Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 664 in total

  1. Asad Shah, Mohammad Akmal, Mohammad Jamal Khan, Mohammad Arif
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1811-1819.
    Yield performance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was compared under crop residue, tillage system and nitrogen rate treatments in cereal based cropping system. The experiments were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Chopped crop residue on dry matter basis (5 t ha1-) of legume (Vigna unguicuata, var. Ebney) and cereal (Zea mays, var. Azam) was applied in main plots with no residue treatments and plowed with Mould Board (MB) and Cultivator as deep and shallow treatments, respectively. A month after the crop residue and tillage system treatments, field was uniformly plowed with cultivator and wheat was sown with drill in rows 25 cm apart in the month of November on both years. Both P2O55 and K2O (80 and 40 kg ha , respectively) were applied uniformly to all fields before sowing. Nitrogen as subplot treatment (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1) was applied in two splits, half at 15 and the other half at 45 days after sowing with uniform cultural practices for crop growth and development. Compared to year 1, crop of year 2 showed better phenology with extended life cycle (LC). On two years average across tillage and N treatments, biological yield did not change (p<0.05) under the residue but did report lower at no-residue treatment. Nonetheless, grain yield showed a significant (p<0.05) change with the highest in legume followed by cereal and the lowest in no-residue treatments. A non-significant tiller number and significant variations in grain weight and spike m-2 were observed that influenced the grain and biological yield differently. Deep than shallow tillage resulted in better traits, which returned better biomass and grain yield. Nitrogen application from control to every increment showed a significant (p<0.05) improvement in all observations contributing in yield. The study confirms the significance of legume vs. cereal over no-crop residue incorporated through deep tillage system with optimum N (120 kg ha-1) in cereal-based cropping system for sustainable performance to sustain soil C:N for future production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  2. Mohd Azhar SH, Abdulla R, Jambo SA, Marbawi H, Gansau JA, Mohd Faik AA, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Rep, 2017 Jul;10:52-61.
    PMID: 29114570 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.03.003
    Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  3. Huang Y, Liu S, Zhang J, Syed-Hassan SSA, Hu X, Sun H, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Jul;307:123192.
    PMID: 32220819 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123192
    This study investigated the interactions between volatile and char during biomass pyrolysis at 400 °C, employing a β-5 lignin dimer and amino-modified graphitized carbon nanotube (CNT-NH2) as their models, respectively. The results demonstrated that both -NH2 and its carrier (CNT) facilitated the conversion of the β-5 dimer, which significantly increased from 9.7% (blank run), to 61.6% (with CNT), and to 96.6% (with CNT-NH2). CNT mainly favored the breakage of C-O bond in the feedstock to produce dimers with a yield of 55.5%, while CNT-NH2 promoted the cleavage of both C-O and C-C bonds to yield monomers with a yield up to 63.4%. Such significant changes in the pyrolysis behaviors of the β-5 lignin dimer after the introduction of CNT-NH2 were considered to be mainly caused by hydrogen-bond formations between -NH2 and the dimeric feedstock/products, in addition to the π-π stacking between CNT and aromatic rings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  4. Azizi AB, Lim MP, Noor ZM, Abdullah N
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2013 Apr;90:13-20.
    PMID: 23294636 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.12.006
    Experiments were conducted to remove heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) from urban sewage sludge (SS) amended with spent mushroom compost (SMC) using worms, Lumbricus rubellus, for 105 days, after 21 days of pre-composting. Five combinations of SS/SMC treatments were prepared in triplicate along with a control for each treatment in microcosms. Analysis of the earthworms' multiplication and growth and laboratory analysis were conducted during the tenth and fifteenth week of vermicomposting. Our result showed that the final biomass of earthworms (mg) and final number of earthworms showed significant differences between treatments i.e. F=554.70, P=0.00 and F=729.10, P=0.00 respectively. The heavy metals Cr, Cd and Pb contained in vermicompost were lower than initial concentrations, with 90-98.7 percent removal on week ten. However, concentrations of Cu and Zn, that are considered as micronutrients, were higher than initial concentrations, but they were 10-200-fold lower than the EU and USA biosolid compost limits and Malaysian Recommended Site Screening Levels for Contaminated Land (SSLs). An increment of heavy metals were recorded in vermicompost for all treatments on week fifteen compared to week ten, while concentration of heavy metals in earthworms' tissue were lower compared to vermicompost. Hence, it is suggested that earthworms begin to discharge heavy metals into their surroundings and it was evident that the earthworms' heavy metals excretion period was within the interval of ten to fifteen weeks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  5. Loh TC, Lee YC, Liang JB, Tan D
    Bioresour Technol, 2005 Jan;96(1):111-4.
    PMID: 15364088
    Vermicomposting is commonly adopted for the treatment of livestock organic wastes. In the present study, two types of livestock manure were used for culturing of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. Each treatment group consisted of six replicates and worm vermicasts were examined after 5 weeks. The concentrations of total C, P and K in goat manure vermicasts were higher than those in cattle manure vermicasts. Cattle vermicasts had a higher N content than goat vermicasts but the C:N ratio of fresh manure was higher than that of vermicasts for both materials. Earthworm biomass and reproductive performance, in terms of number of worms after 5 weeks of experiment, were higher in cattle manure than in goat manure. The cocoon production per worm in cattle manure was higher than in goat manure. However, the hatchability of cocoons was not affected by manure treatments. In conclusion, cattle manure provided a more nutritious and friendly environment to the earthworms than goat manure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  6. Ahmed A, Abu Bakar MS, Hamdani R, Park YK, Lam SS, Sukri RS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 07;186:109596.
    PMID: 32361527 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109596
    Biochar production from invasive species biomass discarded as waste was studied in a fixed bed reactor pyrolysis system under different temperature conditions for value-added applications. Prior to pyrolysis, the biomass feedstock was characterized by proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses, while the biomass decomposition behavior was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. The heating values of the feedstock biomass ranged from 18.65 to 20.65 MJ/kg, whereas the volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash content were 61.54-72.04 wt %, 19.27-26.61 wt % and 1.51-1.86 wt %, respectively. The elemental composition of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the samples was reported to be in the range of 47.41-48.47 wt %, 5.50-5.88 wt % and 46.10-45.18 wt %, respectively, while the nitrogen and sulphur content in the biomass samples were at very low concentrations, making it more useful for valorization from environmental aspects. The biochar yields were reported in the range of 45.36-58.35 wt %, 28.63-44.38 wt % and 22.68-29.42 wt % at a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C, 500 °C, and 600 °C, respectively. The biochars were characterized from ultimate analysis, heating value, energy densification ratio, energy yield, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM and EDX), to evaluate their potential for value-added applications. The carbon content, heating value, energy densification ratio, and the porosity of the biochars improved with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the energy yield, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen content of the biochars decreased. This study revealed the potential of the valorization of underutilized discarded biomass of invasive species via a pyrolysis process to produce biochar for value-added applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  7. As V, Kumar G, Dey N, Karunakaran R, K A, Patel AK, et al.
    Environ Res, 2023 Jan 01;216(Pt 2):114400.
    PMID: 36265604 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114400
    Biowaste, produced from nature, is preferred to be a good source of carbon and ligninolytic machinery for many microorganisms. They are complex biopolymers composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose traces. This biomass can be depolymerized to its nano-dimensions to gain exceptional properties useful in the field of cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, high-strength materials, etc. Nano-sized biomass derivatives overcome the inherent drawbacks of the parent material and offer promises as a potential material for a wide range of applications with their unique traits such as low-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and environmentally friendly nature with versatility. This review focuses on the production of value-added products feasible from nanocellulose, nano lignin, and xylan nanoparticles which is quite a novel study of its kind. Dawn of nanotechnology has converted bio waste by-products (hemicellulose and lignin) into useful precursors for many commercial products. Nano-cellulose has been employed in the fields of electronics, cosmetics, drug delivery, scaffolds, fillers, packaging, and engineering structures. Xylan nanoparticles and nano lignin have numerous applications as stabilizers, additives, textiles, adhesives, emulsifiers, and prodrugs for many polyphenols with an encapsulation efficiency of 50%. This study will support the potential development of composites for emerging applications in all aspects of interest and open up novel paths for multifunctional biomaterials in nano-dimensions for cosmetic, drug carrier, and clinical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  8. Hai A, Bharath G, Daud M, Rambabu K, Ali I, Hasan SW, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2021 Nov;283:131162.
    PMID: 34157626 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131162
    Pyrolysis of agricultural biomass is a promising technique for producing renewable energy and effectively managing solid waste. In this study, groundnut shell (GNS) was processed at 500 °C in an inert gas atmosphere with a gas flow rate and a heating rate of 10 mL/min and 10 °C/min, respectively, in a custom-designed fluidized bed pyrolytic-reactor. Under optimal operating conditions, the GNS-derived pyrolytic-oil yield was 62.8 wt.%, with the corresponding biochar (19.5 wt.%) and biogas yields (17.7 wt.%). The GC-MS analysis of the GNS-based bio-oil confirmed the presence of (trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-amine (18.814%), 2-Fluoroformyl-3,3,4,4-tetrafluoro-1,2-oxazetidine (16.23%), 5,7-dimethyl-1H-Indazole (11.613%), N-methyl-N-nitropropan-2-amine (6.5%) and butyl piperidino sulfone (5.668%) as major components, which are used as building blocks in the biofuel, pharmaceutical, and food industries. Furthermore, a 2 × 5 × 1 artificial neural network (ANN) architecture was developed to predict the decomposition behavior of GNS at heating rates of 5, 10, and 20 °C/min, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were estimated using a non-isothermal model-free method. The Popescu method predicted activation energy (Ea) of GNS biomass ranging from 111 kJ/mol to 260 kJ/mol, with changes in enthalpy (ΔH), Gibbs-free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) ranging from 106 to 254 kJ/mol, 162-241 kJ/mol, and -0.0937 to 0.0598 kJ/mol/K, respectively. The extraction of high-quality precursors from GNS pyrolysis was demonstrated in this study, as well as the usefulness of the ANN technique for thermogravimetric analysis of biomass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  9. Khoo SC, Ma NL, Peng WX, Ng KK, Goh MS, Chen HL, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 1):131477.
    PMID: 34303046 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131477
    Global solid waste is expected to increase by at least 70% annually until year 2050. The mixture of solid waste including food waste from food industry and domestic diaper waste in landfills is causing environmental and human health issues. Nevertheless, food and diaper waste containing high lignocellulose can easily degrade using lignocellulolytic enzymes thereby converted into energy for the development and growth of mushroom. Therefore, this study explores the potential of recycling biomass waste from coffee ground, banana, eggshell, tea waste, sugarcane bagasse and sawdust and diaper waste as raw material for Lingzhi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) cultivation. Using 2% of diaper core with sawdust biowaste leading to the fastest 100% mushroom mycelium spreading completed in one month. The highest production yield is 71.45 g mushroom; this represents about 36% production biological efficiency compared to only 21% as in commercial substrate. The high mushroom substrate reduction of 73% reflect the valorisation of landfill waste. The metabolomics profiling showed that the Lingzhi mushroom produced is of high quality with a high content of triterpene being the bioactive compounds that are medically important for treating assorted disease and used as health supplement. In conclusion, our study proposed a potential resource management towards zero-waste and circular bioeconomy for high profitable mushroom cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  10. Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Al-Nadheri WM, Jegarajan D, Sahu JN, Mubarak NM, Nizamuddin S
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Feb;178:65-9.
    PMID: 25278112 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.09.068
    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  11. Safian MT, Sekeri SH, Yaqoob AA, Serrà A, Jamudin MD, Mohamad Ibrahim MN
    Talanta, 2022 Mar 01;239:123109.
    PMID: 34864531 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2021.123109
    With each passing year, the agriculture and wood processing industries generate increasingly high tonnages of biomass waste, which instead of being burned or left to accumulate should be utilized more sustainably. In parallel, advances in green technology have encouraged large companies and nations to begin using eco-friendly materials, including eco-friendly emulsifiers, which are used in various industries and in bio-based materials. The emulsion-conducive properties of lignocellulosic materials such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, the building blocks of plant and wood structures, have demonstrated a particular ability to alter the landscape of emulsion technology. Beyond that, the further modification of their structure may improve emulsion stability, which often determines the performance of emulsions. Considering those trends, this review examines the performance of lignocellulosic materials after modification according to their stability, droplet size, and distribution by size, all of which suggest their outstanding potential as materials for emulsifying agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  12. Tan S, Zhou G, Yang Q, Ge S, Liu J, Cheng YW, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 Mar 15;864:160990.
    PMID: 36539095 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160990
    Traditional disposal of animal manures and lignocellulosic biomass is restricted by its inefficiency and sluggishness. To advance the carbon management and greenhouse gas mitigation, this review scrutinizes the effect of pyrolysis in promoting the sustainable biomass and manure disposal as well as stimulating the biochar industry development. This review has examined the advancement of pyrolysis of animal manure (AM) and lignocellulosic biomass (LB) in terms of efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and operability. In particular, the applicability of pyrolysis biochar in enhancing the crops yields via soil remediation is highlighted. Through pyrolysis, the heavy metals of animal manures are fixated in the biochar, thereby both soil contamination via leaching and heavy metal uptake by crops are minimized. Pyrolysis biochar is potentially use in soil remediation for agronomic and environmental co-benefits. Fast pyrolysis assures high bio-oil yield and revenue with better return on investment whereas slow pyrolysis has low revenue despite its minimum investment cost because of relatively low selling price of biochar. For future commercialization, both continuous reactors and catalysis can be integrated to pyrolysis to ameliorate the efficiency and economic value of pyrolysis biochar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  13. Wu Y, Ge S, Xia C, Cai L, Mei C, Sonne C, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2020 Oct;313:123675.
    PMID: 32563796 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123675
    An innovative approach was developed by incorporating high-pressure CO2 into the separate hydrolysis-fermentation of aspen leftover branches, aiming to enhance the bioethanol production efficiency. The high-pressure CO2 significantly increased the 72-h enzymatic hydrolysis yield of converting aspen into glucose from 53.8% to 82.9%. The hydrolysis process was performed with low enzyme loading (10 FPU g-1 glucan) with the aim of reducing the cost of fuel bioethanol production. The ethanol yield from fermentation of the hydrolyzed glucose using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was 8.7 g L-1, showing increment of 10% compared with the glucose control. Techno-economic analysis indicated that the energy consumption of fuel bioethanol production from aspen branch chips was reduced by 35% and the production cost was cut 44% to 0.615 USD L-1, when 68 atm CO2 was introduced into the process. These results furtherly emphasized the low carbon footprint of this sustainable energy production approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  14. Khan MH, Ali S, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Alam Z
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2007 May;42(4):381-6.
    PMID: 17474017
    Cellulase production was carried out by solid state bioconversion (SSB) method using rice straw, a lignocellulosic material and agricultural waste, as the substrate of three Trichoderma spp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium in lab-scale experiments. The results were compared to select the best fungi among them for the production of cellulase. Phanerochaete chrysosporium was found to be the best among these species of fungi, which produced the highest cellulase enzyme of 1.43 IU/mL of filter paper activity (FPase) and 2.40 IU/mL of carboxymethylcellulose activity (CMCase). The "glucosamine" and "reducing sugar" parameters were observed to evaluate the growth and substrate utilization in the experiments. In the case of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium, the highest glucosamine concentration was 1.60 g/L and a high concentration of the release of reducing sugar was measured as 2.58 g/L obtained on the 4th day of fermentation. The pH values were also recorded. The range of the pH was about 5.15 to 5.56 in the case of Phanerochaete Chrysosporium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  15. Nizamuddin S, Siddiqui MTH, Baloch HA, Mubarak NM, Griffin G, Madapusi S, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2018 Jun;25(18):17529-17539.
    PMID: 29663294 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-1876-7
    The process parameters of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) have significant effect on yield of hydrochar. This study discusses the effect of process parameters on hydrochar yield produced from MHTC of rice husk. Results revealed that, over the ranges tested, a lower temperature, lower reaction time, lower biomass to water ratio, and higher particle size produce more hydrochar. Maximum hydrochar yield of 62.8% was obtained at 1000 W, 220 °C, and 5 min. The higher heating value (HHV) was improved significantly from 6.80 MJ/kg of rice husk to 16.10 MJ/kg of hydrochar. Elemental analysis results showed that the carbon content increased and oxygen content decreased in hydrochar from 25.9 to 47.2% and 68.5 to 47.0%, respectively, improving the energy and combustion properties. SEM analysis exhibited modification in structure of rice husk and improvement in porosity after MHTC, which was further confirmed from BET surface analysis. The BET surface area increased from 25.0656 m2/g (rice husk) to 92.6832 m2/g (hydrochar). Thermal stability of hydrochar was improved from 340 °C for rice husk to 370 °C for hydrochar.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  16. Al-Saari N, Amada E, Matsumura Y, Tanaka M, Mino S, Sawabe T
    PeerJ, 2019;7:e6769.
    PMID: 31024772 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6769
    Biohydrogen is one of the most suitable clean energy sources for sustaining a fossil fuel independent society. The use of both land and ocean bioresources as feedstocks show great potential in maximizing biohydrogen production, but sodium ion is one of the main obstacles in efficient bacterial biohydrogen production. Vibrio tritonius strain AM2 can perform efficient hydrogen production with a molar yield of 1.7 mol H2/mol mannitol, which corresponds to 85% theoretical molar yield of H2 production, under saline conditions. With a view to maximizing the hydrogen production using marine biomass, it is important to accumulate knowledge on the effects of salts on the hydrogen production kinetics. Here, we show the kinetics in batch hydrogen production of V. tritonius strain AM2 to investigate the response to various NaCl concentrations. The modified Han-Levenspiel model reveals that salt inhibition in hydrogen production using V. tritonius starts precisely at the point where 10.2 g/L of NaCl is added, and is critically inhibited at 46 g/L. NaCl concentration greatly affects the substrate consumption which in turn affects both growth and hydrogen production. The NaCl-dependent behavior of fermentative hydrogen production of V. tritonius compared to that of Escherichia coli JCM 1649 reveals the marine-adapted fermentative hydrogen production system in V. tritonius. V. tritonius AM2 is capable of producing hydrogen from seaweed carbohydrate under a wide range of NaCl concentrations (5 to 46 g/L). The optimal salt concentration producing the highest levels of hydrogen, optimal substrate consumption and highest molar hydrogen yield is at 10 g/L NaCl (1.0% (w/v)).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  17. Li Q, Zhang K, Li R, Yang L, Yi Y, Liu Z, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2023 May 10;872:162071.
    PMID: 36775179 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.162071
    Biomass burning (BB) has significant impacts on air quality and climate change, especially during harvest seasons. In previous studies, levoglucosan was frequently used for the calculation of BB contribution to PM2.5, however, the degradation of levoglucosan (Lev) could lead to large uncertainties. To quantify the influence of the degradation of Lev on the contribution of BB to PM2.5, PM2.5-bound biomass burning-derived markers were measured in Changzhou from November 2020 to March 2021 using the thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TAG-GC/MS) system. Temporal variations of three anhydro-sugar BB tracers (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan (Man), and galactosan (Gal)) were obtained. During the sampling period, the degradation level of air mass (x) was 0.13, indicating that ~87 % of levoglucosan had degraded before sampling in Changzhou. Without considering the degradation of levoglucosan in the atmosphere, the contribution of BB to OC were 7.8 %, 10.2 %, and 9.3 % in the clean period, BB period, and whole period, respectively, which were 2.4-2.6 times lower than those (20.8 %-25.9 %) considered levoglucosan degradation. This illustrated that the relative contribution of BB to OC could be underestimated (~14.9 %) without considering degradation of levoglucosan. Compared to the traditional method (i.e., only using K+ as BB tracer), organic tracers (Lev, Man, Gal) were put into the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model in this study. With the addition of BB organic tracers and replaced K+ with K+BB (the water-soluble potassium produced by biomass burning), the overall contribution of BB to PM2.5 was enhanced by 3.2 % after accounting for levoglucosan degradation based on the PMF analysis. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of biomass burning on the air quality in the Yangtze River Delta region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  18. Sun Q, Chen WJ, Pang B, Sun Z, Lam SS, Sonne C, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Dec;341:125807.
    PMID: 34474237 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125807
    In recent years, visualization and characterization of lignocellulose at different scales elucidate the modifications of its ultrastructural and chemical features during hydrothermal pretreatment which include degradation and dissolving of hemicelluloses, swelling and partial hydrolysis of cellulose, melting and redepositing a part of lignin in the surface. As a result, cell walls are swollen, deformed and de-laminated from the adjacent layer, lead to a range of revealed droplets that appear on and within cell walls. Moreover, the certain extent morphological changes significantly promote the downstream processing steps, especially for enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic fermentation to bioethanol by increasing the contact area with enzymes. However, the formation of pseudo-lignin hinders the accessibility of cellulase to cellulose, which decreases the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. This review is intended to bridge the gap between the microstructure studies and value-added applications of lignocellulose while inspiring more research prospects to enhance the hydrothermal pretreatment process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  19. Azmi NA, Idris A, Yusof NSM
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2018 Oct;47:99-107.
    PMID: 29908610 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.04.016
    Feather keratin is a biomass generated in excess from various livestock industries. With appropriate processing, it holds potential as a green source for degradable biopolymer that could potentially replace current fossil fuel based materials. Several processing methods have been developed, but the use of ultrasonication has not been explored. In this study, we focus on (i) comparing and optimizing the dissolution process of turkey feather keratin through sonication and conventional processes, and (ii) generating a biodegradable polymer material, as a value added product, from the dissolved keratin that could be used in packaging and other applications. Sonication of feather keratin in pure ionic liquids (ILs) and a mixture containing ILs and different co-solvents was conducted under different applied acoustic power levels. It was found that ultrasonic irradiation significantly improved the rate of dissolution of feather keratin as compared to the conventional method, from about 2 h to less than 20 min. The amount of ILs needed was also reduced by introducing a suitable co-solvent. The keratin was then regenerated, analyzed and characterized using various methods. This material holds the potential to be reused in various appliances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
  20. Chin DWK, Lim S, Pang YL, Lim CH, Lee KM
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Nov;292:121967.
    PMID: 31450064 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121967
    Ethylene glycol in the presence of sodium hydroxide was utilised as pretreatment for effective delignification and reduced the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass which ramified the exposure of cellulose. Two-staged acid hydrolysis was also investigated which demonstrated its synergistic efficiency by minimising the deficiency of single stage acid hydrolysis. The operating parameters including acid concentration, temperature, residence time and cellulose loading for two-staged acid hydrolysis were studied by using ethylene glycol delignified degraded oil palm empty fruit bunch (DEFB) to recover the sugar based substrates for potential biofuels and other bio-chemicals production. In this study, stage I 45 wt% acid at 65 °C for 30 min coupled with high cellulose loading 21.25 w/v% and 12 wt% acid at 100 °C for 120 min was able to release a total of 89.8% optimum sugar yield with minimal formation of degradation products including 0.058 g/L furfural, 0.0251 g/L hydroxymethylfurfural and 0.200 g/L phenolic compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomass
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links