. The polypropylene/ethylene-propylene diene terpolymer blends with mixing ratios of 80/20, 50/50, 20/80 were prepared in an internal mixer at 165°C and a rotor speed of 50 rpm/min followed by compression molding. The blends and the individual components were radiated using 3.0 MeV electron beam accelerator at doses ranging from 0 to 100 kGy in air and room temperature. All the samples were tested for tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, impact strength, and morphological properties. After exposing to 25 and 100 kGy radiation doses, 50% PP blend was selected for in vivo studies. Results revealed that radiation-induced crosslinking is dominating in EPDM dominant blends, while radiation-induced degradation is prevailing in PP dominant blends. The 20% PP blend was found to be most compatible for 20-60 kGy radiation sterilization. The retention in impact strength with enhanced tensile strength of 20% PP blend at 20-60 kGy believed to be associated with increased compatibility between PP and EPDM along with the radiation-induced crosslinking. The scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surfaces of the PP/EPDM blends showed evidences consistent with the above contentation. The in vivo studies provide an instinct that the radiated blends are safe to be used for healthcare devices.