STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross sectional study involving primigravida in their third trimester of pregnancy, who attended the Patient Assessment Centre of a tertiary referral hospital in Klang Valley from July 2012 to June 2013. The participants were chosen randomly using convenience sampling. A face-to-face interview and a review of their antenatal record were done by trained interviewers. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were obtained followed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0.
RESULTS: A total of 306 women were involved. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during third trimester was 34.3% (95%CI: 29.0, 39.7). Stress incontinence (64.8%) is the commonest followed by mixed incontinence (24.8%) and urge incontinence (6.7%). Childhood enuresis (p=0.003) and previous history of urinary incontinence (p<0.001) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence. More than 50 percent of women with urinary incontinence in the third trimester felt that it did not affect their daily activities at all. Only 10% of women felt greatly affected by this problem.
CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is not uncommon among primigravida however many women did not feel that it affected their quality of life. Childhood enuresis and history of urinary incontinence were proven risk factors.
Subjects and Methods: Eighty female adults were recruited and divided into three groups; normal weight (n = 23), overweight (n = 28) and obese (n = 29), according to their BMI. Blood samples were obtained prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Plasma samples were separated by centrifugation and analysed for enzymatic antioxidant activity including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Non-enzymatic antioxidant activities were assessed using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. To evaluate the oxidative stress status of subjects, levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, the by-product of lipid peroxidation, were measured. Cardiopulmonary responses were analysed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which involved 15 various parameters such as peak oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents and respiratory exchange ratio.
Results: The obese group had significantly lower ABTS radical scavenging and FRAP activities than the normal weight group. A higher catalase activity was observed in the obese group than the normal weight group. Spearman's correlation showed an inverse relationship between catalase and peak oxygen consumption, while partial correlation analysis showed inverse correlations between superoxide dismutase and respiratory frequency, ABTS activity and oxygen pulse, and between ABTS activity and cardiac output.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a lower cardiovascular fitness and antioxidant capacity in obese women; the higher catalase activity may be a compensatory mechanism. The negative correlations found between these two parameters may indicate the potential effect of antioxidants on the cardiopulmonary system and deserve further analysis in a larger population. Nevertheless, this study provides the basis for future studies to further explore the relationships between redox status and cardiopulmonary responses. This can potentially be used to predict future risk of developing diseases associated with oxidative stress, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 1,404 school adolescents aged 12 years (46% boys and 54% girls). Socio-demographic, dietary and physical activity data were collected using questionnaires whilst body weight and height were measured and body mass index was classified based on WHO BMI-for-age Z-scores cut-off.
RESULTS: A multivariable linear regression model showed that BMI z-score was positively associated with parents' BMI (P<0.001), birth weight (P=0.003), and serving size of milk and dairy products (P=0.036) whilst inversely associated with household size (P=0.022). Overall, 13.1% of the variances in BMI Z-scores were explained by parents' BMI, birth weight, servings of milk and dairy products and household size.
CONCLUSION: This study found important determinants of body weight status among adolescents mainly associated with family and home environmental factor. This evidence could help to form the effective and tailored strategies at the earliest stage to prevent obesity in this population.
METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS).
RESULTS: From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p
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