Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 664 in total

  1. Mohd Zahari MA, Ariffin H, Mokhtar MN, Salihon J, Shirai Y, Hassan MA
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:125865.
    PMID: 23133311 DOI: 10.1155/2012/125865
    Factors influencing poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) P(3HB) production by Cupriavidus necator CCUG52238(T) utilizing oil palm frond (OPF) juice were clarified in this study. Effects of initial medium pH, agitation speed, and ammonium sulfate (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration on the production of P(3HB) were investigated in shake flasks experiments using OPF juice as the sole carbon source. The highest P(3HB) content was recorded at pH 7.0, agitation speed of 220 rpm, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) concentration at 0.5 g/L. By culturing the wild-type strain of C. necator under the aforementioned conditions, the cell dry weight (CDW) and P(3HB) content obtained were 9.31 ± 0.13 g/L and 45 ± 1.5 wt.%, respectively. This accounted for 40% increment of P(3HB) content compared to the nonoptimized condition. In the meanwhile, the effect of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on P(3HB) production was investigated in a 2-L bioreactor. Highest CDW (11.37 g/L) and P(3HB) content (44 wt.%) were achieved when DOT level was set at 30%. P(3HB) produced from OPF juice had a tensile strength of 40 MPa and elongation at break of 8% demonstrated that P(3HB) produced from renewable and cheap carbon source is comparable to those produced from commercial substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  2. Maznah WO, Al-Fawwaz AT, Surif M
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(8):1386-93.
    PMID: 23513679
    In this study, the biosorption of copper and zinc ions by Chlorella sp. and Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from local environments in Malaysia was investigated in a batch system and by microscopic analyses. Under optimal biosorption conditions, the biosorption capacity of Chlorella sp. for copper and zinc ions was 33.4 and 28.5 mg/g, respectively, after 6 hr of biosorption in an immobilised system. Batch experiments showed that the biosorption capacity of algal biomass immobilised in the form of sodium alginate beads was higher than that of the free biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that copper and zinc were mainly sorbed at the cell surface during biosorption. Exposure to 5 mg/L of copper and zinc affected both the chlorophyll content and cell count of the algal cells after the first 12 hr of contact time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  3. Show PL, Tan CP, Shamsul Anuar M, Ariff A, Yusof YA, Chen SK, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Jul;116:226-33.
    PMID: 22061444 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.131
    An extractive fermentation technique was developed using a thermoseparating reagent to form a two-phase system for simultaneous cell cultivation and downstream processing of extracellular Burkholderia cepacia lipase. A 10% (w/w) solution of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with a molecular mass of 3900 g/mol and pH 8.5, a 200 rpm speed, and 30 °C were selected as the optimal conditions for lipase production (55 U/ml). Repetitive batch fermentation was performed by continuous replacement of the top phase every 24h, which resulted in an average cell growth mass of 4.7 g/L for 10 extractive batches over 240 h. In scaling-up the process, a bench-scale bioreactor was tested under the conditions that had been optimized in flasks. The production rate and recovery yield were higher in the bioreactor compared to fermentation performed in flasks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  4. Iskandar NL, Zainudin NA, Tan SG
    J Environ Sci (China), 2011;23(5):824-30.
    PMID: 21790056
    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment. The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention. In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P. janthinellum. A. niger and P. simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(II) concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A. niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration. The results showed that A. niger, P. simplicissimum and T. asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution. The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) that was performed by A. niger. The metal removal which occurred at Cu(II) 200 mg/L was (20.910 +/- 0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(II) was (54.046 +/- 0.328) mg/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  5. Loo CY, Lee WH, Tsuge T, Doi Y, Sudesh K
    Biotechnol Lett, 2005 Sep;27(18):1405-10.
    PMID: 16215858
    Palm kernel oil, palm olein, crude palm oil and palm acid oil were used for the synthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] by a mutant strain of Wautersia eutropha (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) harboring the Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene. Palm kernel oil was an excellent carbon source for the production of cell biomass and P(3HB-co-3HHx). About 87% (w/w) of the cell dry weight as P(3HB-co-3HHx) was obtained using 5 g palm kernel oil/l. Gravimetric and microscopic analyses further confirmed the high PHA content in the recombinant cells. The molar fraction of 3HHx remained constant at 5 mol % regardless of the type and concentration of palm oil products used. The small amount of 3HHx units was confirmed by 13C NMR analysis. The number average molecular weight (M(n)) of the PHA copolymer produced from the various palm oil products ranged from 27 0000 to 46 0000 Da. The polydispersity was in the range of 2.6-3.9.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  6. Kuan KB, Othman R, Abdul Rahim K, Shamsuddin ZH
    PLoS One, 2016;11(3):e0152478.
    PMID: 27011317 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152478
    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with PGPR, namely, B. pumilus S1r1, K. pneumoniae Fr1, B. subtilis UPMB10 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 at D65 harvest. This study provides evidence that PGPR inoculation, namely, B. pumilus S1r1 can biologically fix atmospheric N2 and provide an alternative technique, besides plant breeding, to delay N remobilisation in maize plant for higher ear yield (up to 30.9%) with reduced fertiliser-N input.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  7. Widyasti E, Shikata A, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Sudesh K, Wahjono E, et al.
    Enzyme Microb Technol, 2018 Apr;111:21-28.
    PMID: 29421033 DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2017.12.009
    Oil palm trunk (OPT) is one of the most promising lignocellulosic bioresources. To develop effective biodegradation, thermophilic, anaerobic microorganisms were screened from bovine manure compost using fibrillated OPT (f-OPT) pretreated by wet disk milling as the substrate. One thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium, strain CL-2, whose 16S rDNA gene has 98.6% sequence identity with that of Caldicoprobacter faecale DSM 20678T, exhibited high degradation activity (32.7% reduction in total dry solids of f-OPT). Strain CL-2 did not use cellulose as a carbon source, but used hemicelluloses such as xylan, arabinoxylan, starch and pectin at 70 °C. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses and the polysaccharide use suggest that CL-2 may be classified as a novel species of Caldicoprobacter, named Caldicoprobacter sp. CL-2. To characterize enzymatic activities of CL-2, extracellular enzymes were prepared from culture broth using beechwood xylan as the carbon source. The extracellular enzymes showed high xylanase activity, but low cellulase activity, suggesting that f-OPT degradation may depend on xylanase activity. To understand the xylanase system of CL-2, a major xylanase was cloned and characterized. The xylanase (CalXyn11A) had a modular structure consisting of a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family-11 domain and a family 36 carbohydrate-binding module. CalXyn11A did not show f-OPT degradation activity, but a strong synergistic effect was observed when CalXyn11A was added to the extracellular enzyme preparation. These results indicate that, rather than working alone, CalXyn11A has an important role in enhancing total lignocellulose degradation activity by cooperation with other GHs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  8. Katayama T, Nagao N, Kasan NA, Khatoon H, Rahman NA, Takahashi K, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2020 Nov 10;323:113-120.
    PMID: 32768414 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.08.001
    We isolated fifty-two strains from the marine aquaculture ponds in Malaysia that were evaluated for their lipid production and ammonium tolerance and four isolates were selected as new ammonium tolerant microalgae with high-lipid production: TRG10-p102 Oocystis heteromucosa (Chlorophyceae); TRG10-p103 and TRG10-p105 Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae); and TRG10-p201 Amphora coffeiformis (Bacillariophyceae). Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) in three diatom strain was between 2.6 and 18.6 % of total fatty acids, which were higher than in O. heteromucosa. Only A. coffeiformi possessed arachidonic acid. Oocystis heteromucosa naturally grew at high ammonium concentrations (1.4-10 mM), whereas the growth of the other strains, T. weissflogii and A. coffeiformi, were visibly inhibited at high ammonium concentrations (>1.4 mM-NH4). However, two strains of T. weissflogii were able to grow at up to 10 mM-NH4 by gradually acclimating to higher ammonium concentrations. The ammonium tolerant strains, especially T. weissflogii which have high EPA contents, were identified as a valuable candidate for biomass production utilizing NH4-N media, such as ammonium-rich wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  9. Hena S, Fatihah N, Tabassum S, Ismail N
    Water Res, 2015 Sep 1;80:346-56.
    PMID: 26043271 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.05.001
    Reserve lipids of microalgae are promising for biodiesel production. However, economically feasible and sustainable energy production from microalgae requires optimization of cultivation conditions for both biomass yield and lipid production of microalgae. Biomass yield and lipid production in microalgae are a contradictory problem because required conditions for both targets are different. Simultaneously, the mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production also depends extremely on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study a green unicellular microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana (DS6) isolated from the holding tanks of farm wastewater treatment plant using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures was found high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strain capable of growing on dairy farm effluent (DFE) for biodiesel feedstock and wastewater treatment. Morphological features and the phylogenetic analysis for the 18S rRNA identified the isolated strains. A novel three stage cultivation process of facultative strain of C. sorokiniana was examined for lipid production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  10. Munusamy K, Vadivelu J, Tay ST
    Rev Iberoam Micol, 2018 03 12;35(2):68-72.
    PMID: 29544734 DOI: 10.1016/j.riam.2017.07.001
    BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth.

    METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays). The determination of AbA planktonic and biofilm MICs was performed based on a micro-broth dilution method. The anti-biofilm effect of AbA on Candida albicans was examined using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 (29.7%) of 118 Candida isolates were regarded as biofilm producers in this study. Candida parapsilosis was the largest producer, followed by Candida tropicalis and C. albicans. Two morphological variants of biofilms were identified in our isolates, with 48.6% of the isolates showing mainly yeast and pseudohyphae-like structures, while the remaining ones were predominantly filamentous forms. The biofilm producers were divided into two populations (low and high), based on the ability in producing biomass and their metabolic activity. Candida isolates with filamentous growth, higher biomass and metabolic activity showed lower AbA MIC50 (at least fourfold), compared to those exhibiting yeast morphology, and lower biomass and metabolic activity. The observation of filament detachment and the almost complete removal of biofilm from AbA-treated C. albicans biofilm in FESEM analysis suggests an anti-biofilm effect of AbA.

    CONCLUSIONS: The variability in the growth characteristics of Candida biofilm cultures affects susceptibility to AbA, with higher susceptibility noted in biofilm cultures exhibiting filamentous form and high biomass/metabolic activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  11. Rafiqul IS, Sakinah AM, Zularisam AW
    Biotechnol Lett, 2015 Jan;37(1):191-6.
    PMID: 25214231 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-014-1672-5
    Xylose reductase (XR) is an oxidoreductase having potential applications in the production of various specialty products, mainly xylitol. It is important to screen for compounds that can decrease XR activity and consequently can decrease xylitol production. We have identified the byproducts in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate that inhibit XR from Candida tropicalis and measured their effects. XR inhibitory activities of byproducts, glucose, acetic acid, arabinose, lignin-degradation products (LDPs), furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), were evaluated by measuring the MIC and IC50 values. XR activity was 11.2 U/ml. Acetic acid, LDPs, furfural and HMF significantly inhibited XR with IC50 values of 11, 6.4, 2.3 and 0.4 g/l, respectively. This is the first report on the inhibitory activities of several byproducts for XR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  12. Fathurrahman L, Hajar AH, Sakinah DW, Nurhazwani Z, Ahmad J
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2013 Nov 15;16(22):1517-23.
    PMID: 24511694
    One of the main limitations of productivity in photobioreactor is the inefficient conversion of the available light into biomass. Photoautotrophic cells such as microalgae only absorb a small fraction of supplied illumination due to limitation of its photosystem's (PS) absorbing rate. However, phenomenon of Flashing Light Effect (FLE) allows microalgae to utilize strong light exceptionally through intermittent exposure. Exposure of strong light at correct frequency of light and dark photoperiod would allow two pigment-protein complexes, PSI and PSII to be at the equilibrium mid-point potential to allow efficient light conversion. Narrow range of optimum frequency is crucial since overexposure to strong light would injured photosynthetic apparatus whereas longer dark period would contributed to loss of biomass due to triacylglycerol metabolism. The behaviour of microalgae towards various illumination conditions of FLE was determined at batch Photobioreactor (PBR) by varying the aeration flow rate: 16.94, 33.14 and 49.28 mL sec(-1) which yield, respectively the light exposure time of 3.99, 1.71 and 1.1 seconds per cycle. Maximum cell density in FLE-PBR was significantly higher at the exponential phase as compared to the continuously illuminated culture (p = 5.62 x 10(-5), a = 0.05) under the flow rate of 25.07 mL sec(-1). Maximum cell density yield of FLE-PBR and continuously illuminated PBR was, respectively 3.1125 x 10(7) and 2.947 x 10(7) cells mL(-1). Utilization of FLE as an innovative solution to increase the efficiency of microalgae to convert light into chemical energy would revolutionize the microalgae culture, reduce the time for cultivation and produce higher maximum biomass density.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  13. Stephenson NL, Das AJ, Condit R, Russo SE, Baker PJ, Beckman NG, et al.
    Nature, 2014 Mar 6;507(7490):90-3.
    PMID: 24429523 DOI: 10.1038/nature12914
    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  14. Karam DS, Arifin A, Radziah O, Shamshuddin J, Majid NM, Hazandy AH, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:641346.
    PMID: 22606055 DOI: 10.1100/2012/641346
    Deforestation leads to the deterioration of soil fertility which occurs rapidly under tropical climates. Forest rehabilitation is one of the approaches to restore soil fertility and increase the productivity of degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare soil biological properties under enrichment planting and secondary forests at Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak after 42 years of planting. Both areas were excessively logged in the 1950s and left idle without any appropriate forest management until 1968 when rehabilitation program was initiated. Six subplots (20 m × 20 m) were established within each enrichment planting (F1) and secondary forest (F2) plots, after which soil was sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil) and 15-30 cm (subsoil). Results showed that total mean microbial enzymatic activity, as well as biomass C and N content, was significantly higher in F1 compared to F2. The results, despite sample variability, suggest that the rehabilitation program improves the soil biological activities where high rate of soil organic matter, organic C, N, suitable soil acidity range, and abundance of forest litter is believed to be the predisposing factor promoting higher population of microbial in F1 as compared to F2. In conclusion total microbial enzymatic activity, biomass C and biomass N evaluation were higher in enrichment planting plot compared to secondary forest. After 42 years of planting, rehabilitation or enrichment planting helps to restore the productivity of planted forest in terms of biological parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  15. Yahya SK, Zakaria ZA, Samin J, Raj AS, Ahmad WA
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2012 Jun 1;94:362-8.
    PMID: 22398363 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2012.02.016
    The potential use of non-viable biomass of a Gram negative bacterium i.e. Acinetobacter haemolyticus to remove Cr(III) species from aqueous environment was investigated. Highest Cr(III) removal of 198.80 mg g(-1) was obtained at pH 5, biomass dosage of 15 mg cell dry weight, initial Cr(III) of 100 mg L(-1) and 30 min of contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the experimental data (R(2)>0.95) while the kinetic data was best described using the pseudo second-order kinetic model (R(2)>0.99). Cr(III) was successfully recovered from the bacterial biomass using either 1M of CH(3)COOH, HNO(3) or H(2)SO(4) with 90% recovery. TEM and FTIR suggested the involvement of amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phosphate groups during the biosorption of Cr(III) onto the cell surface of A. haemolyticus. A. haemolyticus was also capable to remove 79.87 mg g(-1) Cr(III) (around 22.75%) from raw leather tanning wastewater. This study demonstrates the potential of using A. haemolyticus as biosorbent to remove Cr(III) from both synthetic and industrial wastewater.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  16. Meera M, Agamuthu P
    Int J Phytoremediation, 2012 Feb;14(2):186-99.
    PMID: 22567704
    Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  17. Lim JW, Seng CE, Lim PE, Ng SL, Sujari AN
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Nov;102(21):9876-83.
    PMID: 21890353 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.014
    The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  18. Moghaddam SS, Jaafar H, Ibrahim R, Rahmat A, Aziz MA, Philip E
    Molecules, 2011 Jun 17;16(6):4994-5007.
    PMID: 21694666 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16064994
    In the present study, two accessions of Centella asiatica (CA03 and CA23) were subjected to gamma radiation to examine the response of these accessions in terms of survival rate, flavonoid contents, leaf gas exchange and leaf mass. Radiation Sensitivity Tests revealed that based on the survival rate, the LD(50) (gamma doses that killed 50% of the plantlets) of the plantlets were achieved at 60 Gy for CA03 and 40 Gy for CA23. The nodal segments were irradiated with gamma rays at does of 30 and 40 Gy for Centella asiatica accession 'CA03' and 20 and 30 Gy for accession 'CA23. The nodal segment response to the radiation was evaluated by recording the flavonoid content, leaf gas exchange and leaf biomass. The experiment was designed as RCBD with five replications. Results demonstrated that the irradiated plantlets exhibited greater total flavonoid contents (in eight weeks) significantly than the control where the control also exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents in the sixth week of growth; 2.64 ± 0.02 mg/g DW in CA03 and 8.94 ± 0.04 mg/g DW in CA23. The total flavonoid content was found to be highest after eight weeks of growth, and this, accordingly, stands as the best time for leaf harvest. Biochemical differentiation based on total flavonoid content revealed that irradiated plantlets in CA23 at 20 and 30 Gy after eight weeks contained the highest total flavonoid concentrations (16.827 ± 0.02; 16.837 ± 0.008 mg/g DW, respectively) whereas in CA03 exposed to 30 and 40 Gy was found to have the lowest total flavonid content (5.83 ± 0.11; 5.75 ± 0.03 mg/g DW). Based on the results gathered in this study, significant differences were found between irradiated accessions and control ones in relation to the leaf gas. The highest PN and gs were detected in CA23 as control followed by CA23 irradiated to 20Gy (CA23G20) and CA23G30 and the lowest PN and gs were observed in CA03 irradiated to 40Gy (CA03G40). Moreover, there were no significant differences in terms of PN and gs among the irradiated plants in each accession. The WUE of both irradiated accessions of Centella asiatica were reduced as compared with the control plants (p < 0.01) while Ci and E were enhanced. There were no significant differences in the gas exchange parameters among radiated plants in each accession. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) of accessions after gamma treatments were significantly higher than the control, however, flavonoids which were higher concentration in irradiated plants can scavenge surplus free radicals. Therefore, the findings of this study have proven an efficient method of in vitro mutagenesis through gamma radiation based on the pharmaceutical demand to create economically superior mutants of C. asiatica. In other words, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation on C. asiatica can produce mutants of agricultural and economical importance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  19. Cha TS, Chen JW, Goh EG, Aziz A, Loh SH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Nov;102(22):10633-40.
    PMID: 21967717 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.042
    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different nitrate concentrations in culture medium on oil content and fatty acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) and Chlorella sorokiniana (KS-MB2). Results showed that both species produced significant higher (p<0.05) oil content at nitrate ranging from 0.18 to 0.66 mM with C. vulgaris produced 10.20-11.34% dw, while C. sorokiniana produced 15.44-17.32% dw. The major fatty acids detected include C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3. It is interesting to note that both species displayed differentially regulated fatty acid accumulation patterns in response to nitrate treatments at early stationary growth phase. Their potential use for biodiesel application could be enhanced by exploring the concept of binary blending of the two microalgae oils using developed mathematical equations to calculate the oil mass blending ratio and simultaneously estimated the weight percentage (wt.%) of desirable fatty acid compositions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  20. Wong YP, Saw HY, Janaun J, Krishnaiah K, Prabhakar A
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2011 May;164(2):170-82.
    PMID: 21080102 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-010-9124-8
    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was employed to enhance the nutritive values of palm kernel cake (PKC) for poultry feeding. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from local PKC and utilized to increase the mannose content of PKC via the degradation of β-mannan in PKC; evaluation was done for batch SSF in Erlenmeyer flasks and in a novel laterally aerated moving bed (LAMB) bioreactor. The optimum condition for batch SSF in flasks was 110% initial moisture content, initial pH 6.0, 30 °C, 855 μm particle size, and 120 h of fermentation, yielding 90.91 mg mannose g⁻¹ dry PKC (5.9-fold increase). Batch SSF in the LAMB at the optimum condition yielded 79.61 mg mannose g⁻¹ dry PKC (5.5-fold increase) within just 96 h due to better heat and mass transfer when humidified air flowed radially across the PKC bed. In spite of a compromise of 12% reduction in mannose content when compared with the flasks, the LAMB facilitated good heat and mass transfer, and improved the mannose content of PKC in a shorter fermentation period. These attributes are useful for batch production of fermented PKC feed in an industrial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
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