METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases of computed tomography-confirmed acute diverticulitis from November 2015 to April 2018 was performed. Data collated included basic demographics, computed tomography scan results (uncomplicated versus complicated diverticulitis), treatment modality (conservative versus intervention), outcomes and follow-up colonoscopy results within 12 months of presentation. The patients were divided into no adenoma (A) and adenoma (B) groups. Visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA) and VFA/SFA ratio (V/S) were measured at L4/L5 level. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluation the association of VFA, SFA, V/S and different thresholds with the risk of adenoma formation.
RESULTS: A total of 169 patients were included in this study (A:B = 123:46). The mean ± standard deviation for VFA was higher in group B (201 ± 87 cm2 versus 176 ± 79 cm2 ) with a trend towards statistical significance (P = 0.08). There was no difference in SFA and V/S in both groups. When the VFA >200 cm2 was analysed, it was associated with a threefold risk of adenoma formation (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.35-5.50, P = 0.006). Subgroup analysis of gender with VFA, SFA and V/S found that males have a significantly higher VFA in group B (220.0 ± 95.2 cm2 versus 187.3 ± 69.2 cm2 ; P = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The radiological measurement of visceral adiposity is a useful tool for opportunistic assessment of risk of colorectal adenoma.
METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was designed. Forty normotensive (median age 47 +/- 6 yrs.) and twenty untreated hypertensive Malay men (median age 50 +/- 7 yrs.) without clinical evidence of cardiovascular complications were selected. Pulse wave velocity measured using the automated Complior machine was used as an index of arterial stiffness. Other measurements obtained were blood pressure, body mass index, fasting insulin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and creatinine level.
RESULTS: The blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were significantly higher in the hypertensives compared to the normotensives (blood pressure 169/100 mm Hg +/- 14/7 vs. 120/80 mm Hg +/- 10/4, p < 0.001; PWV 11.69 m/s +/- 1.12 vs. 8.83 m/s +/- 1.35, p < 0.001). Other variables such as body mass index, fasting insulin, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and haematocrit were comparable among the two groups. Within each group, there was a significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.76, p < 0.001 in normotensives; r = 0.73, p < 0.001 in hypertensives) and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.74, p < 0.001 in normotensives; r = 0.73, p < 0.001 in hypertensives). No correlation was noted between pulse wave velocity and diastolic blood pressure, age, body mass index, fasting insulin level, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
CONCLUSION: Arterial stiffness as determined by PWV is increased in newly diagnosed untreated hypertensive subjects even before clinically evident cardiovascular disease. However, arterial stiffness is not correlated with the fasting insulin level in normotensives and newly diagnosed hypertensives.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study utilizing data from two studies with identical inclusion criteria and assessment protocols between 2005 and 2014. A total of 1148 primiparae with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were recruited and assessed with translabial ultrasound at 36 weeks antepartum and 871 (76%) returned for reassessment 3-6 months postpartum. The ultrasound data of vaginally parous women were analyzed for levator avulsion and microtrauma. The former was diagnosed if the muscle insertion at the inferior pubic ramus in the plane of minimal hiatal dimensions and within 5 mm above were abnormal on tomographic ultrasound imaging. Microtrauma was diagnosed in women with an intact levator and if there was a postpartum increase in hiatal area on Valsalva by >20% with the resultant area ≥25 cm2 .
RESULTS: The complete datasets of 844 women were analyzed. Among them, 609 delivered vaginally: by normal vaginal delivery in 452 (54%), a vacuum birth in 102 (12%) and a forceps delivery in 55 (6%). Levator avulsion was diagnosed in 98 and microtrauma in 97. On multivariate analysis, increasing maternal age, lower body mass index and lower bladder neck descent were associated with avulsion. Increased bladder neck descent and a family history of cesarean section (CS) were associcated with microtrauma.
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age, body mass index, bladder neck descent and family history of CS are antenatal predictors for levator trauma.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relation between cervical length and cesarean section in labor.
RESULTS: Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile.
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section.
AIM: To study factors associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis, and medical treatment of biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.
METHODS: Retrospective study of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients from centres in the GO ASIA Workgroup. Independent factors associated with NASH and with advanced fibrosis on binary logistic regression analyses in a training cohort were used for the development of their corresponding risk score, which were validated in a validation cohort.
RESULTS: We included 1008 patients from nine centres across eight countries (NASH 62.9%, advanced fibrosis 17.2%). Independent predictors of NASH were body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 , diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, alanine aminotransferase ≥88 U/L and aspartate aminotransferase ≥38 U/L, constituting the Asia Pacific NASH risk score. A high score has a positive predictive value of 80%-83% for NASH. Independent predictors of advanced fibrosis were age ≥55 years, diabetes mellitus and platelet count <150 × 109 /L, constituting the Asia-Pacific NAFLD advanced fibrosis risk score. A low score has a negative predictive value of 95%-96% for advanced fibrosis. Only 1.7% of patients were referred for structured lifestyle program, 4.2% were on vitamin E, and 2.4% were on pioglitazone.
CONCLUSIONS: More severe liver disease can be suspected or ruled out based on factors identified in this study. Utilisation of structured lifestyle program, vitamin E and pioglitazone was limited despite this being a cohort of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients with majority of patients having NASH.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of gestational cardiovascular health-formally characterized by a combination of 5 metrics-with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study, including 2304 mother-newborn dyads from 6 countries. Maternal cardiovascular health was defined by the combination of the following 5 metrics measured at a mean of 28 (24-32) weeks' gestation: body mass index, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and smoking. Levels of each metric were categorized using pregnancy guidelines, and the total cardiovascular health was scored (0-10 points, where 10 was the most favorable). Cord blood was collected at delivery, newborn anthropometrics were measured within 72 hours, and medical records were abstracted for obstetrical outcomes. Modified Poisson and multinomial logistic regression were used to test the associations of gestational cardiovascular health with pregnancy outcomes, adjusted for center and maternal and newborn characteristics.
RESULTS: The average age of women at study exam was 29.6 years old, and they delivered at a mean gestational age of 39.8 weeks. The mean total gestational cardiovascular health score was 8.6 (of 10); 36.3% had all ideal metrics and 7.5% had 2+ poor metrics. In fully adjusted models, each 1 point higher (more favorable) cardiovascular health score was associated with lower risks for preeclampsia (relative risk, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.73]), unplanned primary cesarean delivery (0.88 [0.82-0.95]), newborn birthweight >90th percentile (0.81 [0.75-0.87]), sum of skinfolds >90th percentile (0.84 [0.77-0.92]), and insulin sensitivity <10th percentile (0.83 [0.77-0.90]). Cardiovascular health categories demonstrated graded associations with outcomes; for example, relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for preeclampsia were 3.13 (1.39-7.06), 5.34 (2.44-11.70), and 9.30 (3.95-21.86) for women with ≥1 intermediate, 1 poor, or ≥2 poor (vs all ideal) metrics, respectively.
CONCLUSION: More favorable cardiovascular health at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation was associated with lower risks for several adverse pregnancy outcomes in a multinational cohort.
DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This was a cross-sectional study to examine the association between OSA parameters and IR using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) on patients who underwent polysomnogram (PSG) in a tertiary center between March 2011 and March 2012 (1 year).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 62 patients underwent PSG within the study period, of which 16 patients were excluded due to abnormal fasting blood sugar. Information on patients' medical illnesses, medications, and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was obtained. Patients' body mass index (BMI), neck circumference, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Blood samples were collected after 8 hours of fasting to measure HOMA-IR value. Overnight PSG was performed for all patients. Data was recorded and analyzed using SPSS, version 12.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA).
RESULTS: The prevalence of IR in OSA patients was 64.3%. There was significant correlation between OSA parameters (apnea-hypopnea index, ESS, BMI, and WC) and HOMA-IR with correlation coefficient of 0.529, 0.224, 0.261, and 0.354, respectively.
CONCLUSION: A linear correlation exists between OSA parameters and IR concluding a definite causal link between OSA and IR. IR screening is recommended in severe OSA patients.
OBJECTIVES: This review focuses on the current status of diabetes in Malaysia, including epidemiology, complications, lifestyle, and pharmacologic treatments, as well as the use of technologies in its management and the adoption of the World Health Organization chronic care model in primary care clinics.
METHODS: A narrative review based on local available health care data, publications, and observations from clinic experience.
FINDINGS: The prevalence of diabetes varies among the major ethnic groups in Malaysia, with Asian Indians having the highest prevalence of T2D, followed by Malays and Chinese. The increase prevalence of overweight and obesity has accompanied the rise in T2D. Multidisciplinary care is available in tertiary and primary care settings with integration of pharmacotherapy, diet, and lifestyle changes. Poor dietary adherence, high consumption of carbohydrates, and sedentary lifestyle are prevalent in patients with T2D. The latest medication options are available with increasing use of intensive insulin regimens, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose monitoring systems for managing glycemic control. A stepwise approach is proposed to expand the chronic care model into an Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions framework to facilitate implementation and realize better outcomes in primary care settings.
CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive strategy and approach has been established by the Malaysian government to improve prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes as an urgent response to this growing chronic disease.
AIM: This study aimed to compare the performance of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in predicting Malaysians with excess body fat defined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 men and women aged ≥40 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The body composition of the subjects, including body fat percentage, was measured by DXA. The weight, height, WC and WHtR of the subjects were also determined.
RESULTS: BMI [sensitivity = 55.7%, specificity = 86.1%, area under curve (AUC) = 0.709] and WC (sensitivity = 62.7%, specificity = 90.3%, AUC = 0.765) performed moderately in predicting excess adiposity. Their performance and sensitivity improved with lower cut-off values. The performance of WHtR (sensitivity = 96.6%, specificity = 36.1, AUC = 0.664) was optimal at the standard cut-off value and no modification was required.
CONCLUSION: The performance of WC in identifying excess adiposity was greater than BMI and WHtR based on AUC values. Modification of cut-off values for BMI and WC could improve their performance and should be considered by healthcare providers in screening individuals with excess adiposity.
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