Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. Zaharan NL, Muhamad NH, Jalaludin MY, Su TT, Mohamed Z, Mohamed MNA, et al.
    PMID: 29755414 DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00209
    Background: Several non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have been shown to be associated with obesity. Little is known about their associations and interactions with physical activity (PA) in relation to adiposity parameters among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Methods: We examined whether (a) PA and (b) selected nsSNPs are associated with adiposity parameters and whether PA interacts with these nsSNPs on these outcomes in adolescents from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (n = 1,151). Body mass indices, waist-hip ratio, and percentage body fat (% BF) were obtained. PA was assessed using Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Five nsSNPs were included: beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) rs4994, FABP2 rs1799883, GHRL rs696217, MC3R rs3827103, and vitamin D receptor rs2228570, individually and as combined genetic risk score (GRS). Associations and interactions between nsSNPs and PAQ-C scores were examined using generalized linear model.

    Results: PAQ-C scores were associated with % BF (β = -0.44 [95% confidence interval -0.72, -0.16], p = 0.002). The CC genotype of ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.16 [-0.28, -0.05], corrected p = 0.01) and AA genotype of MC3R rs3827103 (β = -0.06 [-0.12, -0.00], p = 0.02) were significantly associated with % BF compared to TT and GG genotypes, respectively. Significant interactions with PA were found between ADRB3 rs4994 (β = -0.05 [-0.10, -0.01], p = 0.02) and combined GRS (β = -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01], p = 0.01) for % BF.

    Conclusion: Higher PA score was associated with reduced % BF in Malaysian adolescents. Of the nsSNPs, ADRB3 rs4994 and MC3R rs3827103 were associated with % BF. Significant interactions with PA were found for ADRB3 rs4994 and combined GRS on % BF but not on measurements of weight or circumferences. Targeting body fat represent prospects for molecular studies and lifestyle intervention in this population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Narayan, K.A., A Rashid, K.
    This study was conducted to study the blood pressure pattern and the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in a rural community in two coastal villages in rural Kedah, Mahysia. Out of the total population 504 were above 20 years of age and were eligible to participate. There were 227 males and 252 females. The mean systolic blood pressure was found to rise with age, peaking in the 6l·70 years age group, For women the mean blood pressure rose earlier from the age group of 4-l· 50 years. Mean blood pressures rose with increasing body mass index. lt also varied with occupation and education. The retired and unemployed had a higher blood pressure than those employed and there was an inverse relationship with increasing education. The prevalence of hypertension was 33.6%. More females were hypertensive (36.5%) as compared to males (3 0.4%) and this finding was the same for both systolic and diastolic hypertension. Majority (71.4%) of the hypertensives were undiagnosed. 72.5% of hypertensives who were on treatment were not under control. Hypertension was more prevalent among retirees and illiterates. Prevalence of hypertension increased correspondingly with age. Obesity was associated with hypertension. There was no association with family history of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression showed a positive association only for obesity. ln conclusion, given the high prevalence of hypertension at
    present, it appears that the prevalence will increase as each age cohort grows older. Obesity, especially among housewives is a significant assorted factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Shaila Kabir, Sadia Choudhury Shimm, M. Tanveer Hossain Parash, Mya Sanda Khaing, A. B. M. Tofazzal Hossain
    Introduction:Obesity or overweight and its consequences are important public health problems globally resulting in a significant cause of morbidity such as hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, stroke, sleep apnoea, cancers and mortality which also render distressing financial burden on everyone. It is imperative to intervene in momentous strategies for early detection to prevent the weight-related epidemic. Methods:It was a health survey conducted in June 2019 to detect the prevalence of obesity and overweight problems and the resultant detrimental health conditions among the year 1 and year 2 medical students of the University Malaysia Sa-bah. The survey was done on 145 students aged between 19-23 years. The height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and capillary random blood glucose were measured. Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests were done to find an association between BMI and probable factors using SPSS. Results: The prevalence of obesity was 8.2%. High blood pressure was recorded in 23.45% participants where both systolic and diastolic blood pressure was high in 18.6%, only systolic blood pressure was high in 37.2% and only diastolic blood pressure was high in 28.3% among 145 students. There was no impaired glucose tolerance among the participants. There was a positive correlation between BMI and systolic (r=0.518, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Pan CY, So WY, Khalid BA, Mohan V, Thai AC, Zimmet P, et al.
    Diabet Med, 2004 Sep;21(9):1007-13.
    PMID: 15317606 DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2004.01287.x
    AIM: To describe the clinical, biochemical and immunological characteristics of young-onset diabetes in Asia.
    METHODS: Clinical, biochemical and immunological variables were assessed in 919 newly diagnosed (duration less than 12 months) young onset Asian diabetic patients aged between 12 and 40 years. The subjects constituted 57% Chinese, 29% Indians and 14% Malays, recruited from diabetes centres in China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia and Singapore.
    RESULTS: The mean age (+/- sd) was 31.6 +/- 7.2 years, with the majority (66%) in the 31-40 years age group. Mean body mass index (BMI) (+/- sd) was 25.3 +/- 5.0 kg/m2 with 47% exceeding the suggested Asian cut-off point for obesity (BMI > or = 25). Ethnic difference in clinical characteristics included BMI, blood pressure, mode of treatment and degree of insulin resistance. Most patients had a clinical presentation of Type 2 diabetes. About 10% had a classical combination of ketotic presentation, presence of autoimmune-markers and documented insulin deficiency indicative of Type 1 diabetes. Forty-eight percent were receiving oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs) while 31% were on diet only, 18% were receiving insulin and 2% were on a combination of insulin and OHA.
    CONCLUSION: Young onset diabetes patients in Asia represent a heterogeneous group in terms of their clinical and biochemical characteristics and classical Type 1 diabetes is relatively uncommon. The 5-year follow up study will determine the progress of these patients and help to clarify the natural history.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Chandramouli C, Tay WT, Bamadhaj NS, Tromp J, Teng TK, Yap JJL, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2019 09;16(9):e1002916.
    PMID: 31550265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002916
    BACKGROUND: Asians are predisposed to a lean heart failure (HF) phenotype. Data on the 'obesity paradox', reported in Western populations, are scarce in Asia and have only utilised the traditional classification of body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate the association between obesity (defined by BMI and abdominal measures) and HF outcomes in Asia.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Utilising the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry (11 Asian regions including Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea; 46 centres with enrolment between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016), we prospectively examined 5,964 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age 61.3 ± 13.3 years, 26% women, mean BMI 25.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, 16% with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; ejection fraction ≥ 50%]), among whom 2,051 also had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measurements (mean age 60.8 ± 12.9 years, 24% women, mean BMI 25.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 7% HFpEF). Patients were categorised by BMI quartiles or WHtR quartiles or 4 combined groups of BMI (low, <24.5 kg/m2 [lean], or high, ≥24.5 kg/m2 [obese]) and WHtR (low, <0.55 [thin], or high, ≥0.55 [fat]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome (HF hospitalisation or mortality). Across BMI quartiles, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome (ptrend < 0.001). Contrastingly, higher WHtR was associated with higher risk of the composite outcome. Individuals in the lean-fat group, with low BMI and high WHtR (13.9%), were more likely to be women (35.4%) and to be from low-income countries (47.7%) (predominantly in South/Southeast Asia), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (46%), worse quality of life scores (63.3 ± 24.2), and a higher rate of the composite outcome (51/232; 22%), compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 for all). Following multivariable adjustment, the lean-fat group had higher adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.18, p = 0.01), compared to the obese-thin group, with high BMI and low WHtR. Results were consistent across both HF subtypes (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]; pinteraction = 0.355). Selection bias and residual confounding are potential limitations of such multinational observational registries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Asian patients with HF, the 'obesity paradox' is observed only when defined using BMI, with WHtR showing the opposite association with the composite outcome. Lean-fat patients, with high WHtR and low BMI, have the worst outcomes. A direct correlation between high WHtR and the composite outcome is apparent in both HFpEF and HFrEF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) Registry ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633398.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Azami G, Soh KL, Sazlina SG, Salmiah MS, Aazami S
    J Diabetes Metab Disord, 2018 Dec;17(2):365-380.
    PMID: 30918872 DOI: 10.1007/s40200-018-0376-0
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically-review published experimental studies to determine the effectiveness of behavioral interventions on self-management in Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Method: Pub Med, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid Medline, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched for English and Persian language studies published between 2009 and 2017. The primary outcome of this review was to assess the effects of behavioral interventions on glycosylated hemoglobin. Changes in the blood pressure, Lipid profiles, BMI, Self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude, practice, Self-care behaviors, social support, anxiety, and depression were the secondary outcomes.

    Results: Comprehensive search procedures resulted in twenty-three experimental studies with 2208 participants. Eleven studies were included in the Meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, behavioral interventions significantly lower glycosylated hemoglobin -0.61% (95% CI -0.80, -0.41). To explore the effects of the study intervention (regarding what aspects of the intervention are most effective), we then conducted a stratified analysis for HbA1c. Larger effects were found in interventions with a longer duration and higher intensity, delivered in the group format, interventions offered to individuals with higher baseline HbA1c, and interventions delivered by a multidisciplinary team. Moreover, behavioral interventions were effective in improving blood glucose, lipid profiles, knowledge, attitude, practice, self-efficacy, quality of life, and self-care.

    Conclusion: In line with other behavioral studies, our study shows that behavioral interventions improve self-management in Iranian adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Nur Ikhwan Mohamad, Rumpf, Michael C., Tan, Erik C.H., Abas, Nicholas Garaman
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2015;4(1):15-26.
    This paper aims to determine acute responses of standardized resistance training load on cardio-respiratory variables in recreationally active participants. The methodology involved twelve recreationally active males with an age of 23.5 (± 4.07) years, a mass of 70.5 (± 7.84 kg), a height of 1.69 (± 0.06 m), and a body mass index of 24.8 (± 2.14) kg/m2). The participants performed an exercise protocol that comprises five exercises on a standardized load. Each exercise was performed in a duration of 60 seconds with uncontrolled lifting velocity. Cardio-respiratory responses were measured using a portable metabolic system analyzer during the exercises. A wrist digital blood pressure monitor was used to determine pre- and postprotocol blood pressure responses. Based on the results, pre- and postprotocol systolic (p=0.744) and diastolic (p=0.758) blood pressure indicated no significant responses. However, significant differences were observed in pre- and post-heart rate responses (p=0.000). Peak cardio-respiratory responses recorded during the protocol were 30.2 (± 4.02) ml/Kg/min for oxygen consumption, 138 (± 61.9) bpm for heart rate, and 633 (± 71.2) kcal for energy expenditure (estimated per hour). On average, the Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) was recorded at a value of 8.62 (± 1.19). For a short duration standardized load circuit training exercise protocol, cardio respiratory responses were similar to other protocols. The metabolic cost of the predefined exercises was nearly half of the recommended energy expenditure through exercise per week. The prescribed protocol was comparable with other exercise protocols for cardiorespiratory variables. The single set protocol used was efficient in terms of caloric expenditure, and was less strenuous over similar exercise duration. Furthermore, the prescribed protocol is applicable and beneficial for active and healthy individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Wan Abdul Hamed WN, Abd Aziz NA
    J Prim Care Community Health, 2020 2 14;11:2150132720907472.
    PMID: 32052684 DOI: 10.1177/2150132720907472
    Perception of body weight has been recognized as an important barrier in the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Several factors affect perception of body weight, but the outcomes have been varied. This study aimed to study the perception and misperception of body weight and its association with the measured body mass index. A clinic-based cross-sectional study was done in the clinic using systematic sampling. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the sociodemographic profile, body weight perception question adopted from Weight Management Questionnaire and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) 1991-2017. The prevalence of body weight misperception in the sample population was 58.6%. Most of the respondents were overweight (33.9%) and obese (33.9%). Respondents aged 25 years and older were 2.98 times more likely to have misperception compared with other age groups (95% CI: 1.21-3.19, P = .006). Divorced respondents were 4.70 times more likely to have body misperception compared with married respondents (95% CI 1.44-15.32, P = 0.01). This study showed that misperception of body weight could be influenced by reversible factors and measured body mass index. Hence, the rectification of these misperceptions is important in the clinical setting especially in these vulnerable groups of respondents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Koo HC, Poh BK, Abd Talib R
    Nutrients, 2018 Jan 30;10(2).
    PMID: 29385769 DOI: 10.3390/nu10020156
    Background: The GReat-Child Trial was a quasi-experimental intervention that has emphasized whole grain as a strategy to manage childhood obesity. Methods: Two schools in Kuala Lumpur with similar demographic characteristics were assigned as intervention (IG) and control (CG). Eligibility criteria were overweight/obese children aged 9 to 11 years who had no serious co-morbidity. Children who reported consuming wholegrain foods in their 3-day diet-recall during screening were excluded. A total of 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG) completed the entire intervention program. The IG children underwent six 30-min nutrition education lessons and had school delivery of wholegrain food on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Parents of IG children attended 1-h individual diet counseling. Anthropometric outcomes including BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ), body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured at baseline [T0], post-intervention [T1] (3rd month) and follow-up [T2] (9th month). Results: IG showed significantly lower BAZ (weighted difference: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.21, -0.03; p = 0.009), body fat percentage (weighted difference: -2.6%; 95% CI: -3.7, -1.5; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.4 cm; 95% CI: -3.8, -1.0; p = 0.001) compared to CG. IG reported significantly lower body fat percentage (weighted difference: -3.4%; 95% CI: 1.8, 5.0; p < 0.001) and waist circumference (weighted difference: -2.1 cm; 95% CI: -3.7, -0.5; p = 0.014) at T1 compared to T0. Conclusions: The GReat-Child Trial made a positive impact in managing childhood obesity. It can be incorporated into childhood obesity intervention programs that are being implemented by the policy makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Adenan DM, Jaafar Z, Jayapalan JJ, Abdul Aziz A
    PeerJ, 2020;8:e9230.
    PMID: 32477840 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.9230
    Introduction: A high body fat coupled with low cardiopulmonary fitness and an increase in oxidative stress has been connoted as contributing factors in developing cardiovascular comorbidities. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between antioxidants and oxidative stress status with cardiopulmonary responses in women of different body mass index (BMI).

    Subjects and Methods: Eighty female adults were recruited and divided into three groups; normal weight (n = 23), overweight (n = 28) and obese (n = 29), according to their BMI. Blood samples were obtained prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Plasma samples were separated by centrifugation and analysed for enzymatic antioxidant activity including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Non-enzymatic antioxidant activities were assessed using 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assays. To evaluate the oxidative stress status of subjects, levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, the by-product of lipid peroxidation, were measured. Cardiopulmonary responses were analysed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which involved 15 various parameters such as peak oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalents and respiratory exchange ratio.

    Results: The obese group had significantly lower ABTS radical scavenging and FRAP activities than the normal weight group. A higher catalase activity was observed in the obese group than the normal weight group. Spearman's correlation showed an inverse relationship between catalase and peak oxygen consumption, while partial correlation analysis showed inverse correlations between superoxide dismutase and respiratory frequency, ABTS activity and oxygen pulse, and between ABTS activity and cardiac output.

    Conclusion: Our results demonstrate a lower cardiovascular fitness and antioxidant capacity in obese women; the higher catalase activity may be a compensatory mechanism. The negative correlations found between these two parameters may indicate the potential effect of antioxidants on the cardiopulmonary system and deserve further analysis in a larger population. Nevertheless, this study provides the basis for future studies to further explore the relationships between redox status and cardiopulmonary responses. This can potentially be used to predict future risk of developing diseases associated with oxidative stress, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Mohd Hamidin FA, Adznam SN, Ibrahim Z, Chan YM, Abdul Aziz NH
    SAGE Open Med, 2018;6:2050312118775581.
    PMID: 29872529 DOI: 10.1177/2050312118775581
    Objective: Frailty is a clinical syndrome with increased risk of poor health outcomes and particularly prevalent in older adults and community population. The study's aim was therefore to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related status, and anthropometric measurements among community-dwelling older adults.

    Methods: A total of 279 older adults aged 60 years and above were randomly selected. Respondents were classified as non-frail (<2 criteria) or frail (≥3 criteria) based on the 'phenotype of frailty'. A binary logistic regression was used to determine predictors of frailty.

    Results: The prevalence of frailty was 18.3%. The frail older adults were positively associated with advanced age, being unmarried, hospitalisation in the previous year, poor self-rated health, and lower body mass index.

    Discussion: These results give an overview on underlying effects and guiding actions for prevention programmes functioning to reverse and minimise the adverse effects of frailty syndrome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Zainordin NA, Eddy Warman NA, Mohamad AF, Abu Yazid FA, Ismail NH, Chen XW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(10):e0258507.
    PMID: 34644368 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0258507
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited data on the effects of low carbohydrate diets on renal outcomes particularly in patients with underlying diabetic kidney disease. Therefore, this study determined the safety and effects of very low carbohydrate (VLCBD) in addition to low protein diet (LPD) on renal outcomes, anthropometric, metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients with T2DM and underlying mild to moderate kidney disease (DKD).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated, single-center, randomized, controlled, clinical trial in patients with T2DM and DKD, comparing 12-weeks of low carbohydrate diet (<20g daily intake) versus standard low protein (0.8g/kg/day) and low salt diet. Patients in the VLCBD group underwent 2-weekly monitoring including their 3-day food diaries. In addition, Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed to estimate body fat percentages.

    RESULTS: The study population (n = 30) had a median age of 57 years old and a BMI of 30.68kg/m2. Both groups showed similar total calorie intake, i.e. 739.33 (IQR288.48) vs 789.92 (IQR522.4) kcal, by the end of the study. The VLCBD group showed significantly lower daily carbohydrate intake 27 (IQR25) g vs 89.33 (IQR77.4) g, p<0.001, significantly higher protein intake per day 44.08 (IQR21.98) g vs 29.63 (IQR16.35) g, p<0.05 and no difference in in daily fat intake. Both groups showed no worsening of serum creatinine at study end, with consistent declines in HbA1c (1.3(1.1) vs 0.7(1.25) %) and fasting blood glucose (1.5(3.37) vs 1.3(5.7) mmol/L). The VLCBD group showed significant reductions in total daily insulin dose (39(22) vs 0 IU, p<0.001), increased LDL-C and HDL-C, decline in IL-6 levels; with contrasting results in the control group. This was associated with significant weight reduction (-4.0(3.9) vs 0.2(4.2) kg, p = <0.001) and improvements in body fat percentages. WC was significantly reduced in the VLCBD group, even after adjustments to age, HbA1c, weight and creatinine changes. Both dietary interventions were well received with no reported adverse events.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that dietary intervention of very low carbohydrate diet in patients with underlying diabetic kidney disease was safe and associated with significant improvements in glycemic control, anthropometric measurements including weight, abdominal adiposity and IL-6. Renal outcomes remained unchanged. These findings would strengthen the importance of this dietary intervention as part of the management of patients with diabetic kidney disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Basri, M.N., Janattul, A.J., Azrina, M.R., Abdul Hadi, M.
    Introduction: Our objectives are to identify the incidence of hypophosphatemia and the associated risk factors. We also want to establish intravenous replacement therapy that is effective for ICU patients. Methods: A prospective observational study assessing adults admitted to ICU in between March and May 2009. All patients without baseline phosphate level and renal failure were excluded. They were evaluated for the occurrence of common risk factors. Association with independent variables that includes age, gender and BMI were verified. Evaluation of IV replacement therapy was done in the treated patients. Results: From 50 patients that were reviewed, nine were excluded. There were 66% male and 34% female with mean age 46.88±17.89. The mean ICU stay was 8.00±6.41 days. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was 29% (n=12/41). Gender and
    creatinine clearance was found to be significantly different between normophosphatemia and
    hypophosphatemia patients. There was no significant association for each potential risk factor and the number of risk factors (≥3) with the incidence of hypophosphatemia. Multi-linear regression analysis showed that lactate, creatinine clearance and pH were significant predictors to the serum levels. A significant difference of mean serum phosphate was seen after repletion by total dose of 10, 20 and 40 mmols in the treatment subgroups. Conclusions: The incidence of hypophosphatemia in our ICU was high and comparable to previous studies. None of the commonly reported risk factors is associated with hypophosphatemia in this studied population. Among all significant correlated variables, only pH was found to be a significant predictor for serum phosphate. Baseline phosphate level may guide the initial replacement dose to prevent delay in normalization of serum levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Poh BK, Wong YP, Abdul Karim N
    Malays J Nutr, 2005;11(1):1-21-.
    Traditionally, Chinese women adhere to special dietary practices during the month following childbirth. This paper discusses the dietary practices and food taboos practised by Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur. A total of 134 Chinese mothers of children below one year were recruited from three Maternal and Child Health Clinics and Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to obtain information on socioeconomic background, dietary practices, food taboos and cooking methods during the confinement period. Food intake was assessed by multiple 24-hour dietary recall among 34 mothers during their confinement month (zuo yuezi). Body weight and height were measured, and body mass index calculated. Majority of the respondents had secondary school education (77.6%), household income between RM1001 and RM3000 (64%), and were homemakers (48.5%). The women were aged 18-39 years, and 68% were of normal weight. Most women (82%) practised 30 days of confinement, during which they adhered to special dietary practices. The diet was directed at attaining yin-yang (cold-hot) balance, whereby “hot” foods were most commonly used and “cold” foods were avoided. Ginger, rice wine and sesame seed oil, considered “hot” foods, were used in large amounts in the cooking. Rice, chicken and pork were also consumed in large amounts. Most vegetables and fruits were considered “cold” and were prohibited during confinement. Most mothers drank specially-prepared teas boiled from Chinese herbs. Mean energy intake was 19% below RNI, while mean protein intake was 93% above RNI (NCCFN, 2005). Mean intakes of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin were above 75% of RNI, while vitamins A and C were at half of RNI or less. Mean iron and calcium intakes were at 222% and 67% of RNI, respectively. It is concluded that most Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur do conform to special dietary practices during zuo yuezi.

    Study site: three Maternal and Child Health Clinics and Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Mohd Yusof BN, Abdul Talib R, Abdul Karim N
    Malays J Nutr, 2005;11(2):151-163.
    This experimental study was carried out to investigate the effect of eight types of commercial rice in Malaysia on blood glucose response and to determine their glycaemic index (GI) values. Ten healthy Malay volunteers (7 males, 3 females, BMI=23.6kgm-2, age=25.1years) participated in this study. The eight types of rice tested were three high fibre rice (HFR A, HFR B & HFR C), three white rice (WR D, WR E and WR F) and two fragrant rice (FR G and FR H). The subjects were required to go through the study protocol on eleven separate occasions (eight tests for the test rice samples and three repeated tests for the reference food) after an overnight fasting. Capillary blood samples were taken immediately before (0min) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120min after consumption of the test foods. The blood glucose response was obtained by calculating the incremental area under the curve (iAUC). The GI was determined according to the standardised methodology. This study showed that out of eight types of rice tested, three (HFR B, WR E and WR F) could be categorised as having intermediate GI while the remaining five were considered high GI foods (HFR A, HFR C, WR D, FR G and FR H). The GI of HFR B (60 ± 5.8) and WR E (61 ± 5.8) were significantly lower than the reference food (glucose; GI=100) (p0.05). The GI value of the rice tested in descending order were HFR C, 87 ± 9.0 followed by HFR A (81 ± 6.7), FR G (80 ± 5.5), FR H (79 ± 7.6), WR D (72 ± 8.5), WR F (69 ± 8.3), WR E (61 ± 5.8) and HFR B (60 ± 5.8). There was no relationship between the dietary fibre content of the rice with the iAUC (r= -0.05, p=0.63) and GI values (r= -0.08, p=0.46). This shows that the GI values of the test rice were independent of the dietary fibre content of the rice. Other factors that may influence the GI value of rice include amylose content, gelatinisation process and botanical sources. The results of this study will provide useful information for dietitians and nutritionists in selecting the appropriate type of rice for the daily diet of diabetics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Abdul Majid H, Ramli L, Ying SP, Su TT, Jalaludin MY, Abdul Mohsein NA
    PLoS One, 2016;11(5):e0155447.
    PMID: 27187889 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155447
    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Ahmad Arif Che Ismail, Yasmin Ayob, Abdul Rahim Hussein
    CAD accounts for 25% of mortality in Malaysia public hospitals. CABG is one of treatment for patients with CAD, but requires RBC transfusion, which is associated with morbidity and mortality. This study was to evaluate the association between RBC transfusion and morbidity and mortality in CABG patients at the National Heart Centre, Malaysia (IJN). Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study performed using data from 434 patients who underwent CABG in 2013 and 2014. Subjects had systematic random sampling every fifth subject of the patients in the sequence of dates of the year. Data related to the relationship between RBC transfusion with mortality and morbidity, and the predicting factors captured. Results: 64.3% of CABG patients (n = 279) received RBC transfusion perioperatively. Age, gender, BMI, and EF, were factors that contributed for RBC transfusion. RBC transfusion was a contributor to longer intensive care unit length of stay (ICULOS) and hospital length of stay (HLOS). Multiple logistic regression revealed, for every 1 year increase of age, there is 3.5% higher chance of transfusion. Whereas an increase of 1 kg/m2 of BMI and 1% of EF reduced the odds of RBC transfusion by 13.0% and 3.0% respectively. Conclusions: Age, gender, BMI, and EF determine the probability of needing RBC transfusion during CABG, and RBC transfusion will result in longer ICULOS, and HLOS. Probability of RBC transfusion will be higher in older patients and reduced in those with higher BMI and EF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Purwanto, Eswaran C, Logeswaran R, Abdul Rahman AR
    J Med Syst, 2012 Apr;36(2):521-31.
    PMID: 22675726
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death globally. More people die of CVDs each year than from any other disease. Over 80% of CVD deaths occur in low and middle income countries and occur almost equally in male and female. In this paper, different computational models based on Bayesian Networks, Multilayer Perceptron,Radial Basis Function and Logistic Regression methods are presented to predict early risk detection of the cardiovascular event. A total of 929 (626 male and 303 female) heart attack data are used to construct the models.The models are tested using combined as well as separate male and female data. Among the models used, it is found that the Multilayer Perceptron model yields the best accuracy result.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Ahmad Fuad AF, Ismail S, Abdul Rahman H
    Introduction: About 18% of Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) personnel are diagnosed with either hypertension, diabetes or coronary artery disease, while another 8% are obese. The rising prevalence necessitates intervention.
    Methods: This is a single blinded randomized controlled trial among overweight and obese MAF personnel attending medical checkup in MAF hospital in Kuala Lumpur. An intervention module was developed to increase their physical activity level. Short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task score (METs score), while blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measurements were also obtained. These parameters were measured at baseline and again at 6 months. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) statistical test were applied to evaluate the effect of the intervention.
    Results: Response rate was 100%. Most of participants were aged above 40 years, male, from Malay ethnic group, completed secondary education and had monthly income above RM 4000. Most of the respondents were obese and had moderate level of physical activity at baseline. All variables compared between groups at baseline showed no significant difference. At six months, after controlling for covariates, the significant difference was only in METs score. The odds of having high METs score in the intervention group after receiving intervention was nearly 3 times higher than those in the control group, after adjusting for interaction between time and group as well as other covari- ates (AOR = 2.908, 95% CI 1.323 – 6.391, P=0.008).
    Conclusion: Intervention was effective in increasing physical activity among overweight and obese military personnel.
    Study site: Malaysian Armed Forces Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  20. Moy FM, Abdul Rahman S
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Mar;8(1):63-73.
    PMID: 22692440 MyJurnal
    A cross sectional study on Type 2 diabetes patients seeking treatment in the Primary Health Care outpatient clinic of the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. Two hundred and thirty-three subjects participated. They were asked questions on biodata and dietary intake using face-to-face interview techniques. Dietary intake was assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were taken and Body Mass Index (BMI) was computed to establish the extent of obesity. Of the 196 subjects, 66.8% were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) with 15.8% obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The mean BMI of males and females were 25.9±4.3 kg/m2 and 27.2±4.7 kg/m2 respectively. The findings from the dietary survey showed that the mean energy intake of the subjects only achieved about 72% of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Malaysia while protein intake of all subjects was adequate. The macronutreint contribution to the total calorie was consistent with the recommendation of the Malaysian Diabetic Association for a healthy diet for diabetes patients. The male subjects were found to meet the RDA requirements for all nutrients while the female subjects did not have sufficient intake of calcium, vitamin A and niacin. No consistent pattern in energy and nutrient intake was observed among different age groups. On the other hand, the Malay subjects seemed to have lower energy and all nutrient intake (except vitamin A and vitamin C) compared to the Chinese and Indian subjects. The Indian subjects seemed to have the highest intake of calcium compared to the others. Advice needs to be given to those who did not have adequate nutrient intake as well as those who need to reduce their weight.

    Study site: Primary health care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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