Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. Ng ZQ, Wijesuriya R, Misur P, Tan JH, Moe KS, Theophilus M
    ANZ J Surg, 2020 11;90(11):2298-2303.
    PMID: 32501646 DOI: 10.1111/ans.16063
    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that radiological measures of visceral adiposity are a better tool for risk assessment of colorectal adenomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of visceral adiposity with the development of colorectal adenomas.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases of computed tomography-confirmed acute diverticulitis from November 2015 to April 2018 was performed. Data collated included basic demographics, computed tomography scan results (uncomplicated versus complicated diverticulitis), treatment modality (conservative versus intervention), outcomes and follow-up colonoscopy results within 12 months of presentation. The patients were divided into no adenoma (A) and adenoma (B) groups. Visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and VFA/SFA ratio (V/S) were measured at L4/L5 level. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluation the association of VFA, SFA, V/S and different thresholds with the risk of adenoma formation.

    RESULTS: A total of 169 patients were included in this study (A:B = 123:46). The mean ± standard deviation for VFA was higher in group B (201 ± 87 cm2 versus 176 ± 79 cm2 ) with a trend towards statistical significance (P = 0.08). There was no difference in SFA and V/S in both groups. When the VFA >200 cm2 was analysed, it was associated with a threefold risk of adenoma formation (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.35-5.50, P = 0.006). Subgroup analysis of gender with VFA, SFA and V/S found that males have a significantly higher VFA in group B (220.0 ± 95.2 cm2 versus 187.3 ± 69.2 cm2 ; P = 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: The radiological measurement of visceral adiposity is a useful tool for opportunistic assessment of risk of colorectal adenoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Nur Zakiah Mohd Saat, Ismarulyusda Ishak, Syarif Husin Lubis, See, Huong Wen, Siti Nor Lily Suriyanee Mohd, Norul Sahira Zakaria, et al.
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;11(2):190-197.
    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between stress score and body mass index (BMI) of students of Science in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 126 students. Data about stress score were collected using a questionnaire, the Student-Life Stress Inventory (SLSI) Data about BMI were calculated from height and weight of the respondents. Results: A total of 117 (92.85%) out of 126 students had responded. The mean difference of stress score among first, second and third year students were 87.6 ± 17.0, 83.4 ± 16.9 and 86.7 ± 15.4 respectively. The mean difference of stress scores between the Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students were 87.9 ± 16.5 and 83.2 ± 15.9 .The mean of body mass Index(BMI) between first, second and third year students were 21.0 ± 3.5, 20.3 ± 2.7 and 21.8 ± 4.3 respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that the stress level is higher in first year, female and bumiputra student. There was no significant relationship between stress score and BMI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Salmi Razali, Ainsah Omar, Osman Che Bakar, Shamsul Azman Shah
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):90-96.
    Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of obesity among patients with schizophrenia and its association with the demographic profile. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Subjects were selected using systematic sampling. Patients attending the out patient psychiatric clinic, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, who fulfilled the criteria and able to give consent were included in this study. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was made using Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV. Demographic profiles of the patients were obtained and anthropometric measurements were measured and classified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) of Asian population. Results: A total of 97 patients were included. The prevalence of overweight (BMI: 23.0- 27.4 kg/m2) was 39.2% (n=38), and the prevalence of obesity (BMI: >27.0 kg/m2) was 35.1% (n=34). BMI was higher among non-Chinese (Malay and Indian, p=.03) and those who had low total household income (p=.03). Sixty-two patients (63.9%) had high WC, which was associated with male (p=.003) and non-Chinese (p=.03). Conclusions: Obesity is highly prevalent among patients with schizophrenia. The risk factors for obesity include male, non-Chinese and those with low total income. The high WC among non-Chinese and male patients suggests that they are at a higher risk of developing obesity-related physical illnesses. These findings support that obesity is a common critical issue among schizophrenic patients, and it warrants serious clinical interventions.

    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Osman Che Bakar, Ainsah Omar
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2008;9(2):126-128.
    We aimed to report the first case of anorexia nervosa in a young Malaysian Malay homosexual man with underlying borderline personality disorder and major depression. Patient and parents were interviewed. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV was used to generate Axis-I diagnosis. The Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale was used to assess the severity of depression. His parents had marital discord. His father was overinvolved. Regarding anorexia nervosa, he had 163 cm height, 46kg weight and a body mass index (BMI) of 17 kg/m2. His four limbs had multiple scratch marks. Laboratory test results showed anemia, leukocytosis and hypoalbuminemia. Family pathology, borderline personality disorder and homosexuality could be the risk factors of anorexia nervosa in this patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Marhani Midin, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Ruzanna Zam Zam, Che Khatijjah Bee Mohd Ali
    Objective: To describe the setting up of a pilot project on weight management programme for patients with severe mental illness (SMI) in a general hospital setting, the effectiveness of the programme on 5 patients and the feasibility of such programme to be developed in our local setting. Methods: Key staff members from relevant disciplines were involved through out the programme, which was based on dietary education, exercise and behavioural techniques. It was conducted weekly for physical exercise and biweekly for topic discussion with a total duration of 16 weeks. Results: Patients achieved means (SDs) weight loss of 1.78 (2.83) kg; BMI reduction of 0.92 (1.41) kg/m2; and reduction of waist circumference of 6.8 (4.97) cm. Factors associated with positive health outcome were high baseline BMI, high educational level and committed family members. Conclusion: The programme appears to be effective for patients and is feasible to be developed in Malaysian hospitals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Saif-Ali R, Harun R, Al-Jassabi S, Wan Ngah WZ
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2011;58(2):179-86.
    PMID: 21633728
    This study aimed to investigate the associations of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome parameters. Nine SNPs spanning the HNF4 alpha P2 promoter (rs4810424, rs1884613 and rs1884614) and coding region (rs2144908, rs6031551, rs6031552, rs1885088, rs1028583 and rs3818247) were genotyped in 160 subjects without diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The HNF4 alpha P2 promoter SNPs rs4810424, rs1884613 and rs1884614 were associated with insulin resistance (p = 0.017; 0.037; 0.024) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03; 0.035; 0.039). The intron 1D SNP rs2144908 was associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) (p = 0.020) and the intron 9 SNP rs3818247 showed association with systolic (p = 0.02) and diastolic (p = 0.034) blood pressure. HNF4 alpha common haplotype CCCGTC associated with higher insulin resistance (p = 0.022), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.035) and lower HDLc (p = 0.001). In conclusion, subjects with HNF4 alpha P2 variants and haplotypes have been shown to have a higher insulin resistance and are therefore at a higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Ngim CA, Abdul Rahman AR, Ibrahim A
    Acta Cardiol, 1999 Oct;54(5):277-82.
    PMID: 10596307
    BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, an aging process which is accelerated by hypertension, is emerging as a useful index of vascular health. There are evidences to suggest that hyperinsulinaemia may be an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, besides its possible pathogenic role in essential hypertension. The main objectives of this study were to compare arterial stiffness between untreated hypertensives and normotensives and to investigate the relationship between fasting serum insulin and arterial stiffness.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. Forty normotensive (median age 47 +/- 6 yrs.) and twenty untreated hypertensive Malay men (median age 50 +/- 7 yrs.) without clinical evidence of cardiovascular complications were selected. Pulse wave velocity measured using the automated Complior machine was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Other measurements obtained were blood pressure, body mass index, fasting insulin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and creatinine level.

    RESULTS: The blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were significantly higher in the hypertensives compared to the normotensives (blood pressure 169/100 mm Hg +/- 14/7 vs. 120/80 mm Hg +/- 10/4, p < 0.001; PWV 11.69 m/s +/- 1.12 vs. 8.83 m/s +/- 1.35, p < 0.001). Other variables such as body mass index, fasting insulin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and haematocrit were comparable among the two groups. Within each group, there was a significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.76, p < 0.001 in normotensives; r = 0.73, p < 0.001 in hypertensives) and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.74, p < 0.001 in normotensives; r = 0.73, p < 0.001 in hypertensives). No correlation was noted between pulse wave velocity and diastolic blood pressure, age, body mass index, fasting insulin level, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels.

    CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness as determined by PWV is increased in newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive subjects even before clinically evident cardiovascular disease. However, arterial stiffness is not correlated with the fasting insulin level in normotensives and newly diagnosed hypertensives.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Caudwell-Hall J, Kamisan Atan I, Brown C, Guzman Rojas R, Langer S, Shek KL, et al.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2018 Jun;97(6):751-757.
    PMID: 29393505 DOI: 10.1111/aogs.13315
    INTRODUCTION: Levator trauma is a risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. We aimed to identify antenatal predictors for significant damage to the levator ani muscle during a first vaginal delivery.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study utilizing data from two studies with identical inclusion criteria and assessment protocols between 2005 and 2014. A total of 1148 primiparae with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were recruited and assessed with translabial ultrasound at 36 weeks antepartum and 871 (76%) returned for reassessment 3-6 months postpartum. The ultrasound data of vaginally parous women were analyzed for levator avulsion and microtrauma. The former was diagnosed if the muscle insertion at the inferior pubic ramus in the plane of minimal hiatal dimensions and within 5 mm above were abnormal on tomographic ultrasound imaging. Microtrauma was diagnosed in women with an intact levator and if there was a postpartum increase in hiatal area on Valsalva by >20% with the resultant area ≥25 cm2 .

    RESULTS: The complete datasets of 844 women were analyzed. Among them, 609 delivered vaginally: by normal vaginal delivery in 452 (54%), a vacuum birth in 102 (12%) and a forceps delivery in 55 (6%). Levator avulsion was diagnosed in 98 and microtrauma in 97. On multivariate analysis, increasing maternal age, lower body mass index and lower bladder neck descent were associated with avulsion. Increased bladder neck descent and a family history of cesarean section (CS) were associcated with microtrauma.

    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age, body mass index, bladder neck descent and family history of CS are antenatal predictors for levator trauma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. de Vries B, Narayan R, McGeechan K, Santiagu S, Vairavan R, Burke M, et al.
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2018 Jun;97(6):668-676.
    PMID: 29450884 DOI: 10.1111/aogs.13310
    INTRODUCTION: Cesarean section rates continue to increase globally. Prediction of intrapartum cesarean section could lead to preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the association between sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation and cesarean section among women planning a vaginal birth. The population was women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relation between cervical length and cesarean section in labor.

    RESULTS: Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Chan WK, Treeprasertsuk S, Imajo K, Nakajima A, Seki Y, Kasama K, et al.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2018 Mar;47(6):816-825.
    PMID: 29333610 DOI: 10.1111/apt.14506
    BACKGROUND: The Gut and Obesity Asia (GO ASIA) workgroup was formed to study the relationships between obesity and gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia Pacific region.

    AIM: To study factors associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis, and medical treatment of biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.

    METHODS: Retrospective study of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients from centres in the GO ASIA Workgroup. Independent factors associated with NASH and with advanced fibrosis on binary logistic regression analyses in a training cohort were used for the development of their corresponding risk score, which were validated in a validation cohort.

    RESULTS: We included 1008 patients from nine centres across eight countries (NASH 62.9%, advanced fibrosis 17.2%). Independent predictors of NASH were body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 , diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alanine aminotransferase ≥88 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase ≥38 U/L, constituting the Asia Pacific NASH risk score. A high score has a positive predictive value of 80%-83% for NASH. Independent predictors of advanced fibrosis were age ≥55 years, diabetes mellitus and platelet count <150 × 109 /L, constituting the Asia-Pacific NAFLD advanced fibrosis risk score. A low score has a negative predictive value of 95%-96% for advanced fibrosis. Only 1.7% of patients were referred for structured lifestyle program, 4.2% were on vitamin E, and 2.4% were on pioglitazone.

    CONCLUSIONS: More severe liver disease can be suspected or ruled out based on factors identified in this study. Utilisation of structured lifestyle program, vitamin E and pioglitazone was limited despite this being a cohort of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients with majority of patients having NASH.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Darabi H, McCue K, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Nord S, Kar S, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2015 Jul 02;97(1):22-34.
    PMID: 26073781 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Mellor D, Hucker A, Waterhouse M, binti Mamat NH, Xu X, Cochrane J, et al.
    Am J Mens Health, 2014 Nov;8(6):521-31.
    PMID: 24707036 DOI: 10.1177/1557988314528370
    This study investigated how dissatisfaction with particular aspects of the body was associated with overall body dissatisfaction among male adolescents in Western and Asian cultures. One hundred and six Malaysian Malays, 55 Malaysian Chinese, 195 Chinese from China, and 45 non-Asian Australians aged 12 to 19 years completed a questionnaire assessing dissatisfaction with their overall body and dissatisfaction with varying aspects of their body. Dissatisfaction with the face, height, and hair was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Malays after body mass index, age and dissatisfaction with body areas typically included in measures (weight/shape, upper, middle, and lower body, and muscles) had been controlled for. Dissatisfaction with the face was positively correlated with overall body dissatisfaction among Malaysian Chinese. These findings demonstrate the differences in body focus for males from different cultures and the importance of using assessment measures that address all possible areas of body focus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Perak AM, Lancki N, Kuang A, Labarthe DR, Allen NB, Shah SH, et al.
    Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2021 02;224(2):210.e1-210.e17.
    PMID: 32768430 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.07.053
    BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association's formal characterization of cardiovascular health combines several metrics in a health-oriented, rather than disease-oriented, framework. Although cardiovascular health assessment during pregnancy has been recommended, its significance for pregnancy outcomes is unknown.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of gestational cardiovascular health-formally characterized by a combination of 5 metrics-with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes.

    STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, including 2304 mother-newborn dyads from 6 countries. Maternal cardiovascular health was defined by the combination of the following 5 metrics measured at a mean of 28 (24-32) weeks' gestation: body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and smoking. Levels of each metric were categorized using pregnancy guidelines, and the total cardiovascular health was scored (0-10 points, where 10 was the most favorable). Cord blood was collected at delivery, newborn anthropometrics were measured within 72 hours, and medical records were abstracted for obstetrical outcomes. Modified Poisson and multinomial logistic regression were used to test the associations of gestational cardiovascular health with pregnancy outcomes, adjusted for center and maternal and newborn characteristics.

    RESULTS: The average age of women at study exam was 29.6 years old, and they delivered at a mean gestational age of 39.8 weeks. The mean total gestational cardiovascular health score was 8.6 (of 10); 36.3% had all ideal metrics and 7.5% had 2+ poor metrics. In fully adjusted models, each 1 point higher (more favorable) cardiovascular health score was associated with lower risks for preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.73]), unplanned primary cesarean delivery (0.88 [0.82-0.95]), newborn birthweight >90th percentile (0.81 [0.75-0.87]), sum of skinfolds >90th percentile (0.84 [0.77-0.92]), and insulin sensitivity <10th percentile (0.83 [0.77-0.90]). Cardiovascular health categories demonstrated graded associations with outcomes; for example, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for preeclampsia were 3.13 (1.39-7.06), 5.34 (2.44-11.70), and 9.30 (3.95-21.86) for women with ≥1 intermediate, 1 poor, or ≥2 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: More favorable cardiovascular health at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation was associated with lower risks for several adverse pregnancy outcomes in a multinational cohort.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  14. Wickramatilake CM, Mohideen MR, Pathirana C
    Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris), 2015 Jul;76(3):260-3.
    PMID: 26142486 DOI: 10.1016/j.ando.2015.04.008
    OBJECTIVE: There is limited data on the assessment of relationship between sex hormones, metabolic syndrome (MS) and inflammation. Therefore, our objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome, testosterone and inflammation.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study which included 309 subjects in the age range of 30-70years. Blood was analyzed for plasma glucose, serum lipids, total testosterone (TT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP).
    RESULTS: There were 153 patients with metabolic syndrome and 156 without MS according to modified NCEP guidelines. Age, BMI, obesity, dyslipidaemia, smoking (OR=2.35, CI=1.35-4.09), LDL-Ch, low TT (OR=0.76, CI=0.38-1.52) and elevated hs-CRP (OR=1.56, CI=0.87-2.80) were significant independent predictors of MS (all P<0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: The low testosterone and high hs-CRP levels are independent predictors of metabolic syndrome.
    KEYWORDS: Hommes; Inflammation; Men; Metabolic syndrome; Syndrome métabolique; Testosterone; Testostérone
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Azman M, Sani A, Kamaruddin NA
    Ann Saudi Med, 2015 5 15;34(6):476-81.
    PMID: 25971819 DOI: 10.5144/0256-4947.2014.476
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease affecting middle-aged patients and is associated with significant cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic complications. Current evidences show inconclusive association between OSA and insulin resistance (IR). This study aims to examine the possible correlation between OSA parameters and IR.

    DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study to examine the association between OSA parameters and IR using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) on patients who underwent polysomnogram (PSG) in a tertiary center between March 2011 and March 2012 (1 year).

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 patients underwent PSG within the study period, of which 16 patients were excluded due to abnormal fasting blood sugar. Information on patients' medical illnesses, medications, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was obtained. Patients' body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Blood samples were collected after 8 hours of fasting to measure HOMA-IR value. Overnight PSG was performed for all patients. Data was recorded and analyzed using SPSS, version 12.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of IR in OSA patients was 64.3%. There was significant correlation between OSA parameters (apnea-hypopnea index, ESS, BMI, and WC) and HOMA-IR with correlation coefficient of 0.529, 0.224, 0.261, and 0.354, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: A linear correlation exists between OSA parameters and IR concluding a definite causal link between OSA and IR. IR screening is recommended in severe OSA patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Hussein Z, Taher SW, Gilcharan Singh HK, Chee Siew Swee W
    Ann Glob Health, 2016 4 25;81(6):851-62.
    PMID: 27108152 DOI: 10.1016/j.aogh.2015.12.016
    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a major public health concern in Malaysia, and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has escalated to 20.8% in adults above the age of 30, affecting 2.8 million individuals. The burden of managing diabetes falls on primary and tertiary health care providers operating in various settings.

    OBJECTIVES: This review focuses on the current status of diabetes in Malaysia, including epidemiology, complications, lifestyle, and pharmacologic treatments, as well as the use of technologies in its management and the adoption of the World Health Organization chronic care model in primary care clinics.

    METHODS: A narrative review based on local available health care data, publications, and observations from clinic experience.

    FINDINGS: The prevalence of diabetes varies among the major ethnic groups in Malaysia, with Asian Indians having the highest prevalence of T2D, followed by Malays and Chinese. The increase prevalence of overweight and obesity has accompanied the rise in T2D. Multidisciplinary care is available in tertiary and primary care settings with integration of pharmacotherapy, diet, and lifestyle changes. Poor dietary adherence, high consumption of carbohydrates, and sedentary lifestyle are prevalent in patients with T2D. The latest medication options are available with increasing use of intensive insulin regimens, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring systems for managing glycemic control. A stepwise approach is proposed to expand the chronic care model into an Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions framework to facilitate implementation and realize better outcomes in primary care settings.

    CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive strategy and approach has been established by the Malaysian government to improve prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes as an urgent response to this growing chronic disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Apalasamy YD, Ming MF, Rampal S, Bulgiba A, Mohamed Z
    Ann Hum Biol, 2013 Jan;40(1):102-6.
    PMID: 22989167 DOI: 10.3109/03014460.2012.720709
    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is an important regulator of body weight and energy intake. Genetic polymorphisms of the MC4R gene have been found to be linked to obesity in many recent studies across the globe.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Strickland SS, Duffield AE
    Ann Hum Biol, 1997 Sep-Oct;24(5):453-74.
    PMID: 9300122
    The areca nut is chewed by many of the world's population, mainly in South and Southeast Asia. Anthropometric data for 458 Sarawaki adults aged over 24 years, measured both in 1990 and in 1996, were examined in relation to use of tobacco and areca nut. Compared to non-smokers, smoking men were significantly taller and slightly (not significantly) thinner in both years, while smoking women were thinner in 1990 and slightly (not significantly) thinner in 1996. In both sexes there was an increase in the mean and range of body mass index (BMI, W/H2) over the 6-year interval. Smoking women showed a significantly smaller increment in BMI after allowing for areca nut use, which was associated with a similar trend, and this finding depended on including areca use in the model. The trend for men was similar. Possible effects of areca use could reflect variation in 'affluence' or conservatism, or appetite suppression. However, resting metabolic rate in 54 men and 70 women aged 24-60 years was associated with areca use. This association appeared to be mediated by the maximum room temperature of the 24 h preceding measurement. In women, a significant curvilinear association of RMR with maximum temperature was found in users of areca nut but not in non-users. In men, RMR was 7% higher (p < 0.05) in users of areca nut than in non-users, after allowing for age, height, weight, the sum of four skinfold thicknesses, and haemoglobin, but the association with maximum temperature was similar in both groups. It is speculated that constituents of areca nut modulate thermoregulatory pathways, resulting in prolonged temperature-dependent and hyperthermic heat production in this population; that males are more responsive to this effect than females; and that by this mechanism, and possibly also through centrally mediated effects on appetite for food, areca use could contribute to long-term variation in energy balance represented by change in BMI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Low NY, Chan CY, Subramaniam S, Chin KY, Ima Nirwana S, Muhammad N, et al.
    Ann Hum Biol, 2022 Dec;49(7-8):299-304.
    PMID: 36373795 DOI: 10.1080/03014460.2022.2147585
    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used surrogate tool to screen for obesity/adiposity, but it cannot differentiate between lean and fat mass. Thus, alternative tools to detect excess adiposity should be identified.

    AIM: This study aimed to compare the performance of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in predicting Malaysians with excess body fat defined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 men and women aged ≥40 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The body composition of the subjects, including body fat percentage, was measured by DXA. The weight, height, WC and WHtR of the subjects were also determined.

    RESULTS: BMI [sensitivity = 55.7%, specificity = 86.1%, area under curve (AUC) = 0.709] and WC (sensitivity = 62.7%, specificity = 90.3%, AUC = 0.765) performed moderately in predicting excess adiposity. Their performance and sensitivity improved with lower cut-off values. The performance of WHtR (sensitivity = 96.6%, specificity = 36.1, AUC = 0.664) was optimal at the standard cut-off value and no modification was required.

    CONCLUSION: The performance of WC in identifying excess adiposity was greater than BMI and WHtR based on AUC values. Modification of cut-off values for BMI and WC could improve their performance and should be considered by healthcare providers in screening individuals with excess adiposity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  20. Loo GH, Rajan R, Nik Mahmood NRK
    Ann Med Surg (Lond), 2019 Aug;44:72-76.
    PMID: 31321031 DOI: 10.1016/j.amsu.2019.06.014
    There is an increasing trend in the number of bariatric surgeries performed worldwide, partly because bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) remains the most common bariatric surgery procedure performed, representing more than 50% of all primary bariatric interventions. Major surgical complications of SG include staple-line bleeding, leaking, and stenosis. A leak along the staple-line most commonly occurs at the gastroesophageal junction (GOJ). From January 2018 to December 2018, our centre performed 226 bariatric procedures, of which, 97.8% were primary bariatric procedures. The mean age and BMI were 38.7±8.3 years and 44 kg/m2, respectively. Out of the 202 primary SG performed, we encountered two cases of a staple-line leak (0.99%). This is the first reported case series of SG leaks from the Southeast Asia region. A summary of their characteristics, clinical presentation, subsequent management, and the outcome is discussed. Based on the latest available evidence from the literature, several methods may decrease staple-line leaks in SG. These include the use of a bougie size greater than 40 Fr, routine use of methylene blue test during surgery, beginning transection at 2-6 cm from the pylorus, mobilising the fundus before transection, and staying away from the GOJ at the last firing. Other methods include the proper alignment of the staple-line, control of staple-line bleeding, and performing staple-line reinforcement. The management of a staple-line leak remains challenging due to limited systematic, evidence-based literature being available. Therefore, a tailored approach is needed to manage this complication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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