As one of the potential bionanomaterials, nanocellulose has appeared as a favorable candidate for photoremediation of the environment because of its abundance in nature, inexpensive, eco-friendly, decomposable, high surface area, and outstanding mechanical properties. The current review carefully summarized the diverse type of nanocellulose, their preparation approaches, and several previous works on the use of nanocellulose for photoremediation. These include the role of nanocellulose for the increased surface active site of the hybrid photocatalysts by providing a large surface area for enhanced adsorption of photons and pollutant molecules, as a dispersing agent to increase distribution of metal/non-metal dopants photocatalysts, as well as for controlled size and morphology of the dopants photocatalysts. Furthermore, the recommendations for upcoming research provided in this review are anticipated to ignite an idea for the development of other nanocellulose-based photocatalysts. Other than delivering beneficial information on the present growth of the nanocellulose biomaterials photocatalysts, this review is expected will attract more interest to the utilization of nanocellulose photocatalyst and distribute additional knowledge in this exciting area of environmental photoremediation. This could be attained by considering that a review on nanocellulose biomaterials for environmental health photoremediation has not been described elsewhere, notwithstanding intensive research works have been dedicated to this topic.
The recurrent environmental and economic issues associated with the diminution of fossil fuels are the main impetus towards the conversion of agriculture, aquaculture and shellfish biomass and the wastes into alternative commodities in a sustainable approach. In this review, the recent progress on recovering and processing these biomass and waste feedstocks to produce a variety of value-added products via various valorisation technologies, including hydrolysis, extraction, pyrolysis, and chemical modifications are presented, analysed, and discussed. These technologies have gained widespread attention among researchers, industrialists and decision makers alike to provide markets with bio-based chemicals and materials at viable prices, leading to less emissions of CO2 and sustainable management of these resources. In order to echo the thriving research, development and innovation, bioresources and biomass from various origins were reviewed including agro-industrial, herbaceous, aquaculture, shellfish bioresources and microorganisms that possess a high content of starch, cellulose, lignin, lipid and chitin. Additionally, a variety of technologies and processes enabling the conversion of such highly available bioresources is thoroughly analysed, with a special focus on recent studies on designing, optimising and even innovating new processes to produce biochemicals and biomaterials. Despite all these efforts, there is still a need to determine the more cost-effective and efficient technologies to produce bio-based commodities.
Hydrogel is the most emblematic soft material which possesses significantly tunable and programmable characteristics. Polymer hydrogels possess significant advantages including, biocompatible, simple, reliable and low cost. Therefore, research on the development of hydrogel for biomedical applications has been grown intensely. However, hydrogel development is challenging and required significant effort before the application at an industrial scale. Therefore, the current work focused on evaluating recent trends and issues with hydrogel development for biomedical applications. In addition, the hydrogel's development methodology, physicochemical properties, and biomedical applications are evaluated and benchmarked against the reported literature. Later, biomedical applications of the nano-cellulose-based hydrogel are considered and critically discussed. Based on a detailed review, it has been found that the surface energy, intermolecular interactions, and interactions of hydrogel adhesion forces are major challenges that contribute to the development of hydrogel. In addition, compared to other hydrogels, nanocellulose hydrogels demonstrated higher potential for drug delivery, 3D cell culture, diagnostics, tissue engineering, tissue therapies and gene therapies. Overall, nanocellulose hydrogel has the potential for commercialization for different biomedical applications.
Ultrasound (US) demonstrates remarkable potential in synthesising nanomaterials, particularly nanobiomaterials targeted towards biomedical applications. This review briefly introduces existing top-down and bottom-up approaches for nanomaterials synthesis and their corresponding synthesis mechanisms, followed by the expounding of US-driven nanomaterials synthesis. Subsequently, the pros and cons of sono-nanotechnology and its advances in the synthesis of nanobiomaterials are drawn based on recent works. US-synthesised nanobiomaterials have improved properties and performance over conventional synthesis methods and most essentially eliminate the need for harsh and expensive chemicals. The sonoproduction of different classes and types of nanobiomaterials such as metal and superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs), lipid- and carbohydrate-based NPs, protein microspheres, microgels and other nanocomposites are broadly categorised based on the physical and/or chemical effects induced by US. This review ends on a good note and recognises US-driven synthesis as a pragmatic solution to satisfy the growing demand for nanobiomaterials, nonetheless some technical challenges are highlighted.
Biocomposites are materials that are easy to manufacture and environmentally friendly. Sugar palm fibre (SPF) is considered to be an emerging reinforcement candidate that could provide improved mechanical stiffness and strength to the biocomposites. Numerous studies have been recently conducted on sugar palm biocomposites to evaluate their physical, mechanical and thermal properties in various conditions. Sugar palm biocomposites are currently limited to the applications of traditional household products despite their good thermal stability as a prospective substitute candidate for synthetic fibres. Thus, thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DTG are functioned to determine the thermal properties of single fibre sugar palm composites (SPCs) in thermoset and thermoplastic matrix as well as hybrid SPCs. The biocomposites showed a remarkable change considering thermal stability by varying the individual fibre compositions and surface treatments and adding fillers and coupling agents. However, literature that summarises the thermal properties of sugar palm biocomposites is unavailable. Particularly, this comprehensive review paper aims to guide all composite engineers, designers, manufacturers and users on the selection of suitable biopolymers for sugar palm biocomposites for thermal applications, such as heat shields and engine components.
Carbohydrate polymers are biological macromolecules that have sparked a lot of interest in wound healing due to their outstanding antibacterial properties and sustained drug release. Arabinoxylan (ARX), Chitosan (CS), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets were combined and crosslinked using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinker to fabricate composite hydrogels and assess their potential in wound dressing for skin wound healing. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and biological assays were used to evaluate the composite hydrogels. FTIR validated the effective fabrication of the composite hydrogels. The rough morphologies of the composite hydrogels were revealed by SEM and AFM (as evident from the Ra values). ATC-4 was discovered to have the roughest surface. TEM revealed strong homogeneous anchoring of the rGO to the polymer matrix. However, with higher amount of rGO agglomeration was detected. The % swelling at various pHs (1-13) revealed that the hydrogels were pH-sensitive. The controlled release profile for the antibacterial drug (Silver sulfadiazine) evaluated at various pH values (4.5, 6.8, and 7.4) in PBS solution and 37 °C using the Franz diffusion method revealed maximal drug release at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. The antibacterial efficacy of the composite hydrogels against pathogens that cause serious skin diseases varied. The MC3T3-E1 cell adhered, proliferated, and differentiated well on the composite hydrogels. MC3T3-E1 cell also illustrated excellent viability (91%) and proper cylindrical morphologies on the composite hydrogels. Hence, the composite hydrogels based on ARX, CS, and rGO are promising biomaterials for treating and caring for skin wounds.
Recent advances in ultrasound (US) have shown its great potential in biomedical applications as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The coupling of US-assisted drug delivery systems with nanobiomaterials possessing tailor-made functions has been shown to remove the limitations of conventional drug delivery systems. The low-frequency US has significantly enhanced the targeted drug delivery effect and efficacy, reducing limitations posed by conventional treatments such as a limited therapeutic window. The acoustic cavitation effect induced by the US-mediated microbubbles (MBs) has been reported to replace drugs in certain acute diseases such as ischemic stroke. This review briefly discusses the US principles, with particular attention to the recent advancements in drug delivery applications. Furthermore, US-assisted drug delivery coupled with nanobiomaterials to treat different diseases (cancer, neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, thrombosis, and COVID-19) are discussed in detail. Finally, this review covers the future perspectives and challenges on the applications of US-mediated nanobiomaterials.
Bioadhesive polymers offer versatility to medical and pharmaceutical inventions. The incorporation of such materials to conventional dosage forms or medical devices may confer or improve the adhesivity of the bioadhesive systems, subsequently prolonging their residence time at the site of absorption or action and providing sustained release of actives with improved bioavailability and therapeutic outcomes. For decades, much focus has been put on scientific works to replace synthetic polymers with biopolymers with desirable functional properties. Gelatine has been considered one of the most promising biopolymers. Despite its biodegradability, biocompatibility and unique biological properties, gelatine exhibits poor mechanical and adhesive properties, limiting its end-use applications. The chemical modification and blending of gelatine with other biomaterials are strategies proposed to improve its bioadhesivity. Here we discuss the classical approaches involving a variety of polymer blends and composite systems containing gelatine, and gelatine modifications via thiolation, methacrylation, catechol conjugation, amination and other newly devised strategies. We highlight several of the latest studies on these strategies and their relevant findings.
This study developed a novel bioactive bone substitute (hydroxyapatite, HA) with improved anti-biofilm activity by functionalizing with curcumin (anti-biofilm compound) which provide sufficient flux of curcumin concentration for 14 days. The released curcumin acts to inhibit biofilm formation and control the number of viable planktonic cells simultaneously. To prepare curcumin-functionalized HA, different concentrations of curcumin (up to 3% w/v) were added simultaneously during the precipitation process of HA. The highest loading (50 mg/g HA) of curcumin onto HA was achieved with 2% w/v of curcumin. Physicochemical characterizations of curcumin-functionalized HA composites revealed that curcumin was successfully incorporated onto HA. Curcumin was sustainably released over 14 days, while higher curcumin release was observed in acidic condition (pH 4.4) compared to physiological (pH 7.4). The cytotoxicity assays revealed that no significant difference on bone cells growth on curcumin-functionalized HA and non-functionalized HA. Curcumin-functionalized HA was effective to inhibit bacterial cell attachment and subsequent biofilm maturation stages. The anti-biofilm effect was stronger against Staphylococcus aureus compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The curcumin-functionalized HA composite significantly delayed the maturation of S. aureus compared to non-functionalized HA in which microcolonies of cells only begin to appear at 96 h. Up to 3.0 log reduction in colony forming unit (CFU)/mL of planktonic cells was noted at 24 h of incubation for both microorganisms. Thus, in this study we have suggested that curcumin loaded HA could be an alternative antimicrobial agent to control the risk of infections in post-surgical implants.
Recently, composite scaffolding has found many applications in hard tissue engineering due to a number of desirable features. In this present study, hydroxyapatite/bioglass (HAp/BG) nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared in different ratios using a hydrothermal approach. The aim of this research was to evaluate the adhesion, growth, viability, and osteoblast differentiation behavior of human Wharton's-jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) on HAp/BG in vitro as a scaffold for application in bone tissue engineering. Particle size and morphology were investigated by TEM and bioactivity was assessed and proven using SEM analysis with hWJMSCs in contact with the HAp/BG nanocomposite. Viability was evaluated using PrestoBlueTM assay and early osteoblast differentiation and mineralization behaviors were investigated by ALP activity and EDX analysis simultaneously. TEM results showed that the prepared HAp/BG nanocomposite had dimensions of less than 40 nm. The morphology of hWJMSCs showed a fibroblast-like shape, with a clear filopodia structure. The viability of hWJMSCs was highest for the HAp/BG nanocomposite with a 70:30 ratio of HAp to BG (HAp70/BG30). The in vitro biological results confirmed that HAp/BG composite was not cytotoxic. It was also observed that the biological performance of HAp70/BG30 was higher than HAp scaffold alone. In summary, HAp/BG scaffold combined with mesenchymal stem cells showed significant potential for bone repair applications in tissue engineering.
Towards optimizing the growth of extracellular matrix to produce repair cartilage for healing articular cartilage (AC) defects in joints, scaffold-based tissue engineering approaches have recently become a focus of clinical research. Scaffold-based approaches by electrospinning aim to support the differentiation of chondrocytes by providing an ultrastructure similar to the fibrillar meshwork in native cartilage. In a first step, we demonstrate how the blending of chitosan with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) allows concentrated chitosan solution to become electrospinnable. The chitosan-based scaffolds share the chemical structure and characteristics of glycosaminoglycans, which are important structural components of the cartilage extracellular matrix. Electrospinning produced nanofibrils of ∼100 nm thickness that are closely mimicking the size of collagen fibrils in human AC. The polymer scaffolds were stabilized in physiological conditions and their stiffness was tuned by introducing the biocompatible natural crosslinker genipin. We produced scaffolds that were crosslinked with 1.0% genipin to obtain values of stiffness that were in between the stiffness of the superficial zone human AC of 600 ± 150 kPa and deep zone AC of 1854 ± 483 kPa, whereas the stiffness of 1.5% genipin crosslinked scaffold was similar to the stiffness of deep zone AC. The scaffolds were degradable, which was indicated by changes in the fibril structure and a decrease in the scaffold stiffness after seven months. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis after three weeks of culture with human articular chondrocytes (HACs) showed a cell viability of over 90% on the scaffolds and new extracellular matrix deposited on the scaffolds.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.
Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
Chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents such as paclitaxel (PTX) are considered essential for the treatment of various cancers. However, PTX injection is associated with severe systemic side effects and high rates of patient noncompliance. Micelle formulations (MFs) are nano-drug delivery systems that offer a solution to these problems. Herein, we report an advantageous carrier for the transdermal delivery of PTX comprising a new MF that consists of two biocompatible surfactants: cholinium oleate ([Cho][Ole]), which is a surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20). A solubility assessment confirmed that PTX was readily solubilized in the SAIL-based micelles via multipoint hydrogen bonding and cation-π and π-π interactions between PTX and SAIL[Cho][Ole]. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy revealed that in the presence of PTX, the MF formed spherical PTX-loaded micelles that were well-distributed in the range 8.7-25.3 nm. According to DLS, the sizes and size distributions of the micelle droplets did not change significantly over the entire storage period, attesting to their physical stability. In vitro transdermal assessments using a Franz diffusion cell revealed that the MF absorbed PTX 4 times more effectively than a Tween 80-based formulation and 6 times more effectively than an ethanol-based formulation. In vitro and in vivo skin irritation tests revealed that the new carrier had a negligible toxicity profile compared with a conventional ionic liquid-based carrier. Based on these findings, we believe that the SAIL[Cho][Ole]-based MF has potential as a biocompatible nanocarrier for the effective transdermal delivery of poorly soluble chemotherapeutics such as PTX.
Biofilm formation represents a significant cause of concern as it has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, thereby imposing a huge burden on public healthcare system throughout the world. As biofilms are usually resistant to various conventional antimicrobial interventions, they may result in severe and persistent infections, which necessitates the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat biofilm-based infections. Physicochemical modification of the biomaterials utilized in medical devices to mitigate initial microbial attachment has been proposed as a promising strategy in combating polymicrobial infections, as the adhesion of microorganisms is typically the first step for the formation of biofilms. For instance, superhydrophobic surfaces have been shown to possess substantial anti-biofilm properties attributed to the presence of nanostructures. In this article, we provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and their composition, as well as the applications of nanomaterials as superhydrophobic nanocoatings for the development of novel anti-biofilm therapies.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. HA possesses high mechanical stress and exhibits particularly excellent biocompatibility owing to its similarity to natural bone. Nonetheless, this ceramic scaffold has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness. Therefore, this had presented some difficulties when shaping implants out of HA and for sustaining a high mechanical load. Fortunately, these drawbacks can be improved by combining HA with other biomaterials. Starch was heavily considered for biomedical device applications in favor of its low cost, wide availability, and biocompatibility properties that complement HA. This review provides an insight into starch/HA composites used in the fabrication of bone tissue scaffolds and numerous factors that influence the scaffold properties. Moreover, an alternative characterization of scaffolds via dielectric and free space measurement as a potential contactless and nondestructive measurement method is also highlighted.
Bacteria are considered as the major cell factories, which can effectively convert nitrogen and carbon sources to a wide variety of extracellular and intracellular biopolymers like polyamides, polysaccharides, polyphosphates, polyesters, proteinaceous compounds, and extracellular DNA. Bacterial biopolymers find applications in pathogenicity, and their diverse materialistic and chemical properties make them suitable to be used in medicinal industries. When these biopolymer compounds are obtained from pathogenic bacteria, they serve as important virulence factors, but when they are produced by non-pathogenic bacteria, they act as food components or biomaterials. There have been interdisciplinary studies going on to focus on the molecular mechanism of synthesis of bacterial biopolymers and identification of new targets for antimicrobial drugs, utilizing synthetic biology for designing and production of innovative biomaterials. This review sheds light on the mechanism of synthesis of bacterial biopolymers and its necessary modifications to be used as cell based micro-factories for the production of tailor-made biomaterials for high-end applications and their role in pathogenesis.
Magnesium has been recognized as a groundbreaking biodegradable biomaterial for implant applications, but its use is limited because it degrades too quickly in physiological solutions. This paper describes the research on the influence of polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CS)/zinc oxide (ZnO) composite coating (PCL/CS/ZnO) on the corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity of magnesium. The PCL/CS film presented a porous structure with thickness of about 40-50 μm, while after incorporation of ZnO into the PCL/CS, a homogenous film without pores and defects was attained. The ZnO embedded in PCL/CS enhanced corrosion resistance by preventing corrosive ions diffusion in the magnesium substrate. The corrosion, antibacterial, and cell interaction mechanism of the PCL/CS/ZnO composite coating is discussed in this study. In vitro cell culture revealed that the PCL/CS coating with low loaded ZnO significantly improved cytocompatibility, but coatings with high loaded ZnO were able to induce some cytotoxicity osteoblastic cells. It was also found that enhanced antibacterial activity of the PCL/CS/ZnO coating against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria, while less significant antibacterial activity was detected for uncoated Mg and PCL/CS coating. Based on the results, the PCL/CS coatings loaded with low ZnO content may be recommended as a candidate material for biodegradable Mg-based orthopedic implant applications.
Global issues such as environmental problems and food security are currently of concern to all of us. Circular bioeconomy is a promising approach towards resolving these global issues. The production of bioenergy and biomaterials can sustain the energy-environment nexus as well as substitute the devoid of petroleum as the production feedstock, thereby contributing to a cleaner and low carbon environment. In addition, assimilation of waste into bioprocesses for the production of useful products and metabolites lead towards a sustainable circular bioeconomy. This review aims to highlight the waste biorefinery as a sustainable bio-based circular economy, and, therefore, promoting a greener environment. Several case studies on the bioprocesses utilising waste for biopolymers and bio-lipids production as well as bioprocesses incorporated with wastewater treatment are well discussed. The strategy of waste biorefinery integrated with circular bioeconomy in the perspectives of unravelling the global issues can help to tackle carbon management and greenhouse gas emissions. A waste biorefinery-circular bioeconomy strategy represents a low carbon economy by reducing greenhouse gases footprint, and holds great prospects for a sustainable and greener world.
In this study, we fabricated a modified biomaterial based on chitosan and gelatin, which is an intrinsic hydrophilic membrane for oil-water separation to clean water contamination by oil. Modification of the membrane with a non-toxic natural crosslinker, genipin, significantly enhanced the stability of the biopolymer membrane in a water-based medium towards an eco-friendly environment. The effects of various compositions of genipin-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin membrane on the rheological properties, thermal stability, and morphological structure of the membrane were investigated using a dynamic rotational rheometer, thermogravimetry analysis, and chemical composition by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR). Modified chitosan-gelatin membrane showed completely miscible blends, as determined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ATR. Morphological results showed membrane with establish microstructure to further experiment as filtration product. The membranes were successfully tested for their oil-water separation efficiencies. The membrane proved to be selective and effective in separating water from an oil-water mixture. The optimum results achieved a stable microporous structure of the membrane (microfiltration) and a separation efficiency of above 98%. The membrane showed a high permeation flux, generated as high as 698 and 420 L m-2 h-1 for cooking and crude oils, respectively. Owing to its outstanding recyclability and anti-fouling performance, the membrane can be washed away easily, ensuring the reusability of the prepared membrane.