MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relation between cervical length and cesarean section in labor.
RESULTS: Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile.
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section.
METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among laboratory-confirmed dengue patients aged >18 y in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2016 to November 2017. We collected demographic, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory examination information using a standardized form. Dengue severity (DS) was defined as either dengue with warning signs or severe dengue. Participants underwent daily follow-up, during which we recorded their vital signs, warning signs and full blood count results. Incidence of DS was modeled using mixed-effects logistic regression. Changes in platelet count and hematocrit were modeled using mixed-effects linear regression. The final multivariable models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and previous dengue infection.
RESULTS: A total of 173 patients were enrolled and followed up. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 37.4±13.75 kg/m2. The majority of patients were Malay (65.9%), followed by Chinese (17.3%), Indian (12.7%) and other ethnic groups (4.1%). A total of 90 patients (52.0%) were male while 36 patients (20.8%) had a previous history of dengue infection. BMI was significantly associated with DS (adjusted OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34) and hematocrit (%) (aβ=0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16), but not with platelet count (x103/µL) (aβ=-0.01; 95% CI -0.84 to 0.81). In the dose response analysis, we found that as BMI increases, the odds of DS, hematocrit levels and platelet levels increase during the first phase of dengue fever.
CONCLUSION: Higher BMI and higher hematocrit levels were associated with higher odds of DS. Among those with high BMI, the development of DS was observed during phase one of dengue fever instead of during phase two. These novel results could be used by clinicians to help them risk-stratify dengue patients for closer monitoring and subsequent prevention of severe dengue complications.
SETTING: Central and eastern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sampling was employed to select 917 secondary school-going adolescents (aged 15-17 years).
RESULTS: The prevalence of under-reporters was 17·4 %, while no over-reporters were identified. Under-reporters had higher body composition and lower dietary intakes (except for vitamin C, Cr and Fl) compared with plausible reporters (P < 0·05). Adolescents with overweight and obesity had a higher odds of under-reporting compared with under-/normal weight adolescents (P < 0·001). In model 3, the highest regression coefficient (R2 = 0·404, P < 0·001) was obtained after adjusting for reporting status.
CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to under-report their food intake and consequently affect nutrient intakes estimates. Future analyses that include nutrient intake data should adjust for reporting status so that the impact of misreporting on study outcomes can be conceded and consequently improve the accuracy of dietary-related results.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits).
EXPOSURES: BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.
RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI.
CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders.
METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.
RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.
CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.
METHODS: Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered.
RESULTS: Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ).
CONCLUSIONS: Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians.
METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e.g. birth weight) and at 14 years (e.g. sports participation and mealtime with family).
RESULTS: After adjustments for confounders, each unit increase in paternal and maternal BMI, the BMI of young adult offspring increased by 0.33kg/m(2) and 0.35kg/m(2) , and the WC increased by 0.76 cm and 0.62 cm, respectively. In the combination of parents' weight status, offspring at 21 years were six times the risk being overweight/obese (OW/OB) when both parents were OW/OB, compared to offspring of healthy weight parents.
CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal parental BMI are independently related to adult offspring BMI and WC.
IMPLICATIONS: Both prenatal paternal-maternal weight status are important determinants of offspring weight status in long-term. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
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