This study developed a novel bioactive bone substitute (hydroxyapatite, HA) with improved anti-biofilm activity by functionalizing with curcumin (anti-biofilm compound) which provide sufficient flux of curcumin concentration for 14 days. The released curcumin acts to inhibit biofilm formation and control the number of viable planktonic cells simultaneously. To prepare curcumin-functionalized HA, different concentrations of curcumin (up to 3% w/v) were added simultaneously during the precipitation process of HA. The highest loading (50 mg/g HA) of curcumin onto HA was achieved with 2% w/v of curcumin. Physicochemical characterizations of curcumin-functionalized HA composites revealed that curcumin was successfully incorporated onto HA. Curcumin was sustainably released over 14 days, while higher curcumin release was observed in acidic condition (pH 4.4) compared to physiological (pH 7.4). The cytotoxicity assays revealed that no significant difference on bone cells growth on curcumin-functionalized HA and non-functionalized HA. Curcumin-functionalized HA was effective to inhibit bacterial cell attachment and subsequent biofilm maturation stages. The anti-biofilm effect was stronger against Staphylococcus aureus compared to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The curcumin-functionalized HA composite significantly delayed the maturation of S. aureus compared to non-functionalized HA in which microcolonies of cells only begin to appear at 96 h. Up to 3.0 log reduction in colony forming unit (CFU)/mL of planktonic cells was noted at 24 h of incubation for both microorganisms. Thus, in this study we have suggested that curcumin loaded HA could be an alternative antimicrobial agent to control the risk of infections in post-surgical implants.
Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biogenic polymer that has the potential to substitute synthetic plastic in numerous applications. This is due to its unique attribute of being a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic, achievable through microbial fermentation from a broad utilizable range of renewable resources. Among all the PHAs discovered, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] stands out as a next generation healthcare biomaterial for having high biopharmaceutical and medical value since it is highly compatible to mammalian tissue. This review provides a critical assessment and complete overview of the development and trend of P(3HB-co-4HB) research over the last few decades, highlighting aspects from the microbial strain discovery to metabolic engineering and bioprocess cultivation strategies. The article also outlines the relevance of P(3HB-co-4HB) as a material for high value-added products in numerous healthcare-related applications.
A natural biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), was adjuvanted with a vaccine seed to observe the biomaterial's ability in enhancing an immune response in rats. The adjuvant potential of PHA was tested using the whole-killed Pasteurella multocida B:2 (PMB2) vaccine in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to detect changes in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) responses. A common PHA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)], from Bacillus megaterium UMTKB-1 was constructed into microparticles using the solvent evaporation method. Twelve SD rats were divided into four treatment groups: 1) non-treatment as negative control, 2) P(3HB) adjuvant, 3) PMB2 vaccine, and 4) adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine groups, which were intramuscularly vaccinated twice. Immunoglobulins IgG and IgM levels were used as markers of the immune response induced by the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine and analysed over an eight-week study period. The group vaccinated specifically with adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine had higher concentrations of immunoglobulins compared to other treatment groups, hence demonstrating the potential of the adjuvant to enhance immune response. Findings showed a need to delay the delivery of the second booster dose to determine the appropriate regime for the adjuvanted-P(3HB)/PMB2 vaccine.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.
Skin tissue engineering has made remarkable progress in wound healing treatment with the advent of newer fabrication strategies using natural/synthetic polymers and stem cells. Stem cell therapy is used to treat a wide range of injuries and degenerative diseases of the skin. Nevertheless, many related studies demonstrated modest improvement in organ functions due to the low survival rate of transplanted cells at the targeted injured area. Thus, incorporating stem cells into biomaterial offer niches to transplanted stem cells, enhancing their delivery and therapeutic effects. Currently, through the skin tissue engineering approach, many attempts have employed biomaterials as a platform to improve the engraftment of implanted cells and facilitate the function of exogenous cells by mimicking the tissue microenvironment. This review aims to identify the limitations of stem cell therapy in wound healing treatment and potentially highlight how the use of various biomaterials can enhance the therapeutic efficiency of stem cells in tissue regeneration post-implantation. Moreover, the review discusses the combined effects of stem cells and biomaterials in in vitro and in vivo settings followed by identifying the key factors contributing to the treatment outcomes. Apart from stem cells and biomaterials, the role of growth factors and other cellular substitutes used in effective wound healing treatment has been mentioned. In conclusion, the synergistic effect of biomaterials and stem cells provided significant effectiveness in therapeutic outcomes mainly in wound healing improvement.
Chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents such as paclitaxel (PTX) are considered essential for the treatment of various cancers. However, PTX injection is associated with severe systemic side effects and high rates of patient noncompliance. Micelle formulations (MFs) are nano-drug delivery systems that offer a solution to these problems. Herein, we report an advantageous carrier for the transdermal delivery of PTX comprising a new MF that consists of two biocompatible surfactants: cholinium oleate ([Cho][Ole]), which is a surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL), and sorbitan monolaurate (Span-20). A solubility assessment confirmed that PTX was readily solubilized in the SAIL-based micelles via multipoint hydrogen bonding and cation-π and π-π interactions between PTX and SAIL[Cho][Ole]. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy revealed that in the presence of PTX, the MF formed spherical PTX-loaded micelles that were well-distributed in the range 8.7-25.3 nm. According to DLS, the sizes and size distributions of the micelle droplets did not change significantly over the entire storage period, attesting to their physical stability. In vitro transdermal assessments using a Franz diffusion cell revealed that the MF absorbed PTX 4 times more effectively than a Tween 80-based formulation and 6 times more effectively than an ethanol-based formulation. In vitro and in vivo skin irritation tests revealed that the new carrier had a negligible toxicity profile compared with a conventional ionic liquid-based carrier. Based on these findings, we believe that the SAIL[Cho][Ole]-based MF has potential as a biocompatible nanocarrier for the effective transdermal delivery of poorly soluble chemotherapeutics such as PTX.
Biofilm formation represents a significant cause of concern as it has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, thereby imposing a huge burden on public healthcare system throughout the world. As biofilms are usually resistant to various conventional antimicrobial interventions, they may result in severe and persistent infections, which necessitates the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat biofilm-based infections. Physicochemical modification of the biomaterials utilized in medical devices to mitigate initial microbial attachment has been proposed as a promising strategy in combating polymicrobial infections, as the adhesion of microorganisms is typically the first step for the formation of biofilms. For instance, superhydrophobic surfaces have been shown to possess substantial anti-biofilm properties attributed to the presence of nanostructures. In this article, we provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and their composition, as well as the applications of nanomaterials as superhydrophobic nanocoatings for the development of novel anti-biofilm therapies.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a scaffold in tissue engineering. HA possesses high mechanical stress and exhibits particularly excellent biocompatibility owing to its similarity to natural bone. Nonetheless, this ceramic scaffold has limited applications due to its apparent brittleness. Therefore, this had presented some difficulties when shaping implants out of HA and for sustaining a high mechanical load. Fortunately, these drawbacks can be improved by combining HA with other biomaterials. Starch was heavily considered for biomedical device applications in favor of its low cost, wide availability, and biocompatibility properties that complement HA. This review provides an insight into starch/HA composites used in the fabrication of bone tissue scaffolds and numerous factors that influence the scaffold properties. Moreover, an alternative characterization of scaffolds via dielectric and free space measurement as a potential contactless and nondestructive measurement method is also highlighted.
Bacteria are considered as the major cell factories, which can effectively convert nitrogen and carbon sources to a wide variety of extracellular and intracellular biopolymers like polyamides, polysaccharides, polyphosphates, polyesters, proteinaceous compounds, and extracellular DNA. Bacterial biopolymers find applications in pathogenicity, and their diverse materialistic and chemical properties make them suitable to be used in medicinal industries. When these biopolymer compounds are obtained from pathogenic bacteria, they serve as important virulence factors, but when they are produced by non-pathogenic bacteria, they act as food components or biomaterials. There have been interdisciplinary studies going on to focus on the molecular mechanism of synthesis of bacterial biopolymers and identification of new targets for antimicrobial drugs, utilizing synthetic biology for designing and production of innovative biomaterials. This review sheds light on the mechanism of synthesis of bacterial biopolymers and its necessary modifications to be used as cell based micro-factories for the production of tailor-made biomaterials for high-end applications and their role in pathogenesis.
Magnesium has been recognized as a groundbreaking biodegradable biomaterial for implant applications, but its use is limited because it degrades too quickly in physiological solutions. This paper describes the research on the influence of polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan (CS)/zinc oxide (ZnO) composite coating (PCL/CS/ZnO) on the corrosion resistance and antibacterial activity of magnesium. The PCL/CS film presented a porous structure with thickness of about 40-50 μm, while after incorporation of ZnO into the PCL/CS, a homogenous film without pores and defects was attained. The ZnO embedded in PCL/CS enhanced corrosion resistance by preventing corrosive ions diffusion in the magnesium substrate. The corrosion, antibacterial, and cell interaction mechanism of the PCL/CS/ZnO composite coating is discussed in this study. In vitro cell culture revealed that the PCL/CS coating with low loaded ZnO significantly improved cytocompatibility, but coatings with high loaded ZnO were able to induce some cytotoxicity osteoblastic cells. It was also found that enhanced antibacterial activity of the PCL/CS/ZnO coating against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria, while less significant antibacterial activity was detected for uncoated Mg and PCL/CS coating. Based on the results, the PCL/CS coatings loaded with low ZnO content may be recommended as a candidate material for biodegradable Mg-based orthopedic implant applications.
Global issues such as environmental problems and food security are currently of concern to all of us. Circular bioeconomy is a promising approach towards resolving these global issues. The production of bioenergy and biomaterials can sustain the energy-environment nexus as well as substitute the devoid of petroleum as the production feedstock, thereby contributing to a cleaner and low carbon environment. In addition, assimilation of waste into bioprocesses for the production of useful products and metabolites lead towards a sustainable circular bioeconomy. This review aims to highlight the waste biorefinery as a sustainable bio-based circular economy, and, therefore, promoting a greener environment. Several case studies on the bioprocesses utilising waste for biopolymers and bio-lipids production as well as bioprocesses incorporated with wastewater treatment are well discussed. The strategy of waste biorefinery integrated with circular bioeconomy in the perspectives of unravelling the global issues can help to tackle carbon management and greenhouse gas emissions. A waste biorefinery-circular bioeconomy strategy represents a low carbon economy by reducing greenhouse gases footprint, and holds great prospects for a sustainable and greener world.
In this study, we fabricated a modified biomaterial based on chitosan and gelatin, which is an intrinsic hydrophilic membrane for oil-water separation to clean water contamination by oil. Modification of the membrane with a non-toxic natural crosslinker, genipin, significantly enhanced the stability of the biopolymer membrane in a water-based medium towards an eco-friendly environment. The effects of various compositions of genipin-crosslinked chitosan-gelatin membrane on the rheological properties, thermal stability, and morphological structure of the membrane were investigated using a dynamic rotational rheometer, thermogravimetry analysis, and chemical composition by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR). Modified chitosan-gelatin membrane showed completely miscible blends, as determined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and ATR. Morphological results showed membrane with establish microstructure to further experiment as filtration product. The membranes were successfully tested for their oil-water separation efficiencies. The membrane proved to be selective and effective in separating water from an oil-water mixture. The optimum results achieved a stable microporous structure of the membrane (microfiltration) and a separation efficiency of above 98%. The membrane showed a high permeation flux, generated as high as 698 and 420 L m-2 h-1 for cooking and crude oils, respectively. Owing to its outstanding recyclability and anti-fouling performance, the membrane can be washed away easily, ensuring the reusability of the prepared membrane.
The degradation and mechanical properties of potential polymeric materials used for green manufacturing are significant determinants. In this study, cellulose nanofibre was prepared from Schizostachyum brachycladum bamboo and used as reinforcement in the PLA/chitosan matrix using melt extrusion and compression moulding method. The cellulose nanofibre(CNF) was isolated using supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was characterised with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, zeta potential and particle size analysis. The mechanical, physical, and degradation properties of the resulting biocomposite were studied with moisture content, density, thickness swelling, tensile, flexural, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and biodegradability analysis. The TEM, FT-IR, and particle size results showed successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre using this method. The result showed that the physical, mechanical, and degradation properties of PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite were significantly enhanced with cellulose nanofibre. The density, thickness swelling, and moisture content increased with the addition of CNF. Also, tensile strength and modulus; flexural strength and modulus increased; while the elongation reduced. The carbon residue from the thermal degradation and the glass transition temperature of the PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite was observed to increase with the addition of CNF. The result showed that the biocomposite has potential for green and sustainable industrial application.
Skin tissue engineering aimed to replace chronic tissue injury commonly occurred due to severe burn and chronic wound in diabetic ulcer patients. The normal skin is unable to be regenerated until the seriously injured tissue is disrupted and losing its function. 3D-bioprinting has been one of the effective methods for scaffold fabrication and is proven to replace the conventional method, which reported several drawbacks. In light of this, researchers have developed a new fabrication approach via 3D-bioprinting by combining biomaterials (bioinks) with cells and biomolecules followed by a suitable crosslinking approach. This advanced technology has been subcategorised into three different printing techniques including inject-based, laser-based, and extrusion-based printing. However, the printable quality of the currently available bioinks demonstrated shortcomings in the physicochemical and mechanical properties. This review aims to identify the limitations raised by using natural-based bioinks and the optimum temperature for various applied printing techniques. It is essential to ensure maintaining the acceptable printed scaffold property such as the optimum pore sizes and porosity that allow cell migration activity. In addition, the properties required for an ideal bioinks design for better scaffold printability were also summarised.
Medical devices are indispensable in the healthcare setting, ranging from diagnostic tools to therapeutic instruments, and even supporting equipment. However, these medical devices may be associated with life-threatening complications when exposed to blood. To date, medical device-related infections have been a major drawback causing high mortality. Device-induced hemolysis, albeit often neglected, results in negative impacts, including thrombotic events. Various strategies have been approached to overcome these issues, but the outcomes are yet to be considered as successful. Recently, superhydrophobic materials or coatings have been brought to attention in various fields. Superhydrophobic surfaces are proposed to be ideal blood-compatible biomaterials attributed to their beneficial characteristics. Reports have substantiated the blood repellence of a superhydrophobic surface, which helps to prevent damage on blood cells upon cell-surface interaction, thereby alleviating subsequent complications. The anti-biofouling effect of superhydrophobic surfaces is also desired in medical devices as it resists the adhesion of organic substances, such as blood cells and microorganisms. In this review, we will focus on the discussion about the potential contribution of superhydrophobic surfaces on enhancing the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices.
Tissue engineering technology is a promising alternative approach for improvement in health management. Biomaterials play a major role, acting as a provisional bioscaffold for tissue repair and regeneration. Collagen a widely studied natural component largely present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human body. It provides mechanical stability with suitable elasticity and strength to various tissues, including skin, bone, tendon, cornea and others. Even though exogenous collagen is commonly used in bioscaffolds, largely in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, nano collagen is a relatively new material involved in nanotechnology with a plethora of unexplored potential. Nano collagen is a form of collagen reduced to a nanoparticulate size, which has its advantages over the common three-dimensional (3D) collagen design, primarily due to its nano-size contributing to a higher surface area-to-volume ratio, aiding in withstanding large loads with minimal tension. It can be produced through different approaches including the electrospinning technique to produce nano collagen fibres resembling natural ECM. Nano collagen can be applied in various medical fields involving bioscaffold insertion or fillers for wound healing improvement; skin, bone, vascular grafting, nerve tissue and articular cartilage regeneration as well as aiding in drug delivery and incorporation for cosmetic purposes.
Collecting information from previous investigations and expressing it in a scientometrics study can be a priceless guide to getting a complete overview of a specific research area. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelated connection between alginate, gelatine, and hydroxyapatite within the scope of bone tissue and scaffold. A review of traditional literature with data mining procedures using bibliometric analyses was considered to identify the evolution of the selected research area between 2009 and 2019. Bibliometric methods and knowledge visualization technologies were implemented to investigate diverse publications based on the following indicators: year of publication, document type, language, country, institution, author, journal, keyword, and number of citations. An analysis using a bibliometric study found that 7446 papers were located with the keywords "bone tissue" and "scaffold", and 1767 (alginate), 185 (gelatine), 5658 (hydroxyapatite) papers with those specific sub keywords. The number of publications that relate to "tissue engineering" and bone more than doubled between 2009 (1352) and 2019 (2839). China, the United States and India are the most productive countries, while Sichuan University and the Chinese Academy of Science from China are the most important institutions related to bone tissue scaffold. Materials Science and Engineering C is the most productive journal, followed by the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. This paper is a starting point, providing the first bibliometric analysis study of bone tissue and scaffold considering alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite. A bibliometric analysis would greatly assist in giving a scientific insight to support desired future research work, not only associated with bone tissue engineering applications. It is expected that the analysis of alginate, gelatine and hydroxyapatite in terms of 3D bioprinting, clinical outcomes, scaffold architecture, and the regenerative medicine approach will enhance the research into bone tissue engineering in the near future. Continued studies into these research fields are highly recommended.
Rice starch is a promising biomaterial for thin film development in buccal drug delivery, but the plasticisation and antiplasticisation phenomena from both plasticisers and drugs on the performance of rice starch films are not well understood. This study aims to elucidate the competing effects of sorbitol (plasticiser) and drug (antiplasticiser) on the physicochemical characteristics of rice starch films containing low paracetamol content. Rice starch films were prepared with different sorbitol (10, 20 and 30% w/w) and paracetamol contents (0, 1 and 2% w/w) using the film casting method and were characterised especially for drug release, swelling and mechanical properties. Sorbitol showed a typical plasticising effect on the control rice starch films by increasing film flexibility and by reducing swelling behaviour. The presence of drugs, however, modified both the mechanical and swelling properties by exerting an antiplasticisation effect. This antiplasticisation action was found to be significant at a low sorbitol level or a high drug content. FTIR investigations supported the antiplasticisation action of paracetamol through the disturbance of sorbitol-starch interactions. Despite this difference, an immediate drug release was generally obtained. This study highlights the interplay between plasticiser and drug in influencing the mechanical and swelling characteristics of rice starch films at varying concentrations.
Global increase in demand for food supply has resulted in surplus generation of wastes. What was once considered wastes, has now become a resource. Studies were carried out on the conversion of biowastes into wealth using methods such as extraction, incineration and microbial intervention. Agro-industry biowastes are promising sources of carbon for microbial fermentation to be transformed into value-added products. In the era of circular economy, the goal is to establish an economic system which aims to eliminate waste and ensure continual use of resources in a close-loop cycle. Biowaste collection is technically and economically practicable, hence it serves as a renewable carbon feedstock. Biowastes are commonly biotransformed into value-added materials such as bioethanol, bioplastics, biofuels, biohydrogen, biobutanol and biogas. This review reveals the recent developments on microbial transformation of biowastes into biotechnologically important products. This approach addresses measures taken globally to valorize waste to achieve low carbon economy. The sustainable use of these renewable resources is a positive approach towards waste management and promoting circular economy.
The current strategy for rapid wound healing treatment involves combining a biomaterial and cell-secreted proteins or biomolecules. This study was aimed at characterizing 3-dimensional (3D) collagen hydrogels fortified with dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium (DFCM) as a readily available acellular skin substitute. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (KM1 and KM2) and fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM. Subsequently, the DFCM was mixed with collagen (Col) hydrogel and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) to fabricate 3D constructs termed Col/C4S/DFCM-KM1, Col/C4S/DFCM-KM2, and Col/C4S/DFCM-FM. The constructs successfully formed soft, semi-solid and translucent hydrogels within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C with strength of <2.5 Newton (N). The Col/C4S/DFCM demonstrated significantly lower turbidity compared to the control groups. The Col/C4S/DFCM also showed a lower percentage of porosity (KM1: 35.15 ± 9.76%; KM2: 6.85 ± 1.60%; FM: 14.14 ± 7.65%) compared to the Col (105.14 ± 11.87%) and Col/C4S (143.44 ± 27.72%) constructs. There were no changes in both swelling and degradation among all constructs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that all groups consisted of oxygen-hydrogen bonds (O-H) and amide I, II, and III. In conclusion, the Col/C4S/DFCM constructs maintain the characteristics of native collagen and can synergistically deliver essential biomolecules for future use in skin therapeutic applications.