Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

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  1. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(11):14828-44.
    PMID: 23203096 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114828
    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  2. Ee SF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Othman R, Shaharuddin NA, Ismail I, Zainal Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:840592.
    PMID: 24678279 DOI: 10.1155/2014/840592
    Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS) has a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β -sesquiphellandrene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  3. Mohamed ME, Pahirulzaman KA, Lazarus CM
    Mol Biotechnol, 2016 Mar;58(3):172-8.
    PMID: 26718544 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-015-9911-0
    Pyrethrins are natural insecticides, which accumulate to high concentrations in pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) flowers. Synthetic pyrethroids are more stable, more efficacious and cheaper, but contemporary requirements for safe and environmentally friendly pesticides encourage a return to the use of natural pyrethrins, and this would be favoured by development of an efficient route to their production by microbial fermentation. The biosynthesis of pyrethrins involves ester linkage between an acid moiety (chrysanthemoyl or pyrethroyl, synthesised via the mevalonic acid pathway from glucose), and an alcohol (pyrethrolone). Pyrethrolone is generated from 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, which originates from α-linolenic acid via the jasmonic acid biosynthetic cascade. The first four genes in this cascade, encoding lipoxygenase 2, allene-oxide synthase, allene-oxide cyclase 2 and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase 3, were amplified from an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library, cloned in a purpose-built fungal multigene expression vector and expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. HPLC-MS analysis of the transgenic fungus homogenate gave good evidence for the presence of 3-oxo-2-(2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  4. Swamy MK, Sinniah UR, Ghasemzadeh A
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2018 Sep;102(18):7775-7793.
    PMID: 30022261 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9223-y
    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a highly valued natural phenolic compound that is very commonly found in plants of the families Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, including Coleus blumei, Heliotropium foertherianum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Perilla frutescens, and Salvia officinalis. RA is also found in other members of higher plant families and in some fern and horned liverwort species. The biosynthesis of RA is catalyzed by the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cytochrome P450-dependent hydroxylase using the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. Chemically, RA can be produced via methods involving the esterification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid and caffeic acid. Some of the derivatives of RA include melitric acid, salvianolic acid, lithospermic acid, and yunnaneic acid. In plants, RA is known to have growth-promoting and defensive roles. Studies have elucidated the varied pharmacological potential of RA and its derived molecules, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The demand for RA is therefore, very high in the pharmaceutical industry, but this demand cannot be met by plants alone because RA content in plant organs is very low. Further, many plants that synthesize RA are under threat and near extinction owing to biodiversity loss caused by unscientific harvesting, over-collection, environmental changes, and other inherent features. Moreover, the chemical synthesis of RA is complicated and expensive. Alternative approaches using biotechnological methodologies could overcome these problems. This review provides the state of the art information on the chemistry, sources, and biosynthetic pathways of RA, as well as its anticancer properties against different cancer types. Biotechnological methods are also discussed for producing RA using plant cell, tissue, and organ cultures and hairy-root cultures using flasks and bioreactors. The recent developments and applications of the functional genomics approach and heterologous production of RA in microbes are also highlighted. This chapter will be of benefit to readers aiming to design studies on RA and its applicability as an anticancer agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  5. Jahromi MF, Liang JB, Ho YW, Mohamad R, Goh YM, Shokryazdan P
    J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2012;2012:196264.
    PMID: 23118499 DOI: 10.1155/2012/196264
    Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P < 0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
  6. Ong WD, Voo LY, Kumar VS
    PLoS One, 2012;7(10):e46937.
    PMID: 23091603 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046937
    BACKGROUND: Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93%) with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33%) which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown.

    CONCLUSIONS: The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  7. Chee MJ, Lycett GW, Khoo TJ, Chin CF
    Mol Biotechnol, 2017 Jan;59(1):1-8.
    PMID: 27826796 DOI: 10.1007/s12033-016-9986-2
    Production of vanillin by bioengineering has gained popularity due to consumer demand toward vanillin produced by biological systems. Natural vanillin from vanilla beans is very expensive to produce compared to its synthetic counterpart. Current bioengineering works mainly involve microbial biotechnology. Therefore, alternative means to the current approaches are constantly being explored. This work describes the use of vanillin synthase (VpVAN), to bioconvert ferulic acid to vanillin in a plant system. The VpVAN enzyme had been shown to directly convert ferulic acid and its glucoside into vanillin and its glucoside, respectively. As the ferulic acid precursor and vanillin were found to be the intermediates in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway of Capsicum species, this work serves as a proof-of-concept for vanillin production using Capsicum frutescens (C. frutescens or hot chili pepper). The cells of C. frutescens were genetically transformed with a codon optimized VpVAN gene via biolistics. Transformed explants were selected and regenerated into callus. Successful integration of the gene cassette into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the phenolic compounds detected in the callus tissues. The vanillin content of transformed calli was 0.057% compared to 0.0003% in untransformed calli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  8. Shah FLA, Ramzi AB, Baharum SN, Noor NM, Goh HH, Leow TC, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2019 Dec;46(6):6647-6659.
    PMID: 31535322 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-019-05066-1
    Flavonoids are polyphenols that are important organic chemicals in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids that result in high commercial values make them attractive targets for large-scale production through bioengineering. Strategies such as engineering a flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in microbial hosts provide an alternative way to produce these beneficial compounds. Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptomyces sp. are among the expression systems used to produce recombinant products, as well as for the production of flavonoid compounds through various bioengineering approaches including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome engineering and genetically encoded biosensors to detect flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, we review the recent advances in engineering model microbial hosts as being the factory to produce targeted flavonoid compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  9. Akbar MA, Mohd Yusof NY, Tahir NI, Ahmad A, Usup G, Sahrani FK, et al.
    Mar Drugs, 2020 Feb 05;18(2).
    PMID: 32033403 DOI: 10.3390/md18020103
    Saxitoxin is an alkaloid neurotoxin originally isolated from the clam Saxidomus giganteus in 1957. This group of neurotoxins is produced by several species of freshwater cyanobacteria and marine dinoflagellates. The saxitoxin biosynthesis pathway was described for the first time in the 1980s and, since then, it was studied in more than seven cyanobacterial genera, comprising 26 genes that form a cluster ranging from 25.7 kb to 35 kb in sequence length. Due to the complexity of the genomic landscape, saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates remains unknown. In order to reveal and understand the dynamics of the activity in such impressive unicellular organisms with a complex genome, a strategy that can carefully engage them in a systems view is necessary. Advances in omics technology (the collective tools of biological sciences) facilitated high-throughput studies of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of dinoflagellates. The omics approach was utilized to address saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellates in response to environmental stresses to improve understanding of dinoflagellates gene-environment interactions. Therefore, in this review, the progress in understanding dinoflagellate saxitoxin biosynthesis using an omics approach is emphasized. Further potential applications of metabolomics and genomics to unravel novel insights into saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates are also reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways
  10. Saika A, Watanabe Y, Sudesh K, Tsuge T
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2014 Jun;117(6):670-5.
    PMID: 24484910 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2013.12.006
    An obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile has a unique metabolic pathway to convert leucine to 4-methylvalerate, in which 4-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA (4M2PE-CoA) is an intermediate of this pathway. 4M2PE-CoA is also able to be converted to 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV), a branched side chain monomer unit, for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymer. In this study, to synthesize 3H4MV-containing PHA copolymer from leucine, the leucine metabolism-related enzymes (LdhA and HadAIBC) derived from C. difficile and PHA biosynthesis enzymes (PhaPCJAc and PhaABRe) derived from Aeromonas caviae and Ralstonia eutropha were co-expressed in the codon usage-improved Escherichia coli. Under microaerobic culture conditions, this E. coli was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-12.2 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose with the supplementation of 1 g/L leucine. This strain also produced P(3HB-co-12.6 mol% 3H4MV) using the culture supernatant of leucine overproducer E. coli strain NS1391 as the medium for PHA production, achieving 3H4MV copolymer synthesis only from glucose. Furthermore, we tested the feasibility of the 3H4MV copolymer synthesis in E. coli strain NS1391 from glucose. The recombinant E. coli NS1391 was able to synthesize P(3HB-co-3.0 mol% 3H4MV) from glucose without any leucine supplementation. This study demonstrates the potential of the new metabolic pathway for 3H4MV synthesis using leucine metabolism-related enzymes from C. difficile.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  11. Lajis AFB, Ariff AB
    J Cosmet Dermatol, 2019 Jun;18(3):703-727.
    PMID: 30866156 DOI: 10.1111/jocd.12900
    Human skin pigmentation is a result of constitutive and facultative pigmentation. Facultative pigmentation is frequently stimulated by UV radiation, pharmacologic drugs, and hormones whereby leads to the development of abnormal skin hyperpigmentation. To date, many state-of-art depigmenting compounds have been studied using in vitro model to treat hyperpigmentation problems for cosmetic dermatological applications; little attention has been made to compare the effectiveness of these depigmenting compounds and their mode of actions. In this present article, new and recent depigmenting compounds, their melanogenic pathway targets, and modes of action are reviewed. This article compares the effectiveness of these new depigmenting compounds to modulate several melanogenesis-regulatory enzymes and proteins such as tyrosinase (TYR), TYR-related protein-1 (TRP1), TYR-related protein-2 (TRP2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and N-terminal kinases (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38 MAPK). Other evidences from in vitro assays such as inhibition on melanosomal transfer, proteasomes, nitric oxide, and inflammation-induced melanogenesis are also highlighted. This article also reviews analytical techniques in different assays performed using in vitro model as well as their advantages and limitations. This article also provides an insight on recent finding and re-examination of some protocols as well as their effectiveness and reliability in the evaluation of depigmenting compounds. Evidence and support from related patents are also incorporated in this present article to give an overview on current patented technology, latest trends, and intellectual values of some depigmenting compounds and protocols, which are rarely highlighted in the literatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
  12. Tan Y, Neo PC, Najimudin N, Sudesh K, Muhammad TS, Othman AS, et al.
    J Basic Microbiol, 2010 Apr;50(2):179-89.
    PMID: 20082371 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.200900138
    Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55 is a locally isolated bacterium that possesses the ability to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) consisting of both poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and medium-chain length (mcl) monomers (6 to 14 carbon atoms) when sugars or fatty acids are utilized as the sole carbon source. In this study, the P(3HB) biosynthesis operon carrying the phbC(Ps) P(3HB) synthase was successfully cloned and sequenced using a homologous probe. Three open reading frames encoding NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase (PhbB(Ps)), beta-ketothiolase (PhbA(Ps)) and P(3HB) synthase (PhbC(Ps)) were found in the phb operon. The genetic organization of phb operon showed a putative promoter region, followed by phbB(Ps)-phbA(Ps)-phbC(Ps). phbR(Ps)which encoded a putative transcriptional activator was located in the opposite orientation, upstream of phbBAC(Ps). Heterologous expression of pGEM''ABex harboring phbC(Ps) in Escherichia coli JM109 resulted in P(3HB) accumulation of up to 40% of dry cell weight (DCW).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  13. Sangappillai V, Nadarajah K
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 30;21(19).
    PMID: 33007862 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21197224
    Lipid biosynthesis produces glycerol, which is important in fueling turgor pressure necessary for germination and penetration of plant host by fungi. As the relationship between pathogenicity and the lipid biosynthetic pathway is not fully understood, we have elucidated the role of the fatty acid synthase beta subunit dehydratase (FAS1) gene in lipid biosynthesis. The FAS1 gene was silenced through homologous double crossover in Magnaporthe oryzae strain S6 to study the effect on lipid biosynthesis. The vegetative growth of Δfas1 mutants show the highest drop on oleic acid (between 10 and 50%), while the mycelial dry weight of mutants dropped significantly on all media. Conidiation of FAS1 mutants show a ~10- and ~5-fold reduction on oatmeal and Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), respectively. Mutants formed mycelium that were mildly pigmented, indicating that the deletion of FAS1 may have affected melanin biosynthesis. Biochemical and gene expression studies concluded that the fatty acid degradation pathway might have been interrupted by FAS1 deletion. FAS1 mutants showed no enzyme activity on glucose or olive oil, suggesting that the mutants may lack functional peroxisomes and be defective in β-oxidation of fatty acids, hence explaining the reduced lipid deposits in the spores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  14. Ebrahimi M, Abdullah SN, Abdul Aziz M, Namasivayam P
    J. Plant Physiol., 2016 Sep 01;202:107-20.
    PMID: 27513726 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.07.001
    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects; Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  15. Furusawa G, Lau NS, Shu-Chien AC, Jaya-Ram A, Amirul AA
    Mar Genomics, 2015 Feb;19:39-44.
    PMID: 25468060 DOI: 10.1016/j.margen.2014.10.006
    The genus Aureispira consisting of two species, Aureispira marina and Aureispira maritima is an arachidonic acid-producing bacterium and produces secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated a new Aureispira strain, Aureispira sp. CCB-QB1 from coastal area of Penang, Malaysia and the genome sequence of this strain was determined. The draft genome of this strain is composed of 185 contigs for 7,370,077 bases with 35.6% G+C content and contains 5911 protein-coding genes and 76 RNA genes. Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase, the key gene in arachidonic acid biosynthesis, is present in the genome. It was found that this strain uses mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which is precursor of diterpenoid, and novel pathway via futalosine for the synthesis of menaquinones. This is the first draft genome sequence of a member of the genus Aureispira.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics*
  16. Yamamoto T, Tsunematsu Y, Noguchi H, Hotta K, Watanabe K
    Org. Lett., 2015 Oct 16;17(20):4992-5.
    PMID: 26414728 DOI: 10.1021/acs.orglett.5b02435
    Successful activation of the pyranonigrin biosynthetic gene cluster and gene knockout in Aspergillus niger plus in vivo and in vitro assays led to isolation of six new products, including a spiro cyclobutane-containing dimeric compound, which served as the basis for the proposed comprehensive pyranonigrin biosynthetic pathway. Two redox enzymes are key to forming the characteristic fused γ-pyrone core, and a protease homologue performs the exo-methylene formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  17. Gemiarto AT, Ninyio NN, Lee SW, Logis J, Fatima A, Chan EW, et al.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2015 Aug;108(2):491-504.
    PMID: 26059863 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-015-0503-6
    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria, has driven investigations into suppressing bacterial virulence via quorum sensing (QS) inhibition strategies instead of bactericidal and bacteriostatic approaches. Here, we investigated several bee products for potential compound(s) that exhibit significant QS inhibitory (QSI) properties at the phenotypic and molecular levels in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 as a model organism. Manuka propolis produced the strongest violacein inhibition on C. violaceum lawn agar, while bee pollen had no detectable QSI activity and honey had bactericidal activity. Fractionated manuka propolis (pooled fraction 5 or PF5) exhibited the largest violacein inhibition zone (24.5 ± 2.5 mm) at 1 mg dry weight per disc. In C. violaceum liquid cultures, at least 450 µg/ml of manuka propolis PF5 completely inhibited violacein production. Gene expression studies of the vioABCDE operon, involved in violacein biosynthesis, showed significant (≥two-fold) down-regulation of vioA, vioD and vioE in response to manuka propolis PF5. A potential QSI compound identified in manuka propolis PF5 is a hydroxycinnamic acid-derivative, isoprenyl caffeate, with a [M-H] of 247. Complete violacein inhibition in C. violaceum liquid cultures was achieved with at least 50 µg/ml of commercial isoprenyl caffeate. In silico docking experiments suggest that isoprenyl caffeate may act as an inhibitor of the violacein biosynthetic pathway by acting as a competitor for the FAD-binding pockets of VioD and VioA. Further studies on these compounds are warranted toward the development of anti-pathogenic drugs as adjuvants to conventional antibiotic treatments, especially in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/drug effects
  18. Ng SM, Lee XW, Mat-Isa MN, Aizat-Juhari MA, Adam JH, Mohamed R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 22;8(1):17258.
    PMID: 30467394 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35173-1
    Parasitic plants are known to discard photosynthesis thus leading to the deletion or loss of the plastid genes. Despite plastid genome reduction in non-photosynthetic plants, some nucleus-encoded proteins are transported back to the plastid to carry out specific functions. In this work, we study such proteins in Rafflesia cantleyi, a member of the holoparasitic genus well-known for producing the largest single flower in the world. Our analyses of three transcriptome datasets, two holoparasites (R. cantleyi and Phelipanche aegyptiaca) and one photosynthetic plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggest that holoparasites, such as R. cantleyi, retain some common plastid associated processes such as biosynthesis of amino acids and lipids, but are missing photosynthesis components that can be extensions of these pathways. The reconstruction of two selected biosynthetic pathways involving plastids correlates the trend of plastid retention to pathway complexity - transcriptome evidence for R. cantleyi suggests alternate mechanisms in regulating the plastidial heme and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathways. The evolution to holoparasitism from autotrophy trends towards devolving the plastid genes to the nuclear genome despite the functional sites remaining in the plastid, or maintaining non-photosynthetic processes in the plastid, before the eventual loss of the plastid and any site dependent functions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways*
  19. Lau NS, Tsuge T, Sudesh K
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2011 Mar;89(5):1599-609.
    PMID: 21279348 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3097-6
    Burkholderia sp. synthase has been shown to polymerize 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenoic acid monomers. This study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM 15050) and its transformant harboring the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae to incorporate the newly reported 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV) monomer. Various culture parameters such as concentrations of nutrient rich medium, fructose and 4-methylvaleric acid as well as harvesting time were manipulated to produce P(3HB-co-3H4MV) with different 3H4MV compositions. The structural properties of PHA containing 3H4MV monomer were investigated by using nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The relative intensities of the bands at 1,183 and 1,228 cm⁻¹ in the FTIR spectra enabled the rapid detection and differentiation of P(3HB-co-3H4MV) from other types of PHA. In addition, the presence of 3H4MV units in the copolymer was found to considerably lower the melting temperature and enthalpy of fusion values compared with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)). The copolymer exhibited higher thermo-degradation temperature but similar molecular weight and polydispersity compared with P(3HB).
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
  20. Yip CH, Yarkoni O, Ajioka J, Wan KL, Nathan S
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019 Feb;103(4):1667-1680.
    PMID: 30637495 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-09611-z
    Prodigiosin, a red linear tripyrrole pigment and a member of the prodiginine family, is normally secreted by the human pathogen Serratia marcescens as a secondary metabolite. Studies on prodigiosin have received renewed attention as a result of reported immunosuppressive, antimicrobial and anticancer properties. High-level synthesis of prodigiosin and the bioengineering of strains to synthesise useful prodiginine derivatives have also been a subject of investigation. To exploit the potential use of prodigiosin as a clinical drug targeting bacteria or as a dye for textiles, high-level synthesis of prodigiosin is a prerequisite. This review presents an overview on the biosynthesis of prodigiosin from its natural host Serratia marcescens and through recombinant approaches as well as highlighting the beneficial properties of prodigiosin. We also discuss the prospect of adopting a synthetic biology approach for safe and cost-effective production of prodigiosin in a more industrially compliant surrogate host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics
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