Methods: We examined whether (a) PA and (b) selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (n = 1,151). Body mass indices, waist-hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF) were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS). Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model.
Results: PAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = -0.44 [95% confidence interval -0.72, -0.16], p = 0.002). The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.16 [-0.28, -0.05], corrected p = 0.01) and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = -0.06 [-0.12, -0.00], p = 0.02) were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.02) and combined GRS (β = -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01], p = 0.01) for % BF.
Conclusion: Higher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention in this population.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Utilising the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry (11 Asian regions including Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea; 46 centres with enrolment between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016), we prospectively examined 5,964 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age 61.3 ± 13.3 years, 26% women, mean BMI 25.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, 16% with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; ejection fraction ≥ 50%]), among whom 2,051 also had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measurements (mean age 60.8 ± 12.9 years, 24% women, mean BMI 25.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 7% HFpEF). Patients were categorised by BMI quartiles or WHtR quartiles or 4 combined groups of BMI (low, <24.5 kg/m2 [lean], or high, ≥24.5 kg/m2 [obese]) and WHtR (low, <0.55 [thin], or high, ≥0.55 [fat]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome (HF hospitalisation or mortality). Across BMI quartiles, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome (ptrend < 0.001). Contrastingly, higher WHtR was associated with higher risk of the composite outcome. Individuals in the lean-fat group, with low BMI and high WHtR (13.9%), were more likely to be women (35.4%) and to be from low-income countries (47.7%) (predominantly in South/Southeast Asia), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (46%), worse quality of life scores (63.3 ± 24.2), and a higher rate of the composite outcome (51/232; 22%), compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 for all). Following multivariable adjustment, the lean-fat group had higher adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.18, p = 0.01), compared to the obese-thin group, with high BMI and low WHtR. Results were consistent across both HF subtypes (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]; pinteraction = 0.355). Selection bias and residual confounding are potential limitations of such multinational observational registries.
CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Asian patients with HF, the 'obesity paradox' is observed only when defined using BMI, with WHtR showing the opposite association with the composite outcome. Lean-fat patients, with high WHtR and low BMI, have the worst outcomes. A direct correlation between high WHtR and the composite outcome is apparent in both HFpEF and HFrEF.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) Registry ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633398.
Method: Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid Medline, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched for English and Persian language studies published between 2009 and 2017. The primary outcome of this review was to assess the effects of behavioral interventions on glycosylated hemoglobin. Changes in the blood pressure, Lipid profiles, BMI, Self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude, practice, Self-care behaviors, social support, anxiety, and depression were the secondary outcomes.
Results: Comprehensive search procedures resulted in twenty-three experimental studies with 2208 participants. Eleven studies were included in the Meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, behavioral interventions significantly lower glycosylated hemoglobin -0.61% (95% CI -0.80, -0.41). To explore the effects of the study intervention (regarding what aspects of the intervention are most effective), we then conducted a stratified analysis for HbA1c. Larger effects were found in interventions with a longer duration and higher intensity, delivered in the group format, interventions offered to individuals with higher baseline HbA1c, and interventions delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Moreover, behavioral interventions were effective in improving blood glucose, lipid profiles, knowledge, attitude, practice, self-efficacy, quality of life, and self-care.
Conclusion: In line with other behavioral studies, our study shows that behavioral interventions improve self-management in Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes.
Subjects and Methods: Eighty female adults were recruited and divided into three groups; normal weight (n = 23), overweight (n = 28) and obese (n = 29), according to their BMI. Blood samples were obtained prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Plasma samples were separated by centrifugation and analysed for enzymatic antioxidant activity including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Non-enzymatic antioxidant activities were assessed using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. To evaluate the oxidative stress status of subjects, levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, the by-product of lipid peroxidation, were measured. Cardiopulmonary responses were analysed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which involved 15 various parameters such as peak oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents and respiratory exchange ratio.
Results: The obese group had significantly lower ABTS radical scavenging and FRAP activities than the normal weight group. A higher catalase activity was observed in the obese group than the normal weight group. Spearman's correlation showed an inverse relationship between catalase and peak oxygen consumption, while partial correlation analysis showed inverse correlations between superoxide dismutase and respiratory frequency, ABTS activity and oxygen pulse, and between ABTS activity and cardiac output.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a lower cardiovascular fitness and antioxidant capacity in obese women; the higher catalase activity may be a compensatory mechanism. The negative correlations found between these two parameters may indicate the potential effect of antioxidants on the cardiopulmonary system and deserve further analysis in a larger population. Nevertheless, this study provides the basis for future studies to further explore the relationships between redox status and cardiopulmonary responses. This can potentially be used to predict future risk of developing diseases associated with oxidative stress, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.
Methods: A total of 279 older adults aged 60 years and above were randomly selected. Respondents were classified as non-frail (<2 criteria) or frail (≥3 criteria) based on the 'phenotype of frailty'. A binary logistic regression was used to determine predictors of frailty.
Results: The prevalence of frailty was 18.3%. The frail older adults were positively associated with advanced age, being unmarried, hospitalisation in the previous year, poor self-rated health, and lower body mass index.
Discussion: These results give an overview on underlying effects and guiding actions for prevention programmes functioning to reverse and minimise the adverse effects of frailty syndrome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, single-center, randomized, controlled, clinical trial in patients with T2DM and DKD, comparing 12-weeks of low carbohydrate diet (<20g daily intake) versus standard low protein (0.8g/kg/day) and low salt diet. Patients in the VLCBD group underwent 2-weekly monitoring including their 3-day food diaries. In addition, Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed to estimate body fat percentages.
RESULTS: The study population (n = 30) had a median age of 57 years old and a BMI of 30.68kg/m2. Both groups showed similar total calorie intake, i.e. 739.33 (IQR288.48) vs 789.92 (IQR522.4) kcal, by the end of the study. The VLCBD group showed significantly lower daily carbohydrate intake 27 (IQR25) g vs 89.33 (IQR77.4) g, p<0.001, significantly higher protein intake per day 44.08 (IQR21.98) g vs 29.63 (IQR16.35) g, p<0.05 and no difference in in daily fat intake. Both groups showed no worsening of serum creatinine at study end, with consistent declines in HbA1c (1.3(1.1) vs 0.7(1.25) %) and fasting blood glucose (1.5(3.37) vs 1.3(5.7) mmol/L). The VLCBD group showed significant reductions in total daily insulin dose (39(22) vs 0 IU, p<0.001), increased LDL-C and HDL-C, decline in IL-6 levels; with contrasting results in the control group. This was associated with significant weight reduction (-4.0(3.9) vs 0.2(4.2) kg, p = <0.001) and improvements in body fat percentages. WC was significantly reduced in the VLCBD group, even after adjustments to age, HbA1c, weight and creatinine changes. Both dietary interventions were well received with no reported adverse events.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that dietary intervention of very low carbohydrate diet in patients with underlying diabetic kidney disease was safe and associated with significant improvements in glycemic control, anthropometric measurements including weight, abdominal adiposity and IL-6. Renal outcomes remained unchanged. These findings would strengthen the importance of this dietary intervention as part of the management of patients with diabetic kidney disease.
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