Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Tee YYS, Bindels J, et al.
    PMID: 31590213 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193735
    Poor diet quality in pregnancy could impact gestational weight gain (GWG) and consequently fetal growth and development. But today there is limited data available on gestational diet quality. This study investigated the association between diet quality in each pregnancy trimester and GWG in Malaysian women. Diet quality was assessed using the modified Healthy Eating Index for Malaysians (HEI). Total GWG was defined as the difference between measured weight at last prenatal visit and pre-pregnancy weight. About one-fourth of women (23.3%) had excessive total GWG. There were significant differences in the HEI component score across trimesters, except for fruits. Overall, overweight/obese women had lower total HEI score (51.49-55.40) during pregnancy compared to non-overweight/obese women (53.38-56.50). For non-overweight/obese women, higher total HEI scores in the second and third trimesters were significantly associated with lower risk of inadequate GWG (aOR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.99, p = 0.01) and higher risk of excessive GWG (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, p = 0.03), respectively. Overweight/obese women with higher total HEI scores in the second (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, p = 0.02) and third trimester (aOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.02) were significantly at higher risk for excessive GWG. Pregnant women had relatively low diet quality throughout pregnancy. Diet quality and GWG association differed according to pre-pregnancy BMI with excessive GWG more likely to be associated with higher total HEI scores in the third trimester.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  2. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Tee YYS, Bindels J, et al.
    PMID: 33800084 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052694
    Food insecurity may exacerbate adverse maternal health outcomes during pregnancy, however, this association has not been well established, particularly in the context of developing countries. This study aimed to identify the associations between household food insecurity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk among urban pregnant women. Household food insecurity was assessed using the translated 10-item Radimer/Cornell hunger scale. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between food insecurity status and GDM risk. About 35.6% of women experienced food insecurity, with 25.2% reported household food insecurity, 8.0% individual food insecurity, and 2.4% child hunger. Food insecure women were at significantly higher risk of developing GDM compared to food secure women (AOR = 16.65, 95% CI = 6.17-24.98). The significant association between food insecurity and GDM risk was influenced by pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and rate of GWG at second trimester. Food insecure women with parity ≥ 2 (AOR = 4.21, 95% CI = 1.98-8.92), overweight/obese BMI prior to pregnancy (AOR = 12.11, 95% CI = 6.09-24.10) and excessive rate of GWG in the second trimester (AOR = 9.66, 95% CI = 4.27-21.83) were significantly more likely to develop GDM compared to food secure women. Food insecurity showed strong association with GDM risk in that the association was influenced by maternal biological and physical characteristics. Multipronged interventions may be necessary for food insecure pregnant women who are not only at risk of overweight/obesity prior to pregnancy but also may have excessive gestational weight gain, in order to effectively reduce GDM risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Tee YYS, Bindels J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 05 22;10(1):8486.
    PMID: 32444832 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65251-2
    This study aimed to identify the independent and combined effects of age, BMI at first prenatal visit and GWG on the risk of GDM. A retrospective cohort study of 1,951 pregnant women in Seremban district, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. GDM was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥5.6 mmol/l and/or 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (2hPPG) ≥7.8 mmol/l. A higher percentage of women with GDM had 2 risk factors (29.0%) or >2 risk factors (8.6%) compared to non-GDM women (2 risk factors: 25.5%; >2 risk factors: 5.0%). In general, women with ≥2 risk factors were respectively 1.36-2.06 times more likely to have GDM compared to those without risk factors. Older maternal age and being overweight/obese were significantly associated with risk of GDM. Overweight/obese women with age ≥35 years had 2.45 times higher risk of GDM and having excessive GWG at second trimester further increased the risk of GDM. Age and BMI are independent risk factors for GDM but not GWG in the first and second trimester. The findings emphasize the need to focus on a healthy BMI before pregnancy and optimal GWG during pregnancy to improve pregnancy outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  4. Yong HY, Mohd Shariff Z, Mohd Yusof BN, Rejali Z, Appannah G, Bindels J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2020;15(1):e0227246.
    PMID: 31923230 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227246
    Generally, dietary patterns (DP)s have been linked to the risk of diabetes mellitus, however, only few studies examined the associations between DPs in early pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aims to determine the association between DPs before and during pregnancy and risk of GDM in Malaysian pregnant women. DPs were derived using principal component analysis of consumed 126 food and beverage items assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire collecting data retrospectively for pre-pregnancy, but prospectively for the first and second trimester. Three different DPs were identified at each time point and labelled as DP 1-3 (pre-pregnancy), DP 4-6 (first trimester), and DP 7-9 (second trimester). About 10.6% (n = 48) of pregnant women were diagnosed with GDM in our cohort. Women with high adherence (HA) to DP 2 (adjusted OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20-0.91) and DP 5 (adjusted OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11-0.68) showed a significantly reduced risk of GDM compared to women with low adherence (LA). Other DPs were not significantly associated with GDM risk. Compared to women with GDM, non-GDM women showed HA scores for all DPs throughout pregnancy. Overall, a relative low percentage of women with GDM was found in this cohort. The risk was lower in women with HA to a relatively unhealthy dietary pattern, i.e. DP 2 and DP 5. The lower body mass index (BMI) status and energy intake of women showing a HA to DP 2 in the first trimester may underlie the observed association with a lower GDM risk. Additionally, genetic variance might explain the less susceptibility to GDM despite HA to unhealthy DPs among non-GDM women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Gao H, Salim A, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    Int J Obes (Lond), 2012 Aug;36(8):1086-93.
    PMID: 21946705 DOI: 10.1038/ijo.2011.185
    Diabetes in Asia constitutes approximately half of the global burden. Although insulin resistance and incidence of type 2 diabetes differ substantially between ethnic groups within Asia, the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. We evaluated to what extent body fatness, adiponectin levels and inflammation mediate the relationship between ethnicity and insulin resistance in an Asian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  6. Whitton C, Rebello SA, Lee J, Tai ES, van Dam RM
    J Nutr, 2018 Apr 01;148(4):616-623.
    PMID: 29659965 DOI: 10.1093/jn/nxy016
    BACKGROUND: Healthful dietary patterns are associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Western populations. However, a consistent healthful dietary pattern across major Asian ethnic groups has yet to be identified.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify a posteriori dietary patterns for Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnic groups in an urban Asian setting, compare these with a priori dietary patterns, and ascertain associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors including hypertension, obesity, and abnormal blood lipid concentrations.

    METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 8433 Singapore residents (aged 21-94 y) from the Multi-Ethnic Cohort study of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 169-item food-frequency questionnaire. With the use of 28 food groups, dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis, and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors was assessed using multiple linear regression. Associations between derived patterns and a priori patterns (aHEI-2010-Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, aMED-alternate Mediterranean Diet, and DASH-Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) were assessed, and the magnitude of associations with risk factors compared.

    RESULTS: We identified a "healthy" dietary pattern, similar across ethnic groups, and characterized by high intakes of whole grains, fruit, dairy, vegetables, and unsaturated cooking oil and low intakes of Western fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, poultry, processed meat, and flavored rice. This "healthy" pattern was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) (-0.26 per 1 SD of the pattern score; 95% CI: -0.36, -0.16), waist circumference (-0.57 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.32), total cholesterol (-0.070 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.091, -0.048), LDL cholesterol (-0.054 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.074, -0.035), and fasting triglycerides (-0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.04, -0.004) and directly associated with HDL cholesterol (0.013 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.006, 0.021). Generally, "healthy" pattern associations were at least as strong as a priori pattern associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    CONCLUSION: A healthful dietary pattern that correlated well with a priori patterns and was associated with lower BMI, serum LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting triglyceride concentrations was identified across 3 major Asian ethnic groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Liu JJ, Sum CF, Tavintharan S, Yeoh LY, Ng XW, Moh AM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Oct;236(2):286-91.
    PMID: 25112799 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the young population has become a serious concern globally, presumably due to the rising trend of obesity. Compared to other forms of diabetes, young-onset T2DM experiences more cardiovascular events and other vascular complications although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of vasculopathy. We aim to study the clinical and metabolic determinants of arterial stiffness in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asians with young-onset T2DM.
    METHODS: 179 subjects with T2DM onset age below 30 years old were selected in this cross sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).
    RESULTS: PWV was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR in bivariate correlation analysis. However, PWV was only significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, urinary ACR and eGFR after adjustment for age. Overweight individuals with young-onset T2DM had significantly higher PWV levels compared to their lean counterparts (7.3 ± 2.4 m/s vs 6.4 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.072 and p < 0.0001 without and with adjustment for age, respectively). Multivariable regression models revealed that age, BMI, eGFR and usage of insulin were independently associated with PWV. These 4 variables explained 35.5% variance in PWV levels.
    CONCLUSION: Age, BMI, renal function and insulin usage are the main determinants of PWV levels in Asians with young-onset T2DM. Notably, obesity is a modifiable determinant of arterial stiffness independent of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Fu C, Wai JW, Nik Mustapha NR, Irles M, Wong GL, Mahadeva S, et al.
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 11;18(12):2843-2845.e2.
    PMID: 31574313 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.09.027
    Because only a minority of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have advanced fibrosis and would eventually develop liver-related complications, current guidelines recommend initial assessment with noninvasive tests of fibrosis.1-3 Most previous studies focused on overweight and obese patients. Despite a strong association between obesity and NAFLD, 3%-30% of people with relatively normal body mass index (BMI) may still have NAFLD.4,5 Hence, this study aims to evaluate the performance of the common noninvasive tests in non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) NAFLD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Wong VW, Irles M, Wong GL, Shili S, Chan AW, Merrouche W, et al.
    Gut, 2019 11;68(11):2057-2064.
    PMID: 30658997 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317334
    OBJECTIVE: The latest model of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) automatically selects M or XL probe according to patients' body built. We aim to test the application of a unified interpretation of VCTE results with probes appropriate for the body mass index (BMI) and hypothesise that this approach is not affected by hepatic steatosis.

    DESIGN: We prospectively recruited 496 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent VCTE by both M and XL probes within 1 week before liver biopsy.

    RESULTS: 391 (78.8%) and 433 (87.3%) patients had reliable liver stiffness measurement (LSM) (10 successful acquisitions and IQR:median ratio ≤0.30) by M and XL probes, respectively (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was similar between the two probes (0.75-0.88 for F2-4, 0.83-0.91 for F4). When used in the same patient, LSM by XL probe was lower than that by M probe (mean difference 2.3 kPa). In contrast, patients with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 had higher LSM regardless of the probe used. When M and XL probes were used in patients with BMI <30 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively, they yielded nearly identical median LSM at each fibrosis stage and similar diagnostic performance. Severe steatosis did not increase LSM or the rate of false-positive diagnosis by XL probe.

    CONCLUSION: High BMI but not severe steatosis increases LSM. The same LSM cut-offs can be used without further adjustment for steatosis when M and XL probes are used according to the appropriate BMI.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Poh KS, Qureshi S, Hong YK, Moreno T, Stocchi L, Hull T, et al.
    Dis Colon Rectum, 2020 05;63(5):639-645.
    PMID: 32032200 DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001617
    BACKGROUND: Restorative total proctocolectomy with IPAA may not be feasible in some patients because of technical intraoperative limitations.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess preoperative predictors for intraoperative IPAA and review management.

    DESIGN: This is a retrospective review.

    SETTING: This study was conducted at Cleveland Clinic between January 2010 and May 2018.

    PATIENTS: Patients ≥18 years of age who underwent ileoanal pouch surgery were included. Patients with successful pouch creation as planned were grouped as "successful IPAA creation." Operative reports of patients who underwent alternative procedures were reviewed to identify cases when the pouch was preoperatively planned but intraoperatively abandoned (IPAA-abandoned group). Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine predictors of intraoperative pouch abandonment. We also reviewed the management of patients in whom the initial pouch creation failed.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were preoperative predictors for intraoperative ileoanal pouch abandonment.

    RESULTS: A total of 1438 patients were offered an ileoanal pouch; 21 (1.5%) experienced pouch abandonment due to inadequate reach (n = 17) and other technical reasons (n = 4). These patients underwent alternative procedures such as end or loop ileostomy with/without proctectomy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated male sex (OR, 6.021; 95% CI, 1.540-23.534), BMI (OR, 1.217; 95% CI, 1.114-1.329), and a 2-stage procedure (OR, 14.510; 95% CI, 4.123-51.064) as independent factors associated with intraoperative abandonment of pouch creation. Alternative procedures were total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy (n = 14) and total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy without proctectomy (n = 7). Ultimately, pouch creation was achieved in 6 of 21 patients after a median interval of 8.8 (range, 4.1-34.8) months. All patients had intentional weight loss before a reattempt and total abdominal colectomy with end ileostomy without proctectomy as their initial procedure.

    LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its retrospective nature.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ileoanal pouch abandonment is rare and can be mitigated by initial total abdominal colectomy and weight loss. Male, obese patients are at a higher risk of failure. Intraoperative assessment of ileoanal pouch feasibility should occur before rectal dissection. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B156. PREDICCIÓN MULTIVARIANTE DEL ABANDONO INTRAOPERATORIO DE LA ANASTOMOSIS ANAL CON BOLSA ILEAL: La proctocolectomía total restaurativa con anastomosis de bolsa ileoanal puede no ser posible en algunos pacientes debido a limitaciones técnicas intraoperatorias.Evaluar los predictores preoperatorios para el abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa ileoanal y revisar el manejo.Revisión retrospectiva.Cleveland Clinic entre Enero de 2010 y mayo de 2018.Pacientes > 18 años que se sometieron a cirugía de bolsa ileoanal. Los pacientes con una creación exitosa de la bolsa según lo planeado se agruparon como "creación exitosa de anastomosis de bolsa ileoanal". Se revisaron los informes operativos de los pacientes que se sometieron a procedimientos alternativos para identificar los casos en que la bolsa se planificó preoperatoriamente pero se abandonó intraoperatoriamente (grupo de "anastomosis anal de bolsa ileoanal abandonada"). Se desarrollaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para determinar los predictores del abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa. También revisamos el manejo de pacientes que fallaron en la creación inicial de la bolsa.Predictores preoperatorios para el abandono intraoperatorio de la bolsa ileoanal.A un total de 1438 pacientes se les ofreció una bolsa ileoanal; 21 (1.5%) experimentaron abandono de la bolsa debido a un alcance inadecuado (n = 17) y otras razones técnicas (n = 4). Estos pacientes se sometieron a procedimientos alternativos como ileostomía final o de asa con / sin proctectomía. El análisis de regresión logística multivariante indicó género masculino (OR, 6.021; IC 95%, 1.540-23.534), índice de masa corporal (OR, 1.217; IC 95%, 1.114-1.329) y procedimiento en 2 etapas (OR, 14.510; IC 95%, 4.123-51.064) como factores independientes asociados con el abandono intraoperatorio de la creación de la bolsa. Los procedimientos alternativos fueron la proctocolectomía total con ileostomía final (n = 14) y la colectomía abdominal total con ileostomía final sin proctectomía (n = 7). Finalmente, la creación de la bolsa se logró en 6/21 pacientes después de un intervalo medio de 8.8 (rango, 4.1-34.8) meses. Todos los pacientes tuvieron pérdida de peso intencional antes de la reintenta y colectomía abdominal total con ileostomía final sin proctectomía como procedimiento inicial.Naturaleza retrospectiva.El abandono de la bolsa ileoanal es raro y puede mitigarse mediante la colectomía abdominal total inicial y la pérdida de peso. Los pacientes masculinos y obesos tienen un mayor riesgo de fracaso. La evaluación intraoperatoria de la viabilidad de la bolsa ileoanal debe ocurrir antes de la disección rectal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B156. (Traducción-Dr. Yesenia Rojas-Kahlil).

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Tee ES, Khor SC, Ooi HE, Young SI, Zakiyah O, Zulkafli H
    Food Nutr Bull, 2002 Mar;23(1):41-7.
    PMID: 11975368
    A total of 5,995 (7.8% of all 7- to 10-year-old primary schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur), randomly selected from 166 schools (97.6% of all schools), were measured for their weight and height. The analyses of all weight and height data, including the cutoffs used for defining stunting, underweight, and wasting and for thinness and overweight, were carried out as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevalances of stunting (height-for-age Z score < -2 SD), underweight (weight-for-age Z score < -2 SD) and wasting (weight-for-height Z score < -2 SD) among all the children studies were 6.7%, 7.1%, and 4.5%, respectively. Undernutrition among boys was more serious than among girls according to all three indicators. Because it was not possible to analyze the weight-for-height data for most of the children above 8.5 years of age, body mass index (BMI)-for-age was used to determine the prevalences of thinness and overweight for all the children. Based on the reference data, the prevalence of overweight (at or above the 95th percentile) was 9.7% and 7.1% for boys and girls, respectively, and 8.4% overall.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Chin, Yit Siew, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Tung, Serene En Hui, Yim, Hip Seng, Zubaidah Jamil Osman
    Malays J Nutr, 2018;24(2):153-161.
    Introduction: Studies on metabolic syndrome (MetS) of children are important
    in view of rising prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide. This study compares
    the risks of insulin resistance, inflammation and metabolic syndrome between
    overweight/obese (OW/OB) and normal weight (NW) children in Kuala Lumpur.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 primary schools selected
    using multi-stage stratified random sampling. Height and weight were taken of a
    total of 1971 children aged 10-11 years. Based on BMI-for-age, 235 OW/OB children
    matched for age, sex and ethnicity with 226 NW children were selected for the study.
    Overnight fasting blood samples were collected to determine insulin, high-sensitivity
    C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose and lipid profiles. Logistic regression analysis
    was conducted to estimate associations between weight status and metabolic risk

    Results: Prevalence of MetS among OW/OB children was 3.8% compared to
    0% in the NW. Prevalence of insulin resistance among OW/OB was 45.5% compared
    to 18.6% among NW children. High risk of inflammation was found in 28.1% of the
    OW/OB children compared to 12.4% in the NW. The odds ratio of having insulin
    resistance, inflammation and metabolic risk factors among OW/OB were 3.66 (95%
    CI: 2.40-5.59), 2.76 (95% CI: 1.69-4.50), 4.93 (95% CI: 3.42-7.10), respectively
    compared to the NW.

    Conclusion: The OW/OB children in this study showed higher
    risks of developing insulin resistance, inflammation and MetS compared to the NW
    counterparts. Further studies are suggested to better understand the relationships
    between insulin resistance, inflammation and MetS in children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Swami V, Frederick DA, Aavik T, Alcalay L, Allik J, Anderson D, et al.
    Pers Soc Psychol Bull, 2010 Mar;36(3):309-25.
    PMID: 20179313 DOI: 10.1177/0146167209359702
    This study reports results from the first International Body Project (IBP-I), which surveyed 7,434 individuals in 10 major world regions about body weight ideals and body dissatisfaction. Participants completed the female Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDFRS) and self-reported their exposure to Western and local media. Results indicated there were significant cross-regional differences in the ideal female figure and body dissatisfaction, but effect sizes were small across high-socioeconomic-status (SES) sites. Within cultures, heavier bodies were preferred in low-SES sites compared to high-SES sites in Malaysia and South Africa (ds = 1.94-2.49) but not in Austria. Participant age, body mass index (BMI), and Western media exposure predicted body weight ideals. BMI and Western media exposure predicted body dissatisfaction among women. Our results show that body dissatisfaction and desire for thinness is commonplace in high-SES settings across world regions, highlighting the need for international attention to this problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Xia W, Tang N, Kord-Varkaneh H, Low TY, Tan SC, Wu X, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2020 11;161:105113.
    PMID: 32755613 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105113
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies lack consistent conclusions as to whether astaxanthin is actually linked to various health benefits as claimed. Here, we attempt to unravel the association of astaxanthin consumption with selected health benefits by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    METHODS: Online literature search databases including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed/Medline, Embase and Google Scholar were searched to discover relevant articles available up to 17 March 2020. We used mean changes and SD of the outcomes to assess treatment response from baseline and mean difference, and 95 % CI were calculated to combined data and assessment effect sizes in astaxanthin and control groups.

    RESULTS: 14 eligible articles were included in the final quantitative analysis. Current study revealed that astaxanthin consumption was not associated with FBS, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, TG, BMI, BW, DBP, and SBP. We did observe an overall increase in HDL-C (WMD: 1.473 mg/dl, 95 % CI: 0.319-2.627, p = 0.012). As for the levels of CRP, only when astaxanthin was administered (i) for relatively long periods (≥ 12 weeks) (WMD: -0.528 mg/l, 95 % CI: -0.990 to -0.066), and (ii) at high dose (> 12 mg/day) (WMD: -0.389 mg/dl, 95 % CI: -0.596 to -0.183), the levels of CRP would decrease.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that astaxanthin consumption was associated with increase in HDL-C and decrease in CRP. Significant associations were not observed for other outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Wilson N, Steadman R, Muller I, Draman M, Rees DA, Taylor P, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 May 31;20(11).
    PMID: 31151314 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20112675
    Hyaluronan (HA), an extra-cellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, may play a role in mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to fat but results using murine models and cell lines are conflicting. Our previous data, illustrating decreased HA production during human adipogenesis, suggested an inhibitory role. We have investigated the role of HA in adipogenesis and fat accumulation using human primary subcutaneous preadipocyte/fibroblasts (PFs, n = 12) and subjects of varying body mass index (BMI). The impact of HA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression was analysed following siRNA knockdown or HA synthase (HAS)1 and HAS2 overexpression. PFs were cultured in complete or adipogenic medium (ADM) with/without 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU = HA synthesis inhibitor). Adipogenesis was evaluated using oil red O (ORO), counting adipogenic foci, and measurement of a terminal differentiation marker. Modulating HA production by HAS2 knockdown or overexpression increased (16%, p < 0.04) or decreased (30%, p = 0.01) PPARγ transcripts respectively. The inhibition of HA by 4-MU significantly enhanced ADM-induced adipogenesis with 1.52 ± 0.18- (ORO), 4.09 ± 0.63- (foci) and 2.6 ± 0.21-(marker)-fold increases compared with the controls, also increased PPARγ protein expression (40%, (p < 0.04)). In human subjects, circulating HA correlated negatively with BMI and triglycerides (r = -0.396 (p = 0.002), r = -0.269 (p = 0.038), respectively), confirming an inhibitory role of HA in human adipogenesis. Thus, enhancing HA action may provide a therapeutic target in obesity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Zarei M, Msl H, Mohd Taib MN, Zarei F
    Glob J Health Sci, 2014 Nov;6(6):185-97.
    PMID: 25363094 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v6n6p185
    The aim or this study was to determine factors associated with body weight status among Iranian adolescents in the two Secondary Schools run by the Embassy in Kuala Lumpur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Mojgan, N., Sharifah Zainiyah, S.Y., Munn Sann, L., Zalilah, M.S.
    The relationship between zinc and infant birth weight is still contradictory and up until today there is still no research on this issue done in Iran. This unmatched case control study to evaluate the association between plasma cord blood zinc and infant birth weight at the time of delivery was carried out in the labor ward, Fatemieh Hospital, Hamadan, Iran from the 6 th December 2009 to 18 October 2010. Plasma venous cord blood zinc was measured by AtomicAbsorption Spectro-photometry (AAS) and the weight of 134 Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (cases) and 134 normal
    weight infants (control) were measured at the time of delivery. All mothers with history of chronic diseases, obstetric complications, anemia, twin pregnancy, smoking, using illicit drugs, and alcohol and infants with any obvious anomalies were excluded from this study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Logistic regression was used to assess the contribution of other risk factors on infant birth weight. The result showed there was significant relationship between infant birth weight and plasma cord blood zinc. The risk of having LBW infant is more than 12 times in mothers who have severe zinc deficiency (OR=12.234,CI 95% 1.122, 133.392, p-value= 0.040). Also in mothers
    who have mild to moderate zinc deficiency the risk of having LBW was more than one (OR=1.148, CI 95% 0.358, 3.900, p-value= 0.797). A significant relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) (p< 0.002), maternal weight gain during pregnancy (p< 0.021), previous LBW (p< 0.016), maternal age (p< 0.034) and parity (p< 0.004) with infant birth weight were also found. Logistic regression showed that zinc deficiency along with maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, previous LBW, maternal age and parity were predictors
    for infant birth weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Gan WY, Mohd NM, Siti AH, Zalilah MS
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Dec;18(3):295-306.
    PMID: 24568070 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Body Image Scale (MBIS), a seven-factor, 62-item scale developed for Malaysian female adolescents. This scale was evaluated among male and female Malaysian university students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Alagappan M, Rampal L, Zalilah MS
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 12;74(6):513-520.
    PMID: 31929478
    INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and factors associated among secondary school students in Batang Padang District, Perak, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Out of the 7247 students in the ten selected schools studied, a total of 6248 students (2928 males, 3320 females) took part. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed using SPSS version 22. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odd ratio.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.0% and 11.5% respectively. Obesity/overweight was significantly (p<0.05) associated with gender, age, ethnicity, education level of father, education level of mother, physical activity, disordered eating, smoking status, body size perception and body part satisfaction. The multivariable analysis results showed that the odds of being overweight/obesity were higher in males compared to females (OR 1.56, 95%CI: 1.37, 1.77). The results also showed that the odds of being overweight/obesity were highest among those in age group 12 and 13 years and among Malay ethnicity. The odds of overweight/obesity were higher in those who was dissatisfied with their body parts, (OR 1.96, 95%CI: 1.71, 2.25), dissatisfied with their body size (OR: 4.25, 95%CI: 3.60, 5.02), low physical activity (OR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.44), current smokers (OR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.78) and at risk of having eating disorder (OR: 1.39, 95%CI 1.22, 1.59).

    CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity is high. The findings from this study can be used by policy makers to plan an integrated intervention program in schools.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index*
  20. Rosdina Zamrud Ahmad Akbar, Sharifah Faradila Wan Muhammad Hatta, Rosnida Mohd Noh, Fatimah Zaherah Mohd Shah, Thuhairah Abdul Rahman, Rohana Abdul Ghani, et al.
    Introduction: Hormonal abnormality is one of many clinical manifestations of HIV infections
    that is not well understood. However, the consequences could affect quality of life and are
    potentially treatable. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated
    factors of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunctions among HIV-infected patients. Methods:
    This is a single centre cross-sectional study involving 150 HIV-infected patients attending the
    HIV clinic. Each subject was required to answer specific symptoms questionnaire and their
    medical records were reviewed for relevant clinical and biochemical data. Blood for was
    collected and thyroid hormones, cortisol, ACTH, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were
    analysed using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Thyroid, adrenal and gonadal axes
    abnormalities were identified. Results: Hypogonadism had the highest prevalence amongst
    the endocrine abnormalities, which was detected in 23 patients (15.3%), followed by thyroid
    dysfunction in 18 patients (12%) and hypocortisolism in 2 patients (1.3%). There was
    significant correlation between CD4 count, BMI and age with the hormone levels. Conclusion:
    Prevalence of endocrine abnormalities was low in these well-treated HIV-positive patients,
    with hypogonadism being the most common. However, significant correlations between CD4
    count, age and BMI with the hormonal levels were detected. Clinical symptoms in relation to
    endocrinopathy are not specific as a screening tool thus underscoring the need for
    biochemical tests to identify these treatable conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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