Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 664 in total

  1. Musa MA, Idrus S, Harun MR, Tuan Mohd Marzuki TF, Abdul Wahab AM
    PMID: 31906118 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17010283
    Cattle slaughterhouses generate wastewater that is rich in organic contaminant and nutrients, which is considered as high strength wastewater with a high potential for energy recovery. Work was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of the 12 L laboratory scale conventional and a modified upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (conventional, R1 and modified, R2), for treatment of cattle slaughterhouse wastewater (CSWW) under mesophilic condition (35 ± 1 °C). Both reactors were acclimated with synthetic wastewater for 30 days, then continuous study with real CSWW proceeds. The reactors were subjected to the same loading condition of OLR, starting from 1.75, 3, 5 10, 14, and 16 g L-1d-1, corresponding to 3.5, 6, 10, 20, 28, and 32 g COD/L at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The performance of the R1 reactor drastically dropped at OLR 10 g L-1d-1, and this significantly affected the subsequent stages. The steady-state performance of the R2 reactor under the same loading condition as the R1 reactor revealed a high COD removal efficiency of 94% and biogas and methane productions were 27 L/d and 89%. The SMP was 0.21 LCH4/gCOD added, whereas the NH3-N alkalinity ratio stood at 651 mg/L and 0.2. SEM showed that the R2 reactor was dominated by Methanosarcina bacterial species, while the R1 reactor revealed a disturb sludge with insufficient microbial biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  2. Wong CKF, Zulperi D, Saidi NB, Vadamalai G
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2021 Mar;32(1):23-45.
    PMID: 33936549 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2021.32.1.2
    Fusarium wilt of banana cannot be effectively controlled by current control strategies. The most virulent form that caused major losses in the banana production is Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc-TR4). Biocontrol of Foc-TR4 using microbial antagonists offers a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative. A consortium of biocontrol agents (BCAs), Pseudomonas aeruginosa DRB1 and Trichoderma harzianum CBF2 was formulated into pesta granules, talc powder, alginate beads and liquid bioformulations. Previous study indicated bioformulations containing both BCAs successfully reduced the disease severity of Foc-TR4. To date, the biocontrol mechanism and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of a consortium of BCAs on infected bananas have not been explored. Therefore, the study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a consortium of DRB1 and CBF2 in the growth and biochemical changes of Foc-TR4 infected bananas. Results indicated pesta granules formulation produced bananas with higher biomass (fresh weight: 388.67 g), taller plants (80.95 cm) and larger leaves (length: 39.40 cm, width: 17.70 cm) than other bioformulations. Applying bioformulations generally produced plants with higher chlorophyll (392.59 μg/g FW-699.88 μg/g FW) and carotenoid contents (81.30 μg/g FW-120.01 μg/g FW) compared to pathogen treatment (chlorophyll: 325.96 μg/g FW, carotenoid: 71.98 μg/g FW) which indicated improved vegetative growth. Bioformulation-treated plants showed higher phenolic (49.58-93.85 μg/g FW) and proline contents (54.63 μg/g FW-89.61 μg/g FW) than Foc-TR4 treatment (phenolic: 46.45 μg/g FW, proline: 28.65 μg/g FW). The malondialdehylde (MDA) content was lower in bioformulation treatments (0.49 Nm/g FW-1.19 Nm/g FW) than Foc-TR4 treatment (3.66 Nm/g FW). The biochemical changes revealed that applying bioformulations has induced host defense response by increasing phenolic and proline contents which reduced root damage caused by Foc-TR4 resulting in lower MDA content. In conclusion, applying bioformulations containing microbial consortium is a promising method to improve growth and induce significant biochemical changes in bananas leading to the suppression of Foc-TR4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  3. Show PL, Tang MS, Nagarajan D, Ling TC, Ooi CW, Chang JS
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Jan 22;18(1).
    PMID: 28117737 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18010215
    Microalgae contribute up to 60% of the oxygen content in the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen during photosynthesis. Microalgae are abundantly available in the natural environment, thanks to their ability to survive and grow rapidly under harsh and inhospitable conditions. Microalgal cultivation is environmentally friendly because the microalgal biomass can be utilized for the productions of biofuels, food and feed supplements, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics. The cultivation of microalgal also can complement approaches like carbon dioxide sequestration and bioremediation of wastewaters, thereby addressing the serious environmental concerns. This review focuses on the factors affecting microalgal cultures, techniques adapted to obtain high-density microalgal cultures in photobioreactors, and the conversion of microalgal biomass into biofuels. The applications of microalgae in carbon dioxide sequestration and phycoremediation of wastewater are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  4. Chukwuma OB, Rafatullah M, Tajarudin HA, Ismail N
    PMID: 34204975 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18116001
    Discovering novel bacterial strains might be the link to unlocking the value in lignocellulosic bio-refinery as we strive to find alternative and cleaner sources of energy. Bacteria display promise in lignocellulolytic breakdown because of their innate ability to adapt and grow under both optimum and extreme conditions. This versatility of bacterial strains is being harnessed, with qualities like adapting to various temperature, aero tolerance, and nutrient availability driving the use of bacteria in bio-refinery studies. Their flexible nature holds exciting promise in biotechnology, but despite recent pointers to a greener edge in the pretreatment of lignocellulose biomass and lignocellulose-driven bioconversion to value-added products, the cost of adoption and subsequent scaling up industrially still pose challenges to their adoption. However, recent studies have seen the use of co-culture, co-digestion, and bioengineering to overcome identified setbacks to using bacterial strains to breakdown lignocellulose into its major polymers and then to useful products ranging from ethanol, enzymes, biodiesel, bioflocculants, and many others. In this review, research on bacteria involved in lignocellulose breakdown is reviewed and summarized to provide background for further research. Future perspectives are explored as bacteria have a role to play in the adoption of greener energy alternatives using lignocellulosic biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  5. Oslan SNH, Shoparwe NF, Yusoff AH, Rahim AA, Chang CS, Tan JS, et al.
    Biomolecules, 2021 02 10;11(2).
    PMID: 33578851 DOI: 10.3390/biom11020256
    As the most recognizable natural secondary carotenoid astaxanthin producer, the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis cultivation is performed via a two-stage process. The first is dedicated to biomass accumulation under growth-favoring conditions (green stage), and the second stage is for astaxanthin evolution under various stress conditions (red stage). This mini-review discusses the further improvement made on astaxanthin production by providing an overview of recent works on H. pluvialis, including the valuable ideas for bioprocess optimization on cell growth, and the current stress-exerting strategies for astaxanthin pigment production. The effects of nutrient constituents, especially nitrogen and carbon sources, and illumination intensity are emphasized during the green stage. On the other hand, the significance of the nitrogen depletion strategy and other exogenous factors comprising salinity, illumination, and temperature are considered for the astaxanthin inducement during the red stage. In short, any factor that interferes with the cellular processes that limit the growth or photosynthesis in the green stage could trigger the encystment process and astaxanthin formation during the red stage. This review provides an insight regarding the parameters involved in bioprocess optimization for high-value astaxanthin biosynthesis from H. pluvialis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  6. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  7. Cha TS, Yee W, Phua PSP, Loh SH, Aziz A
    Biotechnol Lett, 2021 Apr;43(4):803-812.
    PMID: 33438120 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-021-03077-2
    OBJECTIVE: The effects of a brief (3 days) and prolonged (6 days) period of incubation in darkness and light on the biomass content, lipid content and fatty acid profile in Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 were determined.

    RESULTS: Three days of incubation in darkness increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content from 34.0 to 41.4% but decreased monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content from 36.7 to 29.8%. Palmitic acid (C16:0) content was increased from 23.2 to 28.9%, whereas oleic acid (C18:1) content was reduced from 35.4 to 28.8%. Total oil content was slightly decreased from 20.4 to 18.7% after 3 days of darkness, without a significant reduction in biomass compared to 3 days of incubation in light. Biomass and oil content was highest in cultures incubated for 6 days in light, however the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of darkness (or light) on SFA and MUFA content was no longer present at 6 days of incubation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggests that fatty acid composition in C. vulgaris could be modulated to favor either C16:0 or C18:1 by a brief period of either darkness or light incubation, prior to harvesting.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  8. Cui J, Zhou F, Gao M, Zhang L, Zhang L, Du K, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2018 Oct;241:810-820.
    PMID: 29909307 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.028
    Six different approaches are applied in the present study to apportion the sources of precipitation nitrogen making use of precipitation data of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, including NO3- and NH4+), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and δ15N signatures of DIN collected at six sampling sites in the mountain region of Southwest China. These approaches include one quantitative approach running a Bayesian isotope mixing model (SIAR model) and five qualitative approaches based on in-situ survey (ISS), ratio of NH4+/NO3- (RN), principal component analysis (PCA), canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) and stable isotope approach (SIA). Biomass burning, coal combustion and mobile exhausts in the mountain region are identified as major sources for precipitation DIN while biomass burning and volatilization sources such as animal husbandries are major ones for DON. SIAR model results suggest that mobile exhausts, biomass burning and coal combustion contributed 25.1 ± 14.0%, 26.0 ± 14.1% and 27.0 ± 12.6%, respectively, to NO3- on the regional scale. Higher contributions of both biomass burning and coal combustion appeared at rural and urban sites with a significant difference between Houba (rural) and the wetland site (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  9. Al-Humairi ST, Lee JGM, Harvey AP, Salman AD, Juzsakova T, Van B, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Mar 01;862:160702.
    PMID: 36481155 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160702
    The purpose of this study was to examine the application of the mathematical model of drift flux to the experimental results of the effect of cationic trimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB)-aided continuous foam flotation harvesting on the lipid content in Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the operating conditions on the enrichment factor (EF) and percentage recovery efficiency (%RE), where the flow rates at the inlet and bottom outlet remained constant. Data for the binary system (without algae) and ternary system (with algae) in an equal-area foam column show that the EF decreases linearly with increasing initial CTAB concentrations ranging from 30 to 75 mg/L for three levels of the studied air volumetric flow rate range (1-3) L/min. The percentage harvesting efficiency increased with increasing initial CTAB concentration and air volumetric flow rate to 96 % in the binary systems and 94 % in the ternary systems. However, in the foam column with the riser used in the three systems, a lower volume of liquid foam in the upward outlet stream resulted in a lower RE% than that of the column without the riser. The objective function of EF for the system with algae increased when the initial CTAB concentration was increased from 30 to 45 mg/L in the foam column with a riser for all air flow rates, and after 45 mg/L, a sudden drop in the microalgae EF was observed. In the comparison between the foam column with and without the riser for the system with algae, the optimum EF was 145 for the design of the column with the riser and 139 for the column without the riser.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  10. Arif MA, Mohamad MS, Abd Latif MS, Deris S, Remli MA, Mohd Daud K, et al.
    Comput Biol Med, 2018 11 01;102:112-119.
    PMID: 30267898 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2018.09.015
    Metabolic engineering involves the modification and alteration of metabolic pathways to improve the production of desired substance. The modification can be made using in silico gene knockout simulation that is able to predict and analyse the disrupted genes which may enhance the metabolites production. Global optimization algorithms have been widely used for identifying gene knockout strategies. However, their productions were less than theoretical maximum and the algorithms are easily trapped into local optima. These algorithms also require a very large computation time to obtain acceptable results. This is due to the complexity of the metabolic models which are high dimensional and contain thousands of reactions. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm of Cuckoo Search and Minimization of Metabolic Adjustment is proposed to overcome the aforementioned problems. The hybrid algorithm searches for the near-optimal set of gene knockouts that leads to the overproduction of metabolites. Computational experiments on two sets of genome-scale metabolic models demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is better than the previous works in terms of growth rate, Biomass Product Couple Yield, and computation time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  11. Sarwono A, Man Z, Muhammad N, Khan AS, Hamzah WSW, Rahim AHA, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2017 Jul;37:310-319.
    PMID: 28427638 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.01.028
    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has been identified as a promising biomass-derived platform chemical. In this study, one pot production of HMF was studied in ionic liquid (IL) under probe sonication technique. Compared with the conventional heating technique, the use of probe ultrasonic irradiation reduced the reaction time from hours to minutes. Glucose, cellulose and local bamboo, treated with ultrasonic, produced HMF in the yields of 43%, 31% and 13% respectively, within less than 10min. The influence of various parameters such as acoustic power, reaction time, catalysts and glucose loading were studied. About 40% HMF yield at glucose conversion above 90% could be obtained with 2% of catalyst in 3min. Negligible amount of soluble by-product was detected, and humin formation could be controlled by adjusting the different process parameters. Upon extraction of HMF, the mixture of ionic liquid and catalyst could be reused and exhibited no significant reduction of HMF yield over five successive runs. The purity of regenerated [C4C1im]Cl and HMF was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy, indicating neither changes in the chemical structure nor presence of any major contaminants during the conversion under ultrasonic treatment. 13C NMR suggests that [C4C1im]Cl/CrCl3 catalyses mutarotation of α-glucopyranose to β-glucopyranose leading to isomerization and finally conversion to HMF. The experimental results demonstrate that the use of probe sonication technique for conversion to HMF provides a positive process benefit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass*
  12. Ong SY, Zainab-L I, Pyary S, Sudesh K
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2018 Mar;102(5):2117-2127.
    PMID: 29404644 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8788-9
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a family of microbial polyesters that is completely biodegradable and possesses the mechanical and thermal properties of some commonly used petrochemical-based plastics. Therefore, PHA is attractive as a biodegradable thermoplastic. It has always been a challenge to commercialize PHA due to the high cost involved in the biosynthesis of PHA via bacterial fermentation and the subsequent purification of the synthesized PHA from bacterial cells. Innovative enterprise by researchers from various disciplines over several decades successfully reduced the cost of PHA production through the efficient use of cheap and renewable feedstock, precisely controlled fermentation process, and customized bacterial strains. Despite the fact that PHA yields have been improved tremendously, the recovery and purification processes of PHA from bacterial cells remain exhaustive and require large amounts of water and high energy input besides some chemicals. In addition, the residual cell biomass ends up as waste that needs to be treated. We have found that some animals can readily feed on the dried bacterial cells that contain PHA granules. The digestive system of the animals is able to assimilate the bacterial cells but not the PHA granules which are excreted in the form of fecal pellets, thus resulting in partial recovery and purification of PHA. In this mini-review, we will discuss this new concept of biological recovery, the selection of the animal model for biological recovery, and the properties and possible applications of the biologically recovered PHA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  13. Samsudin MH, Hassan MA, Idris J, Ramli N, Mohd Yusoff MZ, Ibrahim I, et al.
    Waste Manag Res, 2019 May;37(5):551-555.
    PMID: 30727859 DOI: 10.1177/0734242X18823953
    A one-step self-sustained carbonization of coconut shell biomass, carried out in a brick reactor at a relatively low temperature of 300-500°C, successfully produced a biochar-derived adsorbent with 308 m2/g surface area, 2 nm pore diameter, and 0.15 cm3/g total pore volume. The coconut shell biochar qualifies as a nano-adsorbent, supported by scanning electron microscope images, which showed well-developed nano-pores on the surface of the biochar structure, even though there was no separate activation process. This is the first report whereby coconut shell can be converted to biochar-derived nano-adsorbent at a low carbonization temperature, without the need of the activation process. This is superior to previous reports on biochar produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  14. Al-Baldawi IA, Abdullah SR, Anuar N, Suja F, Idris M
    J Hazard Mater, 2013 May 15;252-253:64-9.
    PMID: 23500791 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.067
    In this study, bulrush (Scirpus grossus) was subjected to a 72 day phytotoxicity test to assess its ability to phytoremediate diesel contamination in simulated wastewater at different concentrations (0, 8700, 17,400 and 26,100mg/L). Diesel degradation by S. grossus was measured in terms of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH-D). The TPH-D concentration in the synthetic wastewater was determined with the liquid-liquid extraction method and gas chromatography. S. grossus was found to reduce TPH-D by 70.0 and 80.2% for concentrations of 8700 mg/L and 17,400mg/L, respectively. At a diesel concentration of 26,100mg/L, S. grossus died after 14 days. Additionally, the biomass of S. grossus plants was found to increase throughout the phytotoxicity test, confirming the ability of the plant to survive in water contaminated with diesel at rates of less than 17,400mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  15. Dahalan FA, Abdullah N, Yuzir A, Olsson G, Salmiati, Hamdzah M, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Apr;181:291-6.
    PMID: 25661308 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.062
    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  16. Faiz Ahmad, Zaiton Ahmad, Affrida Abu Hassan, Sakinah Ariffin, Norazlina Noordin, Shakinah Salleh, et al.
    The research on radiation induced mutation has been conducted as one of the promising method of plant breeding in Malaysia since 1980s. Nuclear Malaysia is leading research institute inMalaysia conducting plant mutationbreeding research. Gamma Greenhousefacility located in Nuclear Malaysiais one of the irradiation facilitiesto serve as a chronic irradiation facility for inducing mutation in various organisms including plants, fungi and microbes.Chronic irradiation refers to the exposure of materials at a lower dose rate over a long period of time. Previous studies have shown that this type of irradiation can minimize radiation damages to living materials and produces a wider mutation spectrum, therefore is very useful for trait improvements in irradiated organisms. Experiments on induce mutation using Gamma Greenhouse facility for crop improvement program have been conducted since its first operation in 2009. Various plant species including ornamental and herbal plants, food crops and industrial crops have been irradiated to improve their traits such as higher yield and biomass, pest and disease tolerance, higher bioactive compounds, longer bloom time and many others. Most of these crop improvement programs were done through collaborations with other agencies in Malaysia such as universities, research institutes and government departments. A number of publications on crop improvement using Gamma Greenhouse have been published inlocal and international journals as well as seminar presentations at national and international levels. The outputs from induced mutation via chronic radiation using Gamma Greenhouse could be of great interest for plant breeders dealing with improvement and development of new cultivars. This paper discusses the activities and achievement in plant breeding and improvement using Gamma Greenhouse Facility in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  17. Tan JS, Lee SY, Chew KW, Lam MK, Lim JW, Ho SH, et al.
    Bioengineered, 2020 12;11(1):116-129.
    PMID: 31909681 DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1711626
    The richness of high-value bio-compounds derived from microalgae has made microalgae a promising and sustainable source of useful product. The present work starts with a review on the usage of open pond and photobioreactor in culturing various microalgae strains, followed by an in-depth evaluation on the common harvesting techniques used to collect microalgae from culture medium. The harvesting methods discussed include filtration, centrifugation, flocculation, and flotation. Additionally, the advanced extraction technologies using ionic liquids as extractive solvents applied to extract high-value bio-compounds such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and other bioactive compounds from microalgae biomass are summarized and discussed. However, more work needs to be done to fully utilize the potential of microalgae biomass for the application in large-scale production of biofuels, food additives, and nutritive supplements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  18. Sommer SG, Mathanpaal G, Dass GT
    Environ Technol, 2005 Mar;26(3):303-12.
    PMID: 15881027
    On commercial pig production farms in South East (SE) Asia, the liquid effluent is often discharged into rivers. The discharge is a hazard to the environment and to the health of people using water from the river either for consumption or for irrigation. Therefore, a simple percolation biofilter for treatment of the liquid effluent was developed. Pig slurry was treated in test-biofilters packed with different biomass for the purpose of selecting the most efficient material, thereafter the efficiency of the biofilter was examined at farm scale with demo biofilters using the most efficient material. The effect of using "Effective Microorganisms" (EM) added to slurry that was treated with biofilter material mixed with Glenor KR+ was examined. Slurry treatment in the test-biofilters indicated that rice straw was better than coconut husks, wood shavings, rattan strips and oil palm fronds in reducing BOD. Addition of EM and Glenor KR+ to slurry and biofilter material, respectively, had no effect on the temperature of the biofilter material or on the concentrations of organic and inorganic components of the treated slurry. The BOD of slurry treated in test biofilters is reduced to between 80 and 637 mg O2 I(-1) and in the demo biofilter to between 3094 and 3376 mg O2 l(-1). The concentration of BOD in the effluent is related to the BOD in the slurry being treated and the BOD concentration in slurry treated in test biofilters was lower than BOD of slurry treated in demo biofilters. The demo biofilter can reduce BOD to between 52 an 56% of the original value, and TSS, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonium (NH4+) to 41-55% of the original slurry. The treated effluent could not meet the standards for discharge to rivers. The composted biofilter material has a high content of nitrogen and phosphorus; consequently, the fertilizer value of the compost is high. The investments costs were 123 US dollar per SPP which has to be reduced if this method should be a treatment option in practise.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  19. Mohajeri L, Aziz HA, Isa MH, Zahed MA
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Feb;101(3):893-900.
    PMID: 19773160 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.013
    This work studied the bioremediation of weathered crude oil (WCO) in coastal sediment samples using central composite face centered design (CCFD) under response surface methodology (RSM). Initial oil concentration, biomass, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were used as independent variables (factors) and oil removal as dependent variable (response) in a 60 days trial. A statistically significant model for WCO removal was obtained. The coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.9732) and probability value (P<0.0001) demonstrated significance for the regression model. Numerical optimization based on desirability function were carried out for initial oil concentration of 2, 16 and 30 g per kg sediment and 83.13, 78.06 and 69.92 per cent removal were observed respectively, compare to 77.13, 74.17 and 69.87 per cent removal for un-optimized results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  20. Munusamy K, Vadivelu J, Tay ST
    Rev Iberoam Micol, 2018 03 12;35(2):68-72.
    PMID: 29544734 DOI: 10.1016/j.riam.2017.07.001
    BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth.

    METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays). The determination of AbA planktonic and biofilm MICs was performed based on a micro-broth dilution method. The anti-biofilm effect of AbA on Candida albicans was examined using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 35 (29.7%) of 118 Candida isolates were regarded as biofilm producers in this study. Candida parapsilosis was the largest producer, followed by Candida tropicalis and C. albicans. Two morphological variants of biofilms were identified in our isolates, with 48.6% of the isolates showing mainly yeast and pseudohyphae-like structures, while the remaining ones were predominantly filamentous forms. The biofilm producers were divided into two populations (low and high), based on the ability in producing biomass and their metabolic activity. Candida isolates with filamentous growth, higher biomass and metabolic activity showed lower AbA MIC50 (at least fourfold), compared to those exhibiting yeast morphology, and lower biomass and metabolic activity. The observation of filament detachment and the almost complete removal of biofilm from AbA-treated C. albicans biofilm in FESEM analysis suggests an anti-biofilm effect of AbA.

    CONCLUSIONS: The variability in the growth characteristics of Candida biofilm cultures affects susceptibility to AbA, with higher susceptibility noted in biofilm cultures exhibiting filamentous form and high biomass/metabolic activity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
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