Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 664 in total

  1. Abd Rahim MH, Lim EJ, Hasan H, Abbas A
    J Microbiol Methods, 2019 09;164:105672.
    PMID: 31326443 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2019.105672
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the effect of nitrogen, salt and pre-culture conditions on the production of lovastatin in A. terreus ATCC 20542.

    METHODS: Different combinations of nitrogen sources, salts and pre-culture combinations were applied in the fermentation media and lovastatin yield was analysed chromatographically.

    RESULT: The exclusion of MnSO4 ·5H2O, CuSO4·5H2O and FeCl3·6H2O were shown to significantly improve lovastatin production (282%), while KH2PO4, MgSO4·7H2O, and NaCl and ZnSO4·7H2O were indispensable for good lovastatin production. Simple nitrogen source (ammonia) was unfavourable for morphology, growth and lovastatin production. In contrast, yeast extract (complex nitrogen source) produced the highest lovastatin yield (25.52 mg/L), while powdered soybean favoured the production of co-metabolites ((+)-geodin and sulochrin). Intermediate lactose: yeast extract (5:4) ratio produced the optimal lovastatin yield (12.33 mg/L) during pre-culture, while high (5:2) or low (5:6) lactose to yeast extract ratio produced significantly lower lovastatin yield (7.98 mg/L and 9.12 mg/L, respectively). High spore concentration, up to 107 spores/L was shown to be beneficial for lovastatin, but not for co-metabolite production, while higher spore age was shown to be beneficial for all of its metabolites.

    CONCLUSION: The findings from these investigations could be used for future cultivation of A. terreus in the production of desired metabolites.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  2. Abdul Halim ND, Latif MT, Ahamad F, Dominick D, Chung JX, Juneng L, et al.
    Heliyon, 2018 Dec;4(12):e01054.
    PMID: 30603693 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01054
    This study aims to evaluate the air quality on Langkawi Island, a famous tourist destination in Malaysia, using 13 years of data (1999-2011) recorded by the Malaysian Department of Environment. Variations of seven air pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2 and PM10) and three meteorological factors (temperature, humidity and wind speed) were analysed. Statistical methods used to analyse the data included principal component regression (PCR) and sensitivity analysis. The results showed PM10 was the dominant air pollutant in Langkawi and values ranged between 5.0 μg m-3 and 183.2 μg m-3. The patterns of monthly values showed that the concentrations of measured air pollutants on Langkawi were higher during the south-west monsoon (June-September) due to seasonal biomass burning activities. High CO/NOx ratio values (between 28.3 and 43.6), low SO2/NOx ratio values (between 0.04 and 0.12) and NO/NO2 ratio values exceeding 2.2 indicate the source of air pollutants in this area was motor vehicles. PCR analysis grouped the seven variables into two factor components: the F1 component consisted of SO2, NO and NOx and the F2 component consisted of PM10. The F1 component (R2 = 0.931) indicated a stronger standardized coefficient value for meteorological variables compared to the F2 component (R2 = 0.059). The meteorological variables were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in influencing the distribution of the air pollutants. The status of air quality on the island could be improved through control on motor vehicle emissions as well as collaborative efforts to reduce regional air pollution, especially from biomass burning.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  3. Abdul Karim MH, Lam MQ, Chen SJ, Yahya A, Shahir S, Shamsir MS, et al.
    Arch Microbiol, 2020 Nov;202(9):2591-2597.
    PMID: 32607725 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-020-01967-z
    To date, the genus Parvularcula consists of 6 species and no potential application of this genus was reported. Current study presents the genome sequence of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T and its cellulolytic enzyme analysis. The assembled draft genome of strain NH6-79 T consists of 9 contigs and 7 scaffolds with 3.68 Mbp in size and GC content of 59.87%. From a total of 3,465 genes predicted, 96 of them are annotated as glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Within these GHs, 20 encoded genes are related to cellulosic biomass degradation, including 12 endoglucanases (5 GH10, 4 GH5, and 3 GH51), 2 exoglucanases (GH9) and 6 β-glucosidases (GH3). In addition, highest relative enzyme activities (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase) were observed at 27th hour when the strain was cultured in the carboxymethyl cellulose/Avicel®-containing medium for 45 h. The combination of genome analysis with experimental studies indicated the ability of strain NH6-79 T to produce extracellular endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase. These findings suggest the potential of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T in cellulose-containing biomass degradation and that the strain could be used in cellulosic biorefining process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  4. Abdul Khalil K, Mustafa S, Mohammad R, Bin Ariff A, Shaari Y, Abdul Manap Y, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:787989.
    PMID: 24527457 DOI: 10.1155/2014/787989
    This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and β -galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 2(3) full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β -galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  5. Abdul-Latif NS, Ong MY, Nomanbhay S, Salman B, Show PL
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):154-164.
    PMID: 32013677 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1718471
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission will increase due to the increasing global plastic demand. Statistical data shows that plastic production alone will contribute to at least 20% of the annual global carbon budget in the near future. Hence, several alternative methods are recommended to overcome this problem, such as bio-product synthesis. Algae consist of diverse species and have huge potential to be a promising biomass feedstock for a range of purposes, including bio-oil production. The convenient cultivation method of algae could be one of the main support for algal biomass utilization. The aim of this study is to forecast and outline the strategies in order to meet the future demand (year 2050) of plastic production and, at the same time, reduce CO2 emission by replacing the conventional plastic with bio-based plastic. In this paper, the analysis for 25%, 50% and 75% CO2 reduction has been done by using carbon emission pinch analysis. The strategies of biomass utilization in Malaysia are also enumerated in this study. This study suggested that the algal biomass found in Malaysia coastal areas should be utilized and cultivated on a larger scale in order to meet the increasing plastic demand and, at the same time, reduce carbon footprint. Some of the potential areas for macroalgae sea-farming cultivation in Sabah coastline (Malaysia), comprised of about 3885 km2 (388,500 ha) in total, have been highlighted. These potential areas have the potential to produce up to 14.5 million tonnes (Mt)/y of macroalgae in total, which can contribute 370 Mt of phenol for bioplastic production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  6. Abdullah N, Ujang Z, Yahya A
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Jun;102(12):6778-81.
    PMID: 21524907 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.04.009
    The present study investigates the formation of aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME). Stable granules were observed in the reactor with diameters between 2.0 and 4.0mm at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The biomass concentration was 7600 mg L(-1) while the sludge volume index (SVI) was 31.3 mL g SS(-1) indicating good biomass accumulation in the reactor and good settling properties of granular sludge, respectively. COD and ammonia removals were achieved at a maximum of 91.1% and 97.6%, respectively while color removal averaged at only 38%. This study provides insights on the development and the capabilities of aerobic granular sludge in POME treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  7. Abdullah NR, Sharif F, Azizan NH, Hafidz IFM, Supramani S, Usuldin SRA, et al.
    AIMS Microbiol, 2020;6(4):379-400.
    PMID: 33364534 DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2020023
    The pellet morphology and diameter range (DR) of Ganoderma lucidum were observed in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) for the trio total production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and endopolysaccharide (ENS). Two factors were involved in RBF; broth replacement ratio (BRR: 60%, 75% and 90%) and broth replacement time point (BRTP: log, transition and stationary phase) in days. In RBF, 34.31 g/L of biomass favoured small-compact pellets with DR of 20.67 µm< d < 24.00 µm (75% BRR, day 11 of BRTP). EPS production of 4.34 g/L was prone to ovoid-starburst pellets with DR of 34.33 µm< d <35.67 µm (75% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). Meanwhile, the highest 2.43 g/L of ENS production favoured large-hollow pellets with DR of 34.00 µm< d < 38.67 µm (90% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). In addition, RBF successfully shortened the biomass-EPS-ENS fermentation period (31, 33 and 35 days) from batch to 5 days, in seven consecutive cycles of RBF. In a FTIR detection, β-glucan (BG) from EPS and ENS extracts were associated with β-glycosidic linkages (2925 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1077 cm-1, 920 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 wavelengths) with similar 1H NMR spectral behaviour (4.58, 3.87 and 3.81 ppm). Meanwhile, 4 mg/L of BG gave negative cytotoxic effects on normal gingival cell line (hGF) but induced antiproliferation (IC50 = 0.23 mg/mL) against cancerous oral Asian cellosaurus cell line (ORL-48). Together, this study proved that G. lucidum mycelial pellets could withstand seven cycles of long fermentation condition and possessed anti-oral cancer beta-glucan, which suits large-scale natural drug fermentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  8. Abed KM, Hayyan A, Elgharbawy AAM, Hizaddin HF, Hashim MA, Hasan HA, et al.
    Molecules, 2022 Dec 09;27(24).
    PMID: 36557866 DOI: 10.3390/molecules27248734
    This study concerns the role of activated carbon (AC) from palm raceme as a support material for the enhancement of lipase-catalyzed reactions in an aqueous solution, with deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a co-solvent. The effects of carbonization temperature, impregnation ratio, and carbonization time on lipase activity were studied. The activities of Amano lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (AML) and lipase from the porcine pancreas (PPL) were used to investigate the optimum conditions for AC preparation. The results showed that AC has more interaction with PPL and effectively provides greater enzymatic activity compared with AML. The optimum treatment conditions of AC samples that yield the highest enzymatic activity were 0.5 (NaOH (g)/palm raceme (g)), 150 min, and a carbonization temperature of 400 °C. DES was prepared from alanine/sodium hydroxide and used with AC for the further enhancement of enzymatic activity. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the activity of PPL was enhanced with the immobilization of AC in a DES medium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  9. Abu ML, Mohammad R, Oslan SN, Salleh AB
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2021;51(4):350-360.
    PMID: 32940138 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2020.1818256
    A thermostable bacterial lipase from Geobacillus zalihae was expressed in a novel yeast Pichia sp. strain SO. The preliminary expression was too low and discourages industrial production. This study sought to investigate the optimum conditions for T1 lipase production in Pichia sp. strain SO. Seven medium conditions were investigated and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Five responding conditions namely; temperature, inoculum size, incubation time, culture volume and agitation speed observed through Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) method had a significant effect on T1 lipase production. The medium conditions were optimized using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Investigations reveal that the optimum conditions for T1 lipase production and Biomass concentration (OD600) were; Temperature 31.76 °C, incubation time 39.33 h, culture volume 132.19 mL, inoculum size 3.64%, and agitation speed of 288.2 rpm with a 95% PI low as; 12.41 U/mL and 95% PI high of 13.65 U/mL with an OD600 of; 95% PI low as; 19.62 and 95% PI high as; 22.62 as generated by the software was also validated. These predicted parameters were investigated experimentally and the experimental result for lipase activity observed was 13.72 U/mL with an OD600 of 24.5. At these optimum conditions, there was a 3-fold increase on T1 lipase activity. This study is the first to develop a statistical model for T1 lipase production and biomass concentration in Pichia sp. Strain SO. The optimized production of T1 lipase presents a choice for its industrial application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  10. Abu Sepian NR, Mat Yasin NH, Zainol N, Rushan NH, Ahmad AL
    Environ Technol, 2019 Apr;40(9):1110-1117.
    PMID: 29161985 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1408691
    The immobilisation of Chlorella vulgaris 211/11B entrapped in combinations of natural matrices to simplify the harvesting process was demonstrated in this study. Three combinations of matrices composed of calcium alginate (CA) and sodium alginate (SA), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and SA, and mixed matrices (SA, CA, and CMC) were investigated. The number of cells grown for each immobilised matrix to microalgae volume ratios (0.2:1-1:1) were explored and compared with using SA solely as a control. The optimum volume ratios obtained were 1:1 for SA, 0.3:1 for CA and SA, 1:1 for CMC and SA, and 0.3:1 for mixed matrices. The immobilised microalgae of mixed matrices exhibited the highest number of cells with 1.72 × 109 cells/mL at day 10 and 30.43% of oil extraction yield followed by CA and SA (24.29%), CMC and SA (13.00%), and SA (6.71%). Combining SA, CA, and CMC had formed a suitable structure which improved the growth of C. vulgaris and increased the lipid production compared to the immobilisation using single matrix. Besides, the fatty acids profile of the oil extracted indicates a high potential for biodiesel production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  11. Adam AA, Ojur Dennis J, Al-Hadeethi Y, Mkawi EM, Abubakar Abdulkadir B, Usman F, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Dec 01;12(12).
    PMID: 33271876 DOI: 10.3390/polym12122884
    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices with high power density, rapid charge/discharge rate, and excellent cycle stability. Carbon-based supercapacitors are increasingly attracting attention because of their large surface area and high porosity. Carbon-based materials research has been recently centered on biomass-based materials due to the rising need to maintain a sustainable environment. Cellulose and lignin constitute the major components of lignocellulose biomass. Since they are renewable, sustainable, and readily accessible, lignin and cellulose-based supercapacitors are economically viable and environmentally friendly. This review aims to systematically analyze published research findings on electrospun lignin, cellulose, and lignin/cellulose nanofibers for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. A rigorous scientific approach was employed to screen the eligibility of relevant articles to be included in this study. The research questions and the inclusion criteria were clearly defined. The included articles were used to draw up the research framework and develop coherent taxonomy of literature. Taxonomy of research literature generated from the included articles was classified into review papers, electrospun lignin, cellulose, and lignin/cellulose nanofibers for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. Furthermore, challenges, recommendations, and research directions for future studies were equally discussed extensively. Before this study, no review on electrospun lignin/cellulose nanofiber-based supercapacitors has been reported. Thus, this systematic review will provide a reference for other researchers interested in developing biomass-based supercapacitors as an alternative to conventional supercapacitors based on petroleum products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  12. Adelin Anwar, Liew J, Mohd Talib Latif, Mohamed Rozali Othman
    Sains Malaysiana, 2010;39:169-174.
    Biomass burning is one of the main sources of air pollution in South East Asia, predominantly during the dry period between June and October each year. Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia, have been identified as the regions connected to biomass burning due to their involvement in agricultural activities. In Sumatra, the Province of Riau has always been found to have had the highest number of hotspots during haze episodes. This study aims to determine the concentration of five major pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3) in Riau, Indonesia, for 2006 and 2007. It will also correlate the level of air pollutants to the number of hotspots recorded, using the hotspot information system introduced by the Malaysian Centre for Remote Sensing (MACRES). Overall, the concentration of air pollutants recorded was found to increase with the number of hotspots. Nevertheless, only the concentration of PM10 during a haze episode is significantly different when compared to its concentration in non-haze conditions. In fact, in August 2006, when the highest number of hotspots was recorded the concentration of PM10 was found to increase by more than 20% from its normal concentration. The dispersion pattern, as simulated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), showed that the distribution of PM10 was greatly influenced by the wind direction. Furthermore, the particles had the capacity to reach the Peninsular Malaysia within 42 hours of emission from the point sources as a consequence of the South West monsoon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  13. Afsah-Hejri, L.
    Aflatoxins are carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic fungal toxins predominantly produced by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus). Members of the Aspergillus family are wound-invading pathogens that can infect pistachio trees and nuts. The pistachio nut is a favorite tree nut worldwide, and more than half of the world’s pistachio production is from Iran. Pistachio nuts can easily be infected with Aspergillus spp. due to early splitting or due to animal, insect or physical damage. Any established infection of Aspergillus under high relative humidity and temperature results in the production and rapid accumulation of aflatoxins in pistachio nuts. It is impractical to remove aflatoxins from pistachio nuts after they are produced. Some microorganisms (such as saprophytic yeasts) have been reported to have an antagonistic effect against Aspergillus spp. This study aimed to isolate saprophytic yeasts from pistachio fruits and leaves and investigate their biocontrol activities against a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Saprophytic yeasts were identified based on their morphological properties and biochemical tests. In total, 24 yeast isolates were obtained from pistachio fruits and leaves, and their antagonistic effect on A. flavus (PTCC 5006) was investigated. Five saprophytic yeast isolates, displaying the highest biocontrol activities against A. flavus (PTCC 5006), were identified as Pseudozyma fusiformata, Cryptococcus albidus, Rhodotorula fragaria, Cryptococcus hungaricus and Rhodotorula hinula. The biocontrol activities of these yeast isolates were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on sporulation, colony expansion, biomass production and prevention of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production. Pseudozyma fusiformata was the most effective yeast isolate in terms of spore reduction (84.6%) and inhibition of AFB1 production (89.1%). Cryptococcus albidus produced the maximum reduction in fungal dry weight (77.9%). Based on these results, isolated saprophytic yeasts from pistachio fruits and leaves can be used as effective biocontrol agents against the growth of Aspergillus and aflatoxin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  14. Agamuthu P, Abioye OP, Aziz AA
    J Hazard Mater, 2010 Jul 15;179(1-3):891-4.
    PMID: 20392562 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.088
    Soil contamination by used lubricating oil from automobiles is a growing concern in many countries, especially in Asian and African continents. Phytoremediation of this polluted soil with non-edible plant like Jatropha curcas offers an environmental friendly and cost-effective method for remediating the polluted soil. In this study, phytoremediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% (w/w) waste lubricating oil using J. curcas and enhancement with organic wastes [Banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] was undertaken for a period of 180 days under room condition. 56.6% and 67.3% loss of waste lubricating oil was recorded in Jatropha remediated soil without organic amendment for 2.5% and 1% contamination, respectively. However addition of organic waste (BSG) to Jatropha remediation rapidly increases the removal of waste lubricating oil to 89.6% and 96.6% in soil contaminated with 2.5% and 1% oil, respectively. Jatropha root did not accumulate hydrocarbons from the soil, but the number of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria was high in the rhizosphere of the Jatropha plant, thus suggesting that the mechanism of the oil degradation was via rhizodegradation. These studies have proven that J. curcas with organic amendment has a potential in reclaiming hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  15. Ahmad A, Ghufran R, Al-Hosni TK
    J Environ Health Sci Eng, 2019 Dec;17(2):1195-1203.
    PMID: 32030185 DOI: 10.1007/s40201-019-00434-2
    To investigate the interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) with fly ash soil (FAS) for the reduction of metals from FAS by Parthenium hysterophorus were studied. The average accumulation of metals by P. hysterophorus stem were Fe 79.6%; Zn 88.5%; Cu 67.5%; Pb 93.6%; Ni 43.5% and Hg 39.4% at 5.5 g ZnO NP. The concentration of ZnO NP at 1.5 g did not affect the metals accumulation, however at 5.5 g ZnO NP showed highest metal reduction was 96.7% and at 10.5-15.5 g ZnO NP of 19.8%. The metal reduction rate was R
    for Fe 16.4; Zn 21.1; Pb 41.9; Hg 19.1 was higher than Ni 6.4 and Cu 11.3 from the FAS at 5.5 g ZnO NP whereas, the reduction rate of Pb showed highest. With doses of 5.5 g ZnO NP the biomass increased upto 78%; the metal reduced upto 98.7% with the share of 100% ZnO NP from FAS. Further investigation with phytotoxicity the plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were affected due was mainly due to the recovery of metals from FAS (R2 = 0.99).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  16. Ahmad A, Bhat AH, Buang A
    Environ Technol, 2019 Jun;40(14):1793-1809.
    PMID: 29345546 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2018.1430171
    In this study freely suspended and Ca-alginate immobilized C. vulgaris cells were used for the biosorption of Fe(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) ions, from the aqueous solution. Experimental data showed that biosorption capacity of algal cells was strongly dependent on the operational condition such as pH, initial metal ions concentration, dosages, contact time and temperature. The maximum biosorption of Fe(II) 43.43, Mn(II) 40.98 and Zn(II) 37.43 mg/g was achieved with Ca-alginate immobilized algal cells at optimum pH of 6.0, algal cells dosage 0.6 g/L, and contact time of 450 min at room temperature. The biosorption efficiency of freely suspended and immobilized C. vulgaris cells for heavy metals removal from the industrial wastewater was validated. Modeling of biosorption kinetics showed good agreements with pseudo-second-order. Langmuir and D-R isotherm models exhibited the best fit of experimental data. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°) revealed that the biosorption of considered metal ions was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic at 25-45°C. The SEM showed porous morphology which greatly helps in the biosorption of heavy metals. The Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and X-rays Photon Spectroscopy (XPS) data spectra indicated that the functional groups predominately involved in the biosorption were C-N, -OH, COO-, -CH, C=C, C=S and -C-. These results shows that immobilized algal cells in alginate beads could potentially enhance the biosorption of considered metal ions than freely suspended cells. Furthermore, the biosorbent has significantly removed heavy metals from industrial wastewater at the optimized condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  17. Ahmad Farid MA, Hassan MA, Roslan AM, Ariffin H, Norrrahim MNF, Othman MR, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jun;28(22):27976-27987.
    PMID: 33527241 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12585-7
    This study provides insight into the decolorization strategy for crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel production using waste cooking oil as raw material. A sequential procedure that includes physico-chemical treatment and adsorption using activated carbon from oil palm biomass was investigated. The results evidenced decolorization and enrichment of glycerol go hand in hand during the treatment, achieving >89% color removal and > 98% increase in glycerol content, turning the glycerol into a clear (colorless) solution. This is attributed to the complete removal of methanol, free fatty acids, and triglycerides, as well as 85% removal of water, and 93% removal of potassium. Properties of the resultant glycerol met the quality standard of BS 2621:1979. The economic aspects of the proposed methods are examined to fully construct a predesign budgetary estimation according to chemical engineering principles. The starting capital is proportionate to the number of physical assets to acquire where both entail a considerable cost at USD 13,200. Having the benefit of sizeable scale production, it reasonably reduces the operating cost per unit product. As productivity sets at 33 m3 per annum, the annual operating costs amount to USD 79,902 in glycerol decolorization. This is translatable to USD 5.38 per liter glycerol, which is ~69% lower compared to using commercial activated carbon.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  18. Ahmad MS, Mehmood MA, Al Ayed OS, Ye G, Luo H, Ibrahim M, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2017 Jan;224:708-713.
    PMID: 27838316 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.090
    The biomass of Urochloa mutica was subjected to thermal degradation analyses to understand its pyrolytic behavior for bioenergy production. Thermal degradation experiments were performed at three different heating rates, 10, 30 and 50°Cmin-1 using simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetric analyzer, under an inert environment. The kinetic analyses were performed using isoconversional models of Kissenger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO). The high heating value was calculated as 15.04MJmol-1. The activation energy (E) values were shown to be ranging from 103 through 233 kJmol-1. Pre-exponential factors (A) indicated the reaction to follow first order kinetics. Gibbs free energy (ΔG) was measured to be ranging from 169 to 173kJmol-1 and 168 to 172kJmol-1, calculated by KAS and FWO methods, respectively. We have shown that Para grass biomass has considerable bioenergy potential comparable to established bioenergy crops such as switchgrass and miscanthus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  19. Ahmad Rizal NFA, Ibrahim MF, Zakaria MR, Kamal Bahrin E, Abd-Aziz S, Hassan MA
    Molecules, 2018 Apr 02;23(4).
    PMID: 29614823 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23040811
    The combination of superheated steam (SHS) with ligninolytic enzyme laccase pretreatment together with size reduction was conducted in order to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm biomass into glucose. The oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) were pretreated with SHS and ground using a hammer mill to sizes of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mm before pretreatment using laccase to remove lignin. This study showed that reduction of size from raw to 0.25 mm plays important role in lignin degradation by laccase that removed 38.7% and 39.6% of the lignin from OPEFB and OPMF, respectively. The subsequent saccharification process of these pretreated OPEFB and OPMF generates glucose yields of 71.5% and 63.0%, which represent a 4.6 and 4.8-fold increase, respectively, as compared to untreated samples. This study showed that the combination of SHS with laccase pretreatment together with size reduction could enhance the glucose yield.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  20. Ahmad T, Rafatullah M, Ghazali A, Sulaiman O, Hashim R
    PMID: 21929380 DOI: 10.1080/10590501.2011.601847
    This article presents a review on the role of oil palm biomass (trunks, fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches, shells, etc.) as adsorbents in the removal of water pollutants such as acid and basic dyes, heavy metals, phenolic compounds, various gaseous pollutants, and so on. Numerous studies on adsorption properties of various low-cost adsorbents, such as agricultural wastes and its based activated carbons, have been reported in recent years. Studies have shown that oil palm-based adsorbent, among the low-cost adsorbents mentioned, is the most promising adsorbent for removing water pollutants. Further, these bioadsorbents can be chemically modified for better efficiency and can undergo multiple reuses to enhance their applicability at an industrial scale. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 100 recent papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants. The conclusion is been drawn from the reviewed literature, and suggestions for future research are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass*
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