Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. de Vries B, Narayan R, McGeechan K, Santiagu S, Vairavan R, Burke M, et al.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2018 Jun;97(6):668-676.
    PMID: 29450884 DOI: 10.1111/aogs.13310
    INTRODUCTION: Cesarean section rates continue to increase globally. Prediction of intrapartum cesarean section could lead to preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the association between sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation and cesarean section among women planning a vaginal birth. The population was women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relation between cervical length and cesarean section in labor.

    RESULTS: Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Zyroul R, Hossain MG, Azura M, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Knee, 2014 Mar;21(2):557-62.
    PMID: 23473894 DOI: 10.1016/j.knee.2012.12.013
    BACKGROUND: Knee laxity measurements have been shown to be associated with some medical conditions such as chronic joint pain and collagen tissue diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of demographic factors and anthropometric measures on knee laxity.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 521 visitors, staffs and students from the University Malaya Medical Centre and University of Malaya between December 2009 and May 2010. Knee laxity was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to find the association of knee laxity with age and anthropometric measures.
    RESULTS: Using ANOVA, knee laxity did not show significant differences among ethnic groups for both genders. The average knee laxity in men was 3.47 mm (right) and 3.49 mm (left); while in women were 3.90 mm (right) and 3.67 mm (left). Knee laxity in women was significantly higher (right knee p<0.01 and left knee p<0.05) than men. Right knee laxity of men was negatively associated with height (p<0.05) and BMI (p<0.05); also a negative association was observed between left knee laxity and BMI (p<0.05). Overweight and obese men had less knee laxity than normal weight and underweight individuals. Elderly men and women (age 55 and above) had lower knee laxity (p<0.01) than young adults (ages 21-39).
    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that age and body size are important factors in predicting knee laxity.
    KEYWORDS: Age; Anthropometric measures; Joint mobility; KT 1000; Knee laxity
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Zuraida, A.S., Mohammad Basri, R., Ho, C.E.
    Objective: This study is an attempt to produce an abbreviated Malay version of Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (MWALI), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of the eating behavior which formed part of MWALI. Methods: The MWALI was translated ‘forward–backward’ from English to Malay and then administered to 135 adolescents. The factor construct of the 24-item eating behavior and the relationships between factor scores and demographic profile, dysphoria, global self-esteem and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Results: The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors: Negative Emotion, Poor Impulse Control, Social Cues, Snacking and Early Meals in relation to over-eating. All the factors were significantly and positively correlated with BMI. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the eating behavior were satisfactory. Conclusion: MWALI is appropriate for assessing eating behavior among overweight and obese adolescents in the primary care setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Zunura'in Z, Almardhiyah AR, Gan SH, Arifin WN, Sirajudeen K, Bhavaraju V, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(9):4439-4444.
    PMID: 27797258
    The objective of this case-control study was to determine anthropometric and reproductive factors associated with the development of breast cancer among women. Fifty-six newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were recruited from the Oncology Clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), and 56 healthy female hospital employees were recruited as controls. Socio-demographic and reproductive data were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometric factors (body weight, height, body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist and hip circumference) were assessed. A high waist circumference (adjusted OR= 1.04, [95% CI: 1.00, 1.09]) and being more than 30 years of age at rst full-term pregnancy (adjusted OR=3.77, [95% CI: 1.10, 12.90]) were predictors of breast cancer development. The results of this study indicate that weight and reproductive health management should be emphasized for breast cancer prevention in Malaysia.

    Study site: Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Zulkipli MS, Rampal S, Bulgiba A, Peramalah D, Jamil N, See LLC, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2021 07 01;115(7):764-771.
    PMID: 33587144 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trab021
    BACKGROUND: Dengue, an acute infectious disease caused by a flavivirus, is a threat to global health. There is sparse evidence exploring obesity and the development of more severe dengue cases in adults. With increasing prevalence of obesity in areas with a high risk of dengue infection, obesity may increase the burden and mortality related to dengue infection. Our study aimed to determine the association between obesity and the development of more severe dengue infection in primary healthcare settings and whether these associations were modified by dengue fever phase.

    METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among laboratory-confirmed dengue patients aged >18 y in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia from May 2016 to November 2017. We collected demographic, clinical history, physical examination and laboratory examination information using a standardized form. Dengue severity (DS) was defined as either dengue with warning signs or severe dengue. Participants underwent daily follow-up, during which we recorded their vital signs, warning signs and full blood count results. Incidence of DS was modeled using mixed-effects logistic regression. Changes in platelet count and hematocrit were modeled using mixed-effects linear regression. The final multivariable models were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and previous dengue infection.

    RESULTS: A total of 173 patients were enrolled and followed up. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 37.4±13.75 kg/m2. The majority of patients were Malay (65.9%), followed by Chinese (17.3%), Indian (12.7%) and other ethnic groups (4.1%). A total of 90 patients (52.0%) were male while 36 patients (20.8%) had a previous history of dengue infection. BMI was significantly associated with DS (adjusted OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34) and hematocrit (%) (aβ=0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16), but not with platelet count (x103/µL) (aβ=-0.01; 95% CI -0.84 to 0.81). In the dose response analysis, we found that as BMI increases, the odds of DS, hematocrit levels and platelet levels increase during the first phase of dengue fever.

    CONCLUSION: Higher BMI and higher hematocrit levels were associated with higher odds of DS. Among those with high BMI, the development of DS was observed during phase one of dengue fever instead of during phase two. These novel results could be used by clinicians to help them risk-stratify dengue patients for closer monitoring and subsequent prevention of severe dengue complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Zulkifli Mohd Yusof, Syed Ahmad Ezahar Syed Ambon, Junaidy Mohamad Hashim
    Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education 5(1): 49-64, 2016 - The aim of this study is
    to assess health related physical fitness of MSKPPM soccer players (Veteran Category).
    Besides that, this study also aims to see whether there is any differences based on the health
    related components of physical fitness according to age group. The samples of this study were
    40 soccer players who were involved in a selection, aged between 40 to 49 years. Test battery
    used in this study is Prudential FITNESSGRAM® by Cooper Institute for Aerobic Research
    (1992) which includes PACER 20 meter Multistage run, push up, curl up, trunk lift and body
    mass index (BMI). Data analysis showed that there is significant difference on the different
    components of health related physical fitness for the different age groups. Age 40-41, Pacer
    [min: 24.66; SD: 2.88], curl up [min:33.33; SD: 5.20], push up [min: 46.83; SD: 3.65], trunk
    lift [min: 43.16;SD: 13.58] and BMI [min:42.46; SD: 5.99]. Age 42-43, Pacer [min: 24.38; SD:
    2.29], curl up [min:41.08; SD: 9.26], push up [min: 48.41; SD: 6.12], trunk lift [min: 47.16;SD:
    9.35] and BMI [min:42.66; SD: 5.40]. Age 44-45, Pacer [min: 24.36; SD: 2.66], curl up
    [min:39.75; SD: 9.69], push up [min: 48.00; SD: 5.81], trunk lift [min: 45.92;SD: 9.51] and
    BMI [min:41.69; SD: 5.62]. Age 46-47, Pacer [min: 20.65; SD: 3.51], curl up [min: 19.40; SD:
    1.67], push up [min: 44.20; SD: 1.78], trunk lift [min: 30.60;SD: 8.50] and BMI [min: 33.92;
    SD: 4.13]. Age 48-49, Pacer [min: 27.26; SD: 0.55], curl up [min: 17.00; SD: 3.60], push up
    [min: 47.33; SD: 2.88], trunk lift [min: 29.00;SD: 8.18] and BMI [min: 30.23; SD: 3.45]. The
    results of this study can be used by the coaches in Malaysia to ensure that players involved in
    any tournaments has excellent fitness level and to avoid from making aggressive actions which
    may cause tense situation among players. The results of this study is hope to convince all
    players and coaches on the importance of good physical fitness as it will positively affect the level of playing to be more effective and high quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Zulfarina MS, Sharif R, Syarifah-Noratiqah SB, Sharkawi AM, Aqilah-Sm ZS, Mokhtar SA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(8):e0202321.
    PMID: 30106982 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202321
    Maximizing bone mineral accrual to attain an optimal peak bone mass (PBM), particularly during adolescence, appears to be an effective protective strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), body mass index (BMI), calcium, or combination of vitamin D supplement intake, smoking and alcohol drinking status on bone health assessed by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a healthy adolescent population. The participants comprised of 920 male and female secondary school adolescents aged 15-17 years old. Quantitative ultrasound measurements of the left heel were performed using Lunar Achilles EX II, which included results of broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), and a calculated stiffness index (SI). Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that-PA was positively associated with all three QUS indices in both genders; BMI was positively associated with SI and SOS in females; LM was positively associated with BUA in both genders; and FM was negatively associated with SI in females. These variables accounted for 32.1%, 21.2% and 29.4% of females' SOS, BUA and SI variances (p<0.001), respectively and 23.6%, 15.4% and 17.2% of males' SOS, BUA and SI variances (p<0.001), respectively. Promoting health benefits from physical activity could influence bone status and consequently improve PBM, which is a potent protective determinant against osteoporosis in adulthood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Zulfarina MS, Sharif R, Sharkawi AM, Mokhtar SA, Shuid AN, Naina-Mohamed I
    Public Health Nutr, 2023 Jan;26(1):122-131.
    PMID: 35321764 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980022000726
    OBJECTIVE: Misreporting of energy intake (EI) in nutritional epidemiology is common and even severe among adolescents. Thus, the current study aims to examine the presence, bias and impact introduced by implausible reporters.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Central and eastern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sampling was employed to select 917 secondary school-going adolescents (aged 15-17 years).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of under-reporters was 17·4 %, while no over-reporters were identified. Under-reporters had higher body composition and lower dietary intakes (except for vitamin C, Cr and Fl) compared with plausible reporters (P < 0·05). Adolescents with overweight and obesity had a higher odds of under-reporting compared with under-/normal weight adolescents (P < 0·001). In model 3, the highest regression coefficient (R2 = 0·404, P < 0·001) was obtained after adjusting for reporting status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to under-report their food intake and consequently affect nutrient intakes estimates. Future analyses that include nutrient intake data should adjust for reporting status so that the impact of misreporting on study outcomes can be conceded and consequently improve the accuracy of dietary-related results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Zheng-Yii Lee, Ibrahim Noor Airini, Osama Hamdy, Mohd-Yusof Barakatun-Nisak
    Introduction: This study aimed to compare the nutritional characteristics and clinical outcomes among critically ill patients with diabetes (DM) and without diabetes (WDM). Methods: Mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients who were admitted into the intensive care unit (ICU) within 48 hours and remained in ICU 72 hours were prospec- tively recruited and followed for up to 12 days. They were stratified to DM or WDM, depending on their diabetes status at ICU admission and comparison were made for nutritional characteristics and clinical outcomes including 60-day mortality. Results: A total of 154 patients were included with 73 (47.4%) DM patients. In comparison to WDM, patients with DM were older, more severely ill, had higher nutritional risk and body mass index, presented with a higher blood glucose level, and required more insulin. DM was fed relatively earlier but had lower energy adequacy. They experienced more frequent EN interruption. Both groups had comparable ICU and hospital stay, ventilation support duration and mortality. In multivariable logistic regression, no association was found between diabetes status and for ICU and hospital mortality. However, There was a trend towards an increase in 60-day mor- tality in DM patients (Odds Ratio: 2.220, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.764-6.452; p=0.143). Conclusion: Critically ill patients with DM had higher nutritional risks, were fed relatively earlier, but with frequent EN interruption leading to lower energy adequacy than patients WDM. Diabetes status does not affect clinical outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Zhao D, Kim MH, Pastor-Barriuso R, Chang Y, Ryu S, Zhang Y, et al.
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0146057.
    PMID: 26731527 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146057
    IMPORTANCE: Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits).

    EXPOSURES: BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers.

    RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model.

    CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Zarei M, Mohd Taib MN, Zarei F, Abu Saad H
    Nurs Midwifery Stud, 2013 Dec;2(4):97-102.
    PMID: 25414886
    BACKGROUND: Good nutrition, a balanced diet and regular physical activity are foundations of good health. Research has found that dietary patterns change dramatically following the arrival of students in a foreign country. However, nutritional status of Iranian students studying oversea has never been investigated.

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status of Iranian postgraduate students in Universiti of Putra Malaysia (UPM).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the body weight status of 210 Iranian postgraduate students aged between 22 and 55 years in University of Putra Malaysia. The associations between body weight status and socio demographics factors and also lifestyle factors (smoking and physical activity) were assessed. Anthropometric factors (height, weight, BMI and waist and hip circumferences) were measured. Chi-square, Spearman Rho and Pearson tests were used for data analysis.

    RESULTS: From a total of 210 postgraduate students 110 were females, and 100 males. No significant correlation was observed between smoking and BMI (P = 0.4). However, statistically significant correlations were observed between gender (P = 0.007), physical activity (P = 0.02), using protein (P = 0.005), carbohydrate (P = 0.002), fat (P = 0.001), fiber (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.04), calcium (P = 0.005), waist circumference (P = 0.02), hip circumference (P = 0.001), Waist to Hip Ratio (P = 0.002), and BMI.

    CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional behavior of university students was poor. Therefore, it is essential to encourage young people, including university students to enrich their diets with milk, beans, fruit, and vegetables to decrease the risks of nutrition related disorders.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Zarei M, Msl H, Mohd Taib MN, Zarei F
    Glob J Health Sci, 2014 Nov;6(6):185-97.
    PMID: 25363094 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v6n6p185
    The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Zamora-Ros R, Knaze V, Rothwell JA, Hémon B, Moskal A, Overvad K, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2016 Jun;55(4):1359-75.
    PMID: 26081647 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-015-0950-x
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites with a large variability in their chemical structure and dietary occurrence that have been associated with some protective effects against several chronic diseases. To date, limited data exist on intake of polyphenols in populations. The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary data at baseline were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing.

    RESULTS: Mean total polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group, followed by non-Mediterranean (non-MED) and MED countries. The main polyphenol contributors were phenolic acids (52.5-56.9 %), except in men from MED countries and in the UK health-conscious group where they were flavonoids (49.1-61.7 %). Coffee, tea, and fruits were the most important food sources of total polyphenols. A total of 437 different individual polyphenols were consumed, including 94 consumed at a level >1 mg/day. The most abundant ones were the caffeoylquinic acids and the proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers.

    CONCLUSION: This study describes the large number of dietary individual polyphenols consumed and the high variability of their intakes between European populations, particularly between MED and non-MED countries.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Zamora-Ros R, Cayssials V, Franceschi S, Kyrø C, Weiderpass E, Hennings J, et al.
    Int J Cancer, 2020 04 01;146(7):1841-1850.
    PMID: 31342519 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32589
    Polyphenols are bioactive compounds with several anticarcinogenic activities; however, human data regarding associations with thyroid cancer (TC) is still negligible. Our aim was to evaluate the association between intakes of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and risk of differentiated TC and its main subtypes, papillary and follicular, in a European population. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort included 476,108 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 748 incident differentiated TC cases, including 601 papillary and 109 follicular tumors. Polyphenol intake was estimated at baseline using validated center/country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, no association between total polyphenol and the risks of overall differentiated TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.29), papillary (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.80-1.41) or follicular TC (HRQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.10, 95% CI 0.55-2.22) were found. No associations were observed either for flavonoids, phenolic acids or the rest of classes and subclasses of polyphenols. After stratification by body mass index (BMI), an inverse association between the intake of polyphenols (p-trend = 0.019) and phenolic acids (p-trend = 0.007) and differentiated TC risk in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 was observed. In conclusion, our study showed no associations between dietary polyphenol intake and differentiated TC risk; although further studies are warranted to investigate the potential protective associations in overweight and obese individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Zalilah MS, Mirnalini K, Khor GL, Merlin A, Bahaman AS, Norimah K
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Mar;61(1):48-58.
    PMID: 16708734 MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  16. Zalilah MS, Khor GL, Mirnalini K, Norimah AK, Ang M
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Jun;47(6):491-8.
    PMID: 16752017
    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated.
    RESULTS: The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, strategies that address eating behaviours and physical activity are required. Various segments of the society must be involved in efforts to promote healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyle in children and adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Zaleha MI, Osman A, Iskandar ZA, Sazali S, Ali MM, Roslan I, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1998 Jun;7(2):138-50.
    PMID: 24393641
    In order to study the effect of levothyroxine in the treatment of endemic goitre, a longitudinal study was conducted among the Aborigines in Lanai Post and Sinderut Post, situated in an iodine-deficient area located in the district of Kuala Lipis, Pahang. All subjects in the treatment group (Lanai Post) were given 100 µg of levothyroxine per day and were followed for 1 1/2 years. A total of 311 subjects were examined at baseline, 323 on the first, 256 on the second, 239 on the third and 184 on the fourth visit following levothyroxine supplementation. Goitre prevalence, thyroid hormones, thyroid volume, nutritional status, urinary iodine levels, arterial blood pressure and mental performance were determined. Following the intervention, goitre prevalence was significantly reduced in the treatment group (baseline 42.8% vs final visit 13.0%, p<0.0001); however, no significant difference was noted in the control group. Total T4 levels were increased in the treatment group (p<0.0001), while a significant reduction was noted in the control group (p<0.0001). Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels increased significantly in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. As for the thyroid volume, both groups showed a significant increment following the intervention (p<0.0001). With respect to the nutritional status, the treatment group showed a significant increase in body weight following the intervention (p<0.05). In addition, the mid-arm circumference and body mass index also increased after 1 year of intervention. However, the control group showed a reduction in the waist-hip ratio (p<0.0001). Although there was no statistical difference in the waist-hip ratio in the treatment group, there has been a significant reduction observed after 1 year of intervention. At 1 year, a reduction in skinfold thickness was noted in the treatment group while only the triceps and subscapular were increased in the control group. The body fat was decreased in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention (p<0.0001). No particular trend was noted in the urinary iodine excretion in the treatment group, but surprisingly, the levels were increased in the control group (p<0.0001). A significant increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures was observed in the treatment group following 1 year of intervention, but the controls showed a reduction in the systolic blood pressure (p<0.0001). Both groups showed a remarkable increase in mental performance, with a more pronounced effect in the treatment group (p<0.05). The correction of iodine deficiency by levothyroxine supplementation has a short-term beneficial effect in reducing the prevalence of goitre and improving the mental ability among the Aborigines in endemic areas; however, proper monitoring and close supervision are needed to maintain compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Zalbahar N, Jan Mohamed HJ, Loy SL, Najman J, McIntyre HD, Mamun A
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2016 09;10 Suppl 1:S35-S47.
    PMID: 26321098 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.08.002
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parental body mass index (BMI) is strongly linked with the development of offspring overweight and obesity. However, there are a limited number of studies focusing on the association of parental body mass index before pregnancy on offspring growth and body composition in early life, particularly in developing countries.

    METHODS: Data from the University Sains Malaysia (USM) Pregnancy Cohort which consists of 153 mother-offspring pairs were used. Data were collected using interview-administered questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. Multiple linear regression and generalised equation estimation (GEE) were used to examine the direction and impact of the association between parental BMI and child growth and body composition (weight for age, height for age, body mass index for age, weight for height and fat mass at age 2m, 6m, and 12m). Potential confounders, including validated measures of maternal diets and physical activity during pregnancy, were considered.

    RESULTS: Of 153 parents, one-quarter of the mothers and 42.2% of the fathers, respectively, were overweight or obese before pregnancy. A significant association was found between maternal BMI and child's weight for height z-score (WHZ) and body mass index for age z-score (BAZ).

    CONCLUSIONS: Having high pre-pregnancy BMI may increase BMI and WAZ of offspring in early life. Findings from this study emphasise the importance of monitoring maternal weight status, particularly before and during pregnancy and early life of offspring among Malaysians.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  19. Zalbahar N, Najman J, McIntrye HD, Mamun A
    Aust N Z J Public Health, 2016 Dec;40(6):572-578.
    PMID: 27624991 DOI: 10.1111/1753-6405.12574
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC).

    METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e.g. birth weight) and at 14 years (e.g. sports participation and mealtime with family).

    RESULTS: After adjustments for confounders, each unit increase in paternal and maternal BMI, the BMI of young adult offspring increased by 0.33kg/m(2) and 0.35kg/m(2) , and the WC increased by 0.76 cm and 0.62 cm, respectively. In the combination of parents' weight status, offspring at 21 years were six times the risk being overweight/obese (OW/OB) when both parents were OW/OB, compared to offspring of healthy weight parents.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal parental BMI are independently related to adult offspring BMI and WC.

    IMPLICATIONS: Both prenatal paternal-maternal weight status are important determinants of offspring weight status in long-term. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  20. Zaki M, Robaayah Z, Chan SP, Vadivale M, Lim TO
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65 Suppl A:143-9.
    PMID: 21488476
    Abdominal obesity (AO), measured by waist circumference (WC), is a stronger predictor of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than generalised obesity, which is measured by body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to measure WC and prevalence of AO in Malaysians visiting primary care physicians. 1893 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 attending primary care clinics in Malaysia were recruited over two days for this multi-centre cross-sectional study. Pregnant women were excluded, their medical history, weight, height and WC were examined. The prevalence of co-morbidities were as follows: (1) CVD-4%, lipid disorder-17%, hypertension-26%, diabetes-14% and any of the clinical characteristics of CVD/lipid disorder/hypertension/diabetes-38%. The mean BMI for men and women was 25.62 +/- 4.73 kg/m2 and 26.63 +/- 5.72 kg/m2, respectively. Based on WHO criteria for BMI (overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m2; obese, > 30 kg/m2), 34.2% were overweight and 20.4% were obese. The mean WC for men and women was 89.03 +/- 13.45 cm and 84.26 +/- 12.78 cm, respectively. Overall, 55.6% had AO and there was higher prevalence among women (based on International Diabetes Federation criteria: WC > or = 90 cm for men and > or = 80 cm for women). AO was present in approximately 71% patients with lipid disorder, in 76% with hypertension and in 75% with diabetes. Patients with AO were also at a higher risk of developing co-morbidities. Malaysia has a high prevalence of AO and associated cardiovascular risk factors. This needs to be addressed by public health programs, which should also include routine measurement of WC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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