Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. Leow YW, Chan WK, Goh GB, Wong VW, Fan JG, Kim YS, et al.
    J Viral Hepat, 2023 Apr;30(4):319-326.
    PMID: 36606597 DOI: 10.1111/jvh.13796
    We aimed to compare the severity of liver disease, metabolic profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with and without hepatic steatosis and patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Patients with NAFLD and CHB were prospectively enrolled from 10 Asian centres. Fibroscan was performed for all patients and hepatic steatosis was defined based on controlled attenuation parameter >248 dB/m. CVD risk was assessed using the Framingham risk score. The data for 1080 patients were analysed (67% NAFLD, 33% CHB). A high proportion (59%) of CHB patients had hepatic steatosis. There was a significant stepwise increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness measurement, from CHB patients without hepatic steatosis to CHB patients with hepatic steatosis to NAFLD patients (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Hashim NNA, Mat S, Myint PK, Kioh SH, Delibegovic M, Chin AV, et al.
    Eur J Clin Invest, 2023 Feb;53(2):e13874.
    PMID: 36120810 DOI: 10.1111/eci.13874
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Khuon D, Rupasinghe D, Saphonn V, Kwong TS, Widhani A, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2023 Feb;24(2):139-152.
    PMID: 35748404 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.13351
    BACKGROUND: Non-Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications are commonly used as a risk factor for high fasting blood glucose (FBG). We investigated the incidence and factors associated with high FBG among people living with HIV in the Asia-Pacific region, using a World Health Organization BMI classification specific to Asian populations.

    METHODS: This study included people living with HIV enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study from 2003 to 2019, receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and without prior tuberculosis. BMI at ART initiation was categorized using Asian BMI classifications: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23-24.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥25 kg/m2 ). High FBG was defined as a single post-ART FBG measurement ≥126 mg/dL. Factors associated with high FBG were analyzed using Cox regression models stratified by site.

    RESULTS: A total of 3939 people living with HIV (63% male) were included. In total, 50% had a BMI in the normal weight range, 23% were underweight, 13% were overweight, and 14% were obese. Median age at ART initiation was 34 years (interquartile range 29-41). Overall, 8% had a high FBG, with an incidence rate of 1.14 per 100 person-years. Factors associated with an increased hazard of high FBG included being obese (≥25 kg/m2 ) compared with normal weight (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-2.44; p 25 kg/m2 were at increased risk of high FBG. This indicates that regular assessments should be performed in those with high BMI, irrespective of the classification used.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Chan WK
    Clin Mol Hepatol, 2023 Feb;29(Suppl):S58-S67.
    PMID: 36472052 DOI: 10.3350/cmh.2022.0350
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of liver conditions that are characterized by excess accumulation of fat in the liver, and is diagnosed after exclusion of significant alcohol intake and other causes of chronic liver disease. In the majority of cases, NAFLD is associated with overnutrition and obesity, although it may be also found in lean or non-obese individuals. It has been estimated that 19.2% of NAFLD patients are lean and 40.8% are non-obese. The proportion of patients with more severe liver disease and the incidence of all-cause mortality, liver-related mortality, and cardiovascular mortality among non-obese and obese NAFLD patients varies across studies and may be confounded by selection bias, underestimation of alcohol intake, and unaccounted weight changes over time. Genetic factors may have a greater effect towards the development of NAFLD in lean or non-obese individuals, but the effect may be less pronounced in the presence of strong environmental factors, such as poor dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle, as body mass index increases in the obese state. Overall, non-invasive tests, such as the Fibrosis-4 index, NAFLD fibrosis score, and liver stiffness measurement, perform better in lean or non-obese patients compared to obese patients. Lifestyle intervention works in non-obese patients, and less amount of weight loss may be required to achieve similar results compared to obese patients. Pharmacological therapy in non-obese NAFLD patients may require special consideration and a different approach compared to obese patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Harraqui K, Oudghiri DE, Mrabti HN, Hannoun Z, Lee LH, Assaggaf H, et al.
    PMID: 36767104 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20031739
    This study aimed to examine the association between physical activity (PA), body composition, and metabolic disorders in a population of Moroccan women classified by menopausal status. This cross-sectional study comprised 373 peri- and postmenopausal women aged 45-64 years old. PA levels were assessed using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF). Body composition and metabolic disorders were assessed by measurements of anthropometric and biological parameters: weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), WC/HC ratio, percent body fat, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, and LDL-C). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Pearson correlations were used to test for associations. The mean total PA score of perimenopausal women was 1683.51 ± 805.36 MET-min/week, and of postmenopausal women was 1450.81 ± 780.67 MET-min/week. In all participants, peri- and postmenopausal women, PA was significantly and inversely associated with BMI, weight, percent body fat, HC, WC, and number of MetS components (p < 0.01), and with fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, and LDL-C (p < 0.05). The frequencies of metabolic disorders, obesity, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and MetS were significantly lower at moderate and intense levels of PA (p < 0.05), in also all participants. In middle-aged women, particularly those who are peri-menopausal, PA at moderate and intense levels is associated with more favorable body composition and less frequent metabolic disorders. However, in this particular study, PA does not appear to be associated with blood pressure and HDL-C concentrations. Future studies may be needed to further clarify these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Wong ZY, Ramasamy P, Ingels KJAO, Parmar C, Yang W, Pouwels S, et al.
    Obes Surg, 2023 Jan;33(1):332-338.
    PMID: 36434358 DOI: 10.1007/s11695-022-06363-8
    This study aims to provide an overview of the facial features and structure after bariatric surgery in the existing literature. A systematic literature search was performed in electronic databases until 15th February 2022. Four cohort studies including 129 patients from 3 countries were included between time period 2011 and 2020. Overall, bariatric surgery would promote massive weight loss associated with positive effects on facial aging. Analysis revealed a proportional relationship between body mass index (BMI) and faster facial aging and more attractive. Undergoing bariatric surgery would result in facial skin sagging and a favorable effect on the upper airway. Bariatric surgery was found to have a significant impact on changes in facial features but the current evidence remains inconclusive and further studies are required to illustrate facial changes post-bariatric surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Zulfarina MS, Sharif R, Sharkawi AM, Mokhtar SA, Shuid AN, Naina-Mohamed I
    Public Health Nutr, 2023 Jan;26(1):122-131.
    PMID: 35321764 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980022000726
    OBJECTIVE: Misreporting of energy intake (EI) in nutritional epidemiology is common and even severe among adolescents. Thus, the current study aims to examine the presence, bias and impact introduced by implausible reporters.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    SETTING: Central and eastern regions of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A stratified random sampling was employed to select 917 secondary school-going adolescents (aged 15-17 years).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of under-reporters was 17·4 %, while no over-reporters were identified. Under-reporters had higher body composition and lower dietary intakes (except for vitamin C, Cr and Fl) compared with plausible reporters (P < 0·05). Adolescents with overweight and obesity had a higher odds of under-reporting compared with under-/normal weight adolescents (P < 0·001). In model 3, the highest regression coefficient (R2 = 0·404, P < 0·001) was obtained after adjusting for reporting status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to under-report their food intake and consequently affect nutrient intakes estimates. Future analyses that include nutrient intake data should adjust for reporting status so that the impact of misreporting on study outcomes can be conceded and consequently improve the accuracy of dietary-related results.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Chia YC, Ching SM, Ooi PB, Beh HC, Chew MT, Chung FFL, et al.
    PLoS One, 2023;18(1):e0280483.
    PMID: 36649290 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0280483
    Most studies reporting prevalence of obesity use actual weight and height measurements. Self-reported weight and height have been used in epidemiological studies as they have been shown to be reliable, convenient, and inexpensive alternatives to actual measurements. However, the accuracy of self-reported weight and height might vary in different regions because of the difference in health awareness and social influences. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of self-reported weight and height compared to actual measured weight and height among adults in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the community level during blood pressure screening campaigns. Participants self-reported their weight and height in a questionnaire survey. Their weight and height were validated using measurements by researchers on the same setting. Body mass index (BMI) was defined as underweight (<18.5kg/m2), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight (23-27.4 kg/m2) and obesity (≥27.5 kg/m2). Bland-Altman analysis, intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted Kappa statistics were used to assess the degree of agreement between self-reported and measured weight and height. A total of 2781 participants were recruited in this study. The difference between the mean self-reported and measured weight and height were 0.4 kg and 0.4 cm respectively. Weighted Kappa statistics analysis showed that there was a substantial agreement between the BMI classifications derived from self-reported and actual measurement (ҡ = 0.920, p<0.001). There was no marked difference in the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported BMI among Malaysian adults by gender. We observed substantial agreement between self-reported and measured body weight and height within a sample of Malaysian adults. While self-reported body weight showed weaker agreement with actual measurements particularly for obese and overweight individuals, BMI values derived from self-reported weight and height were accurate for 88.53% of the participants. We thus conclude that self-reported height and weight measures may be useful for tracking and estimating population trends amongst Malaysian adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Tee PP, Wong JSL, Selveindran NM, Hong JYH
    J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2022 Dec 16;35(12):1474-1480.
    PMID: 36278759 DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2022-0151
    OBJECTIVES: Excessive adiposity is believed to contribute to insulin resistance, resulting in more complex metabolic outcomes and poorer glycaemic control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight/obese, excessive adiposity, and metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children, who were from a relatively overweight/obese population, and to assess the effects on glycaemic control.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2019 to August 2020 on T1DM children between 6 and 18 years old who attended the Paediatric Endocrine Clinic Putrajaya Hospital. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (Inbody 720) were measured to analyse their effects towards glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) via SPSS 21.

    RESULTS: A total of 63 T1DM were recruited with an equal male-to-female ratio. The mean age was 12.4 ± 3.3 years old with a mean HbA1c of 9.8 ± 2.0%. The prevalence of overweight/obese and excessive body fat was 17.5 and 34.9%, respectively. Only 3 (6.8%) fulfilled the metabolic syndrome criteria. The waist circumference had a significant relationship with HbA1c. Every 10 cm increment of waist circumference was predicted to raise HbA1c by 0.8. The odds ratio of having abdominal obesity among T1DM with excessive body fat was 9.3 times.

    CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity is significantly associated with a poorer glycaemic control in T1DM children. Monitoring of waist circumference should be considered as part of the routine diabetic care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Hasbullah FY, Mohd Yusof BN, Abdul Ghani R, Mat Daud Z', Appannah G, Abas F, et al.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Dec 14;19(24).
    PMID: 36554678 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192416797
    While it is known that women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus (post-GDM) have a higher risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), evidence of lifestyle practices from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is still scarce. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM. This cross-sectional study involved 157 women post-GDM (mean age 34.8 ± 5.6 years) sampled from Selangor, Malaysia. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics and obstetric history. Food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. MetS was diagnosed according to the 2009 Harmonized criteria. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 22.3%. Western dietary pattern consumption was correlated with MetS, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and triglyceride levels. Independent factors associated with MetS were lower education level (odds ratio, OR 4.017, p = 0.007), pre-pregnancy BMI (OR 1.192, p = 0.002), and Caesarean delivery (OR 3.798, p = 0.009). The study identified the maternal and dietary factors associated with MetS in women post-GDM in Malaysia. Community-based interventions that include dietary modification are warranted to prevent MetS and its complications, thus helping to reduce the overall disease burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Ma M, Su J, Wang Y, Wang L, Li Y, Ding G, et al.
    Benef Microbes, 2022 Dec 07;13(6):465-471.
    PMID: 36264094 DOI: 10.3920/BM2021.0046
    Body mass index (BMI) and gut microbiota show significant interaction, but most studies on the relationship between BMI and gut microbiota have been done in Western countries. Relationships that are also identified in other cultural backgrounds are likely to have functional importance. Hence here we explore gut microbiota in adults living in Xining city (China P.R.) and relate results to subject BMI. Analysis of bacterial 16s rRNA gene was performed on faecal samples from participants with normal-weight (n=24), overweight (n=24), obesity (n=11) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n=8). The results show that unweighted but not weighted Unifrac distance was significantly different when gut microbiota composition was compared between the groups. Importantly, the genus Streptococcus was remarkably decreased in both obese subjects and subjects suffering from T2D, as compared to normal-weight subjects. Accordingly, strong association was identified between the genus Streptococcus and BMI and especially Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophiles was a major contributor in this respect. As previous studies have shown that Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophiles is also negatively associated with obesity in Western cohorts, our results suggest that this species is a potential probiotic for the prevention of obesity and related disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Fadel MG, Fehervari M, Lairy A, Das B, Alyaqout K, Ashrafian H, et al.
    Langenbecks Arch Surg, 2022 Dec;407(8):3349-3356.
    PMID: 36050499 DOI: 10.1007/s00423-022-02664-9
    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients with obesity, BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2, can be a challenging operation. Weight loss with intra-gastric balloon (IGB) insertion prior to LRYGB may improve operative outcomes.

    METHODS: Between June 2000 and June 2020, patients with a BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 underwent either IGB insertion followed by LRYGB (two-stage group), or LRYGB as the definitive bariatric procedure (single-stage group) in our institution. The two-stage procedure was adopted for high risk individuals. Primary outcome measures were percentage total weight loss (%TWL) at 24 months, length of stay and postoperative morbidity. Propensity score analysis was used to account for differences between groups.

    RESULTS: A total of 155 (mean age 42.9 years ± 10.60; mean BMI 54.6 kg/m2 ± 4.53) underwent either the two-stage (n = 30) or single-stage procedure (n = 125) depending on preoperative fitness. At 6 months following LRYGB, there was a significant difference in %TWL between the groups in a matched analysis (11.9% vs 23.7%, p < 0.001). At 24 months, there was no difference in %TWL (32.0% vs 34.7%, p = 0.13). Median hospital stay following LRYGB was 2.0 (1-4) days with the two-stage vs 2.0 (0-14) days for the single-stage approach (p = 0.75). There was also no significant difference in complication rates (p = 0.058) between the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in weight loss after one or two-stage procedures in the treatment of patients with a BMI ≥ 50 kg/m2 super obesity in a propensity score weighted analysis at 24 months. Length of stay and perioperative complications were similar for high risk patients; however, the two-stage approach was associated with delayed weight loss. Single-stage management is recommended for moderate risk patients, particularly with significant metabolic disorders, whilst two-stage approach is a safe and feasible pathway for high risk individuals.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Low NY, Chan CY, Subramaniam S, Chin KY, Ima Nirwana S, Muhammad N, et al.
    Ann Hum Biol, 2022 Dec;49(7-8):299-304.
    PMID: 36373795 DOI: 10.1080/03014460.2022.2147585
    BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used surrogate tool to screen for obesity/adiposity, but it cannot differentiate between lean and fat mass. Thus, alternative tools to detect excess adiposity should be identified.

    AIM: This study aimed to compare the performance of BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in predicting Malaysians with excess body fat defined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 399 men and women aged ≥40 years were recruited from Klang Valley, Malaysia. The body composition of the subjects, including body fat percentage, was measured by DXA. The weight, height, WC and WHtR of the subjects were also determined.

    RESULTS: BMI [sensitivity = 55.7%, specificity = 86.1%, area under curve (AUC) = 0.709] and WC (sensitivity = 62.7%, specificity = 90.3%, AUC = 0.765) performed moderately in predicting excess adiposity. Their performance and sensitivity improved with lower cut-off values. The performance of WHtR (sensitivity = 96.6%, specificity = 36.1, AUC = 0.664) was optimal at the standard cut-off value and no modification was required.

    CONCLUSION: The performance of WC in identifying excess adiposity was greater than BMI and WHtR based on AUC values. Modification of cut-off values for BMI and WC could improve their performance and should be considered by healthcare providers in screening individuals with excess adiposity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Radwan H, Hashim M, Hasan H, Abbas N, Obaid RRS, Al Ghazal H, et al.
    Br J Nutr, 2022 Oct 14;128(7):1401-1412.
    PMID: 34294166 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114521002762
    During the first 1000 d of life, gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) are considered critical determinants of nutritional status. This study examined the effect of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy on GWG and PPWR at 2 and 6 months among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), using data from the Mother-Infant Study Cohort. The latter is a prospective study, for which pregnant women were recruited (n 243) during their third trimester and were followed up for 18 months. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements were obtained. An eighty-six-item FFQ was used to examine dietary intake during pregnancy. Adherence to the MD was assessed using the alternate MD (aMED) and the Lebanese MD (LMD). Adherence to the MD, PPWR2 (2 months) and PPWR6 (6 months) were considered high if participants belonged to the third tertile of the respective measures. Results indicated that 57·5 % of participants had excessive GWG while 50·7 % and 45 % retained ≥ 5 kg at 2 and 6 months postpartum, respectively. After adjustment, adherence to both MD scores was associated with lower odds of excessive GWG (aMED, OR:0·41, 95 % CI:0·18, 0·93; LMD, OR:0·40, 95 % CI: 0·16, 0·98). Adherence to MD was also associated with PPWR2 (aMED: OR: 0·23, 95 % CI: 0·06, 0·88) and PPWR6 (aMED OR:0·26; 95 % CI:0·08-0·86; LMD, OR:0·32; 95 % CI: 0·1, 0·98). The findings of this study showed that adherence to the MD may reduce GWG and PPWR and, hence, underscored the importance of promoting the MD for better health of the mother and infant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Atasoy S, Johar H, Kruse J, Lukaschek K, Peters A, Ladwig KH
    Psychosom Med, 2022 10 13;84(9):1050-1055.
    PMID: 36162072 DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000001135
    OBJECTIVE: Low levels of social connectivity are related to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and this study investigates the role of body weight in this association.

    METHODS: In a sample of 9448 participants followed for a mean of 15.3 years (186,158.5 person-years) from the Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease Augsburg/Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg population-based cohort conducted in Germany, we investigated the association of social connectivity, measured by the Social Network Index, and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of clinically validated T2D incidence using stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for sociodemographic, life-style, cardiometabolic, and psychosocial risk factors.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (186,158.5 person-years), 975 (10.3%) participants developed T2D. Participants with low social connectivity developed T2D at a higher rate than socially connected participants (10.0 versus 8.0 cases/10,000 person-years); however, BMI played a significant role in the association of social connectivity with T2D ( p < .001). In comparison to their socially connected counterparts, low social connectivity was associated with a higher rate of T2D incidence in normal-weight (6.0 versus 2.0 cases/10,000 person-years), but not overweight (13.0 versus 13.0 cases/10,000 person-years) or obese participants (32.0 versus 30.0 cases/10,000 person-years). Correspondingly, Cox regression analysis showed that 5-unit increments in BMI increased the risk of T2D in socially connected participants (hazard ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval = 2.48-3.79, p < .001) at a substantially higher rate than in low socially connected participants (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.16, p < .001).

    CONCLUSION: The detrimental link between low social connectivity and increased risk of T2D is substantially stronger in participants with a lower BMI.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Low EV, Lee M, Bauer C, Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB, Abughosh S, et al.
    Metab Syndr Relat Disord, 2022 Oct;20(8):440-450.
    PMID: 35819796 DOI: 10.1089/met.2021.0151
    Background: This retrospective cohort study aimed to examine the interaction effect between puberty stage and weight status on individual and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) among Mexican American children and adolescents. A total of 333 children and adolescents (aged 8-18 years) enrolled in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) from 2014 to 2020 were included in the study. Methods: CCHC is a longitudinal, randomly recruited cohort based on the United States Census tracts/blocks of Mexican Americans living on the Texas-Mexico border. Individual CMRFs, including high blood pressure, central obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance (IR) were assessed. Clustering of CMRFs is defined as the presence of three or more individual CMRFs. Puberty stages were assessed using the Tanner criteria. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted to assess the association of puberty, weight status, and the interaction of the two main exposures with individual and clustering of CMRFs. Results: We observed that weight status had a dominant effect on all CMRF measures. The effect was especially prominent on central obesity and clustering of CMRFs. There were 95.4% of children with central obesity and 98.4% of those with clustering of CMRF were either overweight or obese. Entering puberty was associated with an increased risk of having IR [Tanner stage 2 vs. 1: odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.28-8.27; Tanner stage 3 vs. 1: OR = 3.50, 95% CI 1.45-8.46] and hypertriglyceridemia (Tanner stage 2 vs. 1: OR = 2.67, 95% CI 1.11-6.45). However, the effects were not observed among those reaching the end of puberty (Tanner stage 4 and 5). Conclusions: A significant interaction effect between weight status and puberty was not detected on any individual CMRF and in the clustering of CMRFs. Other factors positively associated with individual CMRFs, especially IR, were being female and having a family history of diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Ahmad Bahathig A, Abu Saad H
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Sep 08;19(18).
    PMID: 36141585 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph191811314
    This cluster-randomized study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention focused on physical activity, nutrition, and body image perception among girls in intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia. A seminar was delivered to the mothers of the girls in the experimental group. The experimental group then attended six interactive sessions within 3 months featuring physical activity, nutrition, and body image perception, followed by a 3-month follow-up period. A total of 138 respondents (68 in the experimental group and 70 in the control group) completed the intervention. Each participant's body mass index-for-age z-score and waist circumference were measured, and they completed a physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body image perception questionnaires before and after the intervention and at the follow-up. The intervention was evaluated using within- and between-groups generalized estimating equations. There were no significant changes in the respondents' body mass index-for-age z-score or waist circumference (p > 0.05). However, immediate significant improvements were seen in physical activity, sedentary behavior, and body image satisfaction among the experimental group, and these improvements remained at follow-up (p < 0.001). These differences were more significant among the experimental group than among the control group. We found this intervention effective. Future studies can adapt this intervention for adolescent boys and extend its duration to improve the body mass index outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Mohanraj J, D'Souza UJA, Fong SY, Karkada IR, Jaiprakash H
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022 Jul 21;19(14).
    PMID: 35886710 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19148862
    Relative leptin resistance in childhood to absolute leptin resistance in maturity suggests sleep, eating behaviour, and the psychological state as probable causes. The current body of research provides inconclusive evidence linking G2548A and Q223R to obesity. Furthermore, we could find very little data that have observed the association between the environment and gene polymorphism, especially in the multiethnic population that exists in Malaysia. This study searched for a possible link between sleeping habits, eating behaviour, and stress indicators with plasma leptin and its genetic variation in young adult Malaysian healthcare students. The study involved 185 first- and second-year medical and dental students from a healthcare university. Polymerase Chain Reaction−Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism(PCR-RFLP) determined the genotype, Enzyme Linked Immunoabsorbant Assay (ELISA) tested the serum leptin, and a self-administered questionnaire evaluated sleep, eating behaviour, and psychological condition. Gender and ethnicity are linked to fasting plasma leptin levels (p < 0.001). Plasma leptin also affects stress, anxiety, and sadness. Leptin (LEP) and Leptin Receptor (LEPR) polymorphisms were not associated with BMI, plasma leptin, sleep, eating behaviour, or psychological state. Young adult Malaysian Indians were obese and overweight, while Chinese were underweight. These findings imply overweight and obese participants were in stage I of leptin resistance and lifestyle change or leptin therapy could prevent them from becoming cripplingly obese as they age.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Cho Y, Chang Y, Choi HR, Kang J, Kwon R, Lim GY, et al.
    Nutrients, 2022 Jul 08;14(14).
    PMID: 35889762 DOI: 10.3390/nu14142805
    The role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vasomotor symptom (VMS) risk in premenopausal women is unknown. We examined the prevalence of early-onset VMSs according to NAFLD status in lean and overweight premenopausal women. This cross-sectional study included 4242 premenopausal Korean women (mean age 45.4 years). VMSs (hot flashes and night sweats) were assessed using the Korean version of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire. Hepatic steatosis was determined using liver ultrasound; lean was defined as a body mass index of <23 kg/m2. Participants were categorized into four groups: NAFLD-free lean (reference), NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD. Compared with the reference, the multivariable-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for VMSs in NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD were 1.22 (1.06−1.41), 1.38 (1.06−1.79), and 1.49 (1.28−1.73), respectively. For moderate-to-severe VMSs, the multivariable-adjusted PRs (95% CIs) comparing NAFLD-free overweight, lean NAFLD, and overweight NAFLD to the reference were 1.38 (1.10−1.74), 1.73 (1.16−2.57), and 1.74 (1.37−2.21), respectively. NAFLD, even lean NAFLD, was significantly associated with an increased risk of prevalent early-onset VMSs and their severe forms among premenopausal women. Further studies are needed to determine the longitudinal association between NAFLD and VMS risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  20. Mohd Asyraf AJ, Nour El Huda AR, Hanisah MN, Norsidah KZ, Norlelawati AT
    J Neuroimmunol, 2022 02 15;363:577793.
    PMID: 34990981 DOI: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577793
    Immune system dysregulation may be involved in schizophrenia, but biomarker studies have thus far reported inconsistent findings. The relationship of plasma levels of complement markers C3 and C4, with schizophrenia, sociodemographic and clinico-psychological factors were here studied in 183 patients and 212 controls. C3 and C4 levels were significantly higher in the patients and in subjects with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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