Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 922 in total

  1. Sazlina SG, Mastura I, Ahmad Z, Cheong AT, Adam BM, Jamaiyah H, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2014 Jan;14(1):130-7.
    PMID: 23581598 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12070
    The aims of the present study were to assess the control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the association between age and these controls among older adults with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  2. Shafiee MN, Malik DA, Yunos RI, Atiomo W, Omar MH, Ghani NA, et al.
    Gynecol Endocrinol, 2015 Apr;31(4):286-90.
    PMID: 25495168 DOI: 10.3109/09513590.2014.989982
    The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to determine the effects of three-month Metformin therapy on the expression of tumor-regulatory genes (p53, cyclin D2 and BCL-2) in the endometrium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 40 women, aged between 21 and 45 years with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) were recruited. The participants were assessed at pre- and 3-month-post-Metformin therapy for the menstrual regularities, weight reduction, Ferriman Galway scores, fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and p53, BCL-2 and cyclin D2 gene expression. Five participants conceived spontaneously after the initial recruitment. Majority (68%) resumed regular menstrual cycles after Metformin. There were significant reduction in BMI (p = 0.001), weight (p = 0.001) and Ferriman Galway scores (p = 0.001). A significant improvement was seen in mean FBG (p = 0.002), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), LDL (p = 0.003) and HDL cholesterol levels (p = 0.015). Tumor suppressor gene (p53) was significantly up-regulated after Metformin (10 out of 14 women), with p value 0.016. BCL-2 and cyclin D2 (oncogenes) were slightly up-regulated without significant difference (p = 0.119 and 0.155, respectively). In conclusion, Metformin therapy improved clinical and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS and up-regulated p53 tumor suppressor gene significantly. Further studies are however required to independently validate our findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  3. Sharif R, Thomas P, Zalewski P, Fenech M
    Mol Nutr Food Res, 2015 Jun;59(6):1200-12.
    PMID: 25755079 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201400784
    An increased intake of Zinc (Zn) may reduce the risk of degenerative diseases but may prove to be toxic if taken in excess. This study aimed to investigate whether zinc carnosine supplement can improve Zn status, genome stability events, and Zn transporter gene expression in an elderly (65-85 years) South Australian cohort with low plasma Zn levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  4. Sarbini SR, Kolida S, Deaville ER, Gibson GR, Rastall RA
    Br J Nutr, 2014 Oct 28;112(8):1303-14.
    PMID: 25196744 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114514002177
    The energy-salvaging capacity of the gut microbiota from dietary ingredients has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of obesity. This knowledge generated interest in the use of non-digestible dietary ingredients such as prebiotics to manipulate host energy homeostasis. In the present study, the in vitro response of obese human faecal microbiota to novel oligosaccharides was investigated. Dextrans of various molecular weights and degrees of branching were fermented with the faecal microbiota of healthy obese adults in pH-controlled batch cultures. Changes in bacterial populations were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation and SCFA concentrations were analysed by HPLC. The rate of gas production and total volume of gas produced were also determined. In general, the novel dextrans and inulin increased the counts of bifidobacteria. Some of the dextrans were able to alter the composition of the obese human microbiota by increasing the counts of Bacteroides-Prevotella and decreasing those of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Ruminococcus bromii/R. flavefaciens. Considerable increases in SCFA concentrations were observed in response to all substrates. Gas production rates were similar during the fermentation of all dextrans, but significantly lower than those during the fermentation of inulin. Lower total gas production and shorter time to attain maximal gas production were observed during the fermentation of the linear 1 kDa dextran than during the fermentation of the other dextrans. The efficacy of bifidobacteria to ferment dextrans relied on the molecular weight and not on the degree of branching. In conclusion, there are no differences in the profiles between the obese and lean human faecal fermentations of dextrans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  5. Liu JJ, Sum CF, Tavintharan S, Yeoh LY, Ng XW, Moh AM, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2014 Oct;236(2):286-91.
    PMID: 25112799 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.017
    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among the young population has become a serious concern globally, presumably due to the rising trend of obesity. Compared to other forms of diabetes, young-onset T2DM experiences more cardiovascular events and other vascular complications although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Increased arterial stiffness is a hallmark of vasculopathy. We aim to study the clinical and metabolic determinants of arterial stiffness in a cohort of multi-ethnic Asians with young-onset T2DM.
    METHODS: 179 subjects with T2DM onset age below 30 years old were selected in this cross sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV).
    RESULTS: PWV was correlated with age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, alanine aminotransferase, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and eGFR in bivariate correlation analysis. However, PWV was only significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, urinary ACR and eGFR after adjustment for age. Overweight individuals with young-onset T2DM had significantly higher PWV levels compared to their lean counterparts (7.3 ± 2.4 m/s vs 6.4 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.072 and p < 0.0001 without and with adjustment for age, respectively). Multivariable regression models revealed that age, BMI, eGFR and usage of insulin were independently associated with PWV. These 4 variables explained 35.5% variance in PWV levels.
    CONCLUSION: Age, BMI, renal function and insulin usage are the main determinants of PWV levels in Asians with young-onset T2DM. Notably, obesity is a modifiable determinant of arterial stiffness independent of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  6. Cheong KC, Ghazali SM, Hock LK, Yusoff AF, Selvarajah S, Haniff J, et al.
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2014 Mar-Apr;8(2):e154-62.
    PMID: 24743011 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2013.03.004
    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have proposed the lower waist circumference (WC) cutoffs be used for defining abdominal obesity in Asian populations.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) in predicting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population.
    METHODS: We analysed data from 32,703 respondents (14,980 men and 17,723 women) aged 18 years and above who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between WC and three CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the cut-off values of WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for detecting these CV risk factors.
    RESULTS: The odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, or at least one of these risks, increased significantly as the WC cut-off point increased. Optimal WC cut-off values for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and at least one of the three CV risk factors varied from 81.4 to 85.5 cm for men and 79.8 to 80.7 cm for women.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that WC cut-offs of 81 cm for men and 80 cm for women are appropriate for defining abdominal obesity and for recommendation to undergo cardiovascular risk screening and weight management in the Malaysian adult population.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  7. Ching SM, Pang YK, Price D, Cheong AT, Lee PY, Irmi I, et al.
    Respirology, 2014 Jul;19(5):689-93.
    PMID: 24708063 DOI: 10.1111/resp.12291
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care settings is difficult to achieve chiefly due to lack of availability of spirometry. This study estimated the prevalence of airflow limitation among chronic smokers using a handheld spirometer in this setting.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study performed on consecutive patients who were ≥40 years old with ≥10 pack-years smoking history. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to obtain demographic data and relevant information. Handheld spirometry was performed according to a standard protocol using the COPd-6 device (Model 4000, Vitalograph, Ennis, Ireland) in addition to standard spirometry. Airflow limitation was defined as ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced expiratory volume in 6 s <0.75 (COPd-6) or FEV1 /forced vital capacity <0.7. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine predictors of airflow limitation.
    RESULTS: A total of 416 patients were recruited with mean age of 53 years old. The prevalence of airflow limitation was 10.6% (n = 44) with COPd-6 versus 6% as gauged using standard spirometry. Risk factors for airflow limitation were age >65 years (odds ratio (OR) 3.732 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.100-1.280), a history of 'bad health' (OR 2.524, 95% CI: 1.037-6.142) and low to normal body mass index (OR 2.914, 95% CI: 1.191-7.190).
    CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care setting, handheld spirometry (COPd-6) found a prevalence of airflow limitation of ∼10% in smokers. Patients were older, not overweight and had an ill-defined history of health problems.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; prevalence; primary care; smoke
    Study site: Public primary health‐care clinic (Klinik Kesihatan), Sepang District, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  8. Jan Mohamed HJ, Mitra AK, Zainuddin LR, Leng SK, Wan Muda WM
    Women Health, 2013;53(4):335-48.
    PMID: 23751089 DOI: 10.1080/03630242.2013.788120
    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine gender differences in the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a rural Malay population. This cross-sectional study, conducted in Bachok, Kelantan, involved 306 respondents aged 18 to 70 years. The survey used a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements, such as weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Venous blood samples were taken by a doctor or nurses and analyzed for lipid profile and fasting glucose. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and was higher among females (42.9%). Being unemployed or a housewife and being of older age were independently associated with metabolic syndrome in a multivariate analysis. Weight management and preventive community-based programs involving housewives, the unemployed, and adults of poor education must be reinforced to prevent and manage metabolic syndrome effectively in adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  9. Nang EE, Salim A, Wu Y, Tai ES, Lee J, Van Dam RM
    PMID: 23718927 DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-70
    BACKGROUND: Recent evidence shows that sedentary behaviour may be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and all-cause mortality. However, results are not consistent and different types of sedentary behaviour might have different effects on health. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between television screen time, computer/reading time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in a multiethnic urban Asian population. We also sought to understand the potential mediators of this association.
    METHODS: The Singapore Prospective Study Program (2004-2007), was a cross-sectional population-based study in a multiethnic population in Singapore. We studied 3305 Singaporean adults of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity who did not have pre-existing diseases and conditions that could affect their physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of television screen time and computer/reading time with cardio-metabolic biomarkers [blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiponectin, C reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Path analysis was used to examine the role of mediators of the observed association.
    RESULTS: Longer television screen time was significantly associated with higher systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein, HOMA-IR, and lower adiponectin after adjustment for potential socio-demographic and lifestyle confounders. Dietary factors and body mass index, but not physical activity, were potential mediators that explained most of these associations between television screen time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers. The associations of television screen time with triglycerides and HOMA-IR were only partly explained by dietary factors and body mass index. No association was observed between computer/ reading time and worse levels of cardio-metabolic biomarkers.
    CONCLUSIONS: In this urban Asian population, television screen time was associated with worse levels of various cardio-metabolic risk factors. This may reflect detrimental effects of television screen time on dietary habits rather than replacement of physical activity.
    MESH: screen time
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  10. Tan SY, Poh BK, Nadrah MH, Jannah NA, Rahman J, Ismail MN
    J Hum Nutr Diet, 2013 Jul;26 Suppl 1:23-33.
    PMID: 23701375 DOI: 10.1111/jhn.12074
    The assessment of nutritional status among paediatric patients is important for the planning and execution of nutritional strategies that strive to optimise the quality of life and growth among sick children. The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary intake among children with acute leukaemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  11. Lau CH, Muniandy S
    PMID: 21251282 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-8
    Adiponectin and resistin are adipokines which modulate insulin action, energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis. Meta-analyses showed that hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia are strongly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to propose a novel adiponectin-resistin (AR) index by taking into account both adiponectin and resistin levels to provide a better indicator of the metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders. In addition, a novel insulin resistance (IRAR) index was proposed by integration of the AR index into an existing insulin resistance index to provide an improved diagnostic biomarker of insulin sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  12. Abougalambou SS, Abougalambou AS
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2012 Jul-Sep;6(3):167-72.
    PMID: 23158982 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2012.09.002
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine risk factors and prevalence of diabetic neuropathy (DN) among type II diabetic patients in Malaysian hospital setting.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: a observational prospective longitudinal follow up study design was selected, total no of respondents were 1077 type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients recruited via attended the diabetes clinics at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent variables that affect the development of neuropathy.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of nephropathy is 54.3%. Longitudinal logistic regression identified four predictive variables on the development and progression of diabetic neuropathy that are: duration of diabetes, retinopathy, HbA1c at second visit, and creatinine clearance third visit.
    CONCLUSION: Findings of this study show high prevalence of diabetic neuropathy. HbA1c and creatinine clearance are two modifiable risk factors for the development of diabetic neuropathy.
    Study site: Diabetes clinics, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  13. Wong JS, Rahimah N
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):411-7.
    PMID: 15727390 MyJurnal
    Achieving glycaemic goals in diabetics has always been a problem, especially in a developing country with inadequate facilities such as in Sarawak in Malaysia. There are no reported studies on the control of diabetes mellitus in a diabetic clinic in the primary health care setting in Sarawak. This paper describes the profile of 1031 patients treated in Klinik Kesihatan Tanah Puteh Health Centre. The mean age was 59 years, the mean BMI 27 kg/m2. There was a female preponderance and mainly type-2 diabetes. Mean HbA1c was 7.4%. Glycaemic control was optimal in 28% (HbA1c <6.5%), fair in 34% (HbA1c 6.5-7.5%) and poor in 38% (HbA1c >7.5%). Reasonable glycaemic control can be achieved in the primary health care setting in Sarawak.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Tanah Puteh, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  14. Murphy N, Cross AJ, Abubakar M, Jenab M, Aleksandrova K, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    PLoS Med, 2016 Apr;13(4):e1001988.
    PMID: 27046222 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001988
    BACKGROUND: Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. In multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models with BMI used to define adiposity, compared with metabolically healthy/normal weight individuals, we observed a higher colorectal cancer risk among metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (odds ratio [OR] = 1.59, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) and metabolically unhealthy/overweight (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.94) participants, but not among metabolically healthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.65-1.42). Among the overweight individuals, lower colorectal cancer risk was observed for metabolically healthy/overweight individuals compared with metabolically unhealthy/overweight individuals (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96). These associations were generally consistent when waist circumference was used as the measure of adiposity. To our knowledge, there is no universally accepted clinical definition for using C-peptide level as an indication of hyperinsulinaemia. Therefore, a possible limitation of our analysis was that the classification of individuals as being hyperinsulinaemic-based on their C-peptide level-was arbitrary. However, when we used quartiles or the median of C-peptide, instead of tertiles, as the cut-point of hyperinsulinaemia, a similar pattern of associations was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the idea that individuals with the metabolically healthy/overweight phenotype (with normal insulin levels) are at lower colorectal cancer risk than those with hyperinsulinaemia. The combination of anthropometric measures with metabolic parameters, such as C-peptide, may be useful for defining strata of the population at greater risk of colorectal cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  15. Choi Y, Chang Y, Lee JE, Chun S, Cho J, Sung E, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2015 Aug;241(2):305-12.
    PMID: 26062990 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.036
    The association of egg consumption with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the association between egg consumption and prevalence of coronary artery calcium (CAC).
    Cross-sectional study of 23,417 asymptomatic adult men and women without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or hypercholesterolemia, who underwent a health screening examination including cardiac computed tomography for CAC scoring and completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Total Healthcare Centers, South Korea (March 2011-April 2013).
    The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score > 0) was 11.2%. In multivariable-adjusted models, CAC score ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing participants eating ≥ 7 eggs/wk to those eating < 1 egg/wk was 1.80 (1.14-2.83; P for trend = 0.003). The multivariable CAC score ratio (95% CI) associated with an increase in consumption of 1 egg/day was 1.54 (1.11-2.14). The positive association seemed to be more pronounced among participants with low vegetable intake (P for interaction = 0.02) and those with high BMI (P for interaction = 0.05). The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for dietary cholesterol.
    Egg consumption was associated with an increased prevalence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and with a greater degree of coronary calcification in asymptomatic Korean adults, which may be mediated by dietary cholesterol. The association was particularly pronounced among individuals with low vegetable intake and those with high BMI.
    Coronary artery calcium score; Coronary artery disease; Egg consumption
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  16. Darabi H, McCue K, Beesley J, Michailidou K, Nord S, Kar S, et al.
    Am J Hum Genet, 2015 Jul 02;97(1):22-34.
    PMID: 26073781 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.002
    Genome-wide association studies have identified SNPs near ZNF365 at 10q21.2 that are associated with both breast cancer risk and mammographic density. To identify the most likely causal SNPs, we fine mapped the association signal by genotyping 428 SNPs across the region in 89,050 European and 12,893 Asian case and control subjects from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified four independent sets of correlated, highly trait-associated variants (iCHAVs), three of which were located within ZNF365. The most strongly risk-associated SNP, rs10995201 in iCHAV1, showed clear evidence of association with both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (OR = 0.85 [0.82-0.88]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.87 [0.82-0.91]) disease, and was also the SNP most strongly associated with percent mammographic density. iCHAV2 (lead SNP, chr10: 64,258,684:D) and iCHAV3 (lead SNP, rs7922449) were also associated with ER-positive (OR = 0.93 [0.91-0.95] and OR = 1.06 [1.03-1.09]) and ER-negative (OR = 0.95 [0.91-0.98] and OR = 1.08 [1.04-1.13]) disease. There was weaker evidence for iCHAV4, located 5' of ADO, associated only with ER-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.93 [0.90-0.96]). We found 12, 17, 18, and 2 candidate causal SNPs for breast cancer in iCHAVs 1-4, respectively. Chromosome conformation capture analysis showed that iCHAV2 interacts with the ZNF365 and NRBF2 (more than 600 kb away) promoters in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Luciferase assays did not identify SNPs that affect transactivation of ZNF365, but identified a protective haplotype in iCHAV2, associated with silencing of the NRBF2 promoter, implicating this gene in the etiology of breast cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  17. Robert SA, Rohana AG, Shah SA, Chinna K, Wan Mohamud WN, Kamaruddin NA
    Obes Res Clin Pract, 2015 May-Jun;9(3):301-4.
    PMID: 25870084 DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.03.005
    We examined the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue on appetite and plasma ghrelin in non-diabetic obese participants with subclinical binge eating (BE). Forty-four obese BE participants (mean age: 34±9 years, BMI: 35.9±4.2kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups for 12 weeks. All participants received standard advice for diet and exercise. Binge eating score, ghrelin levels and other anthropometric variables were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Participants who received liraglutide showed significant improvement in binge eating, accompanied by reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol. Ghrelin levels were significantly increased which may potentially diminish the weight loss effects of liraglutide beyond the intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  18. Islam N, Kazmi F, Chusney GD, Mattock MB, Zaini A, Pickup JC
    Diabetes Care, 1998 Mar;21(3):385-8.
    PMID: 9540020
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether microalbuminuria is associated with markers of the acute-phase response in NIDDM and whether there are ethnic differences in this association among the three main racial groups in Malaysia.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: NIDDM patients of Chinese, Indian, and Malay origin attending a diabetic clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and glycemic control (n = 34 in each group). Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was measured in an early morning urine sample. Biochemical measurements included markers of the acute-phase response: serum sialic acid, triglyceride, and (lowered) HDL cholesterol.

    RESULTS: The frequency of microalbuminuria did not differ among the Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients (44, 41, and 47%, respectively). In Chinese patients, those with microalbuminuria had evidence of an augmented acute-phase response, with higher serum sialic acid and triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels; and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was correlated with serum sialic acid and triglyceride. The acute-phase response markers were not different in Indians, with microalbuminuria being high in even the normoalbuminuric Indians; only the mean arterial blood pressure was correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the Indians. Malay NIDDM subjects had an association of microalbuminuria with acute-phase markers, but this was weaker than in the Chinese subjects.

    CONCLUSIONS: Microalbuminuria is associated with an acute-phase response in Chinese NIDDM patients in Malaysia, as previously found in Caucasian NIDDM subjects. Elevated urinary albumin excretion has different correlates in other racial groups, such as those originating from the Indian subcontinent. The acute-phase response may have an etiological role in microalbuminuria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  19. Carayol M, Leitzmann MF, Ferrari P, Zamora-Ros R, Achaintre D, Stepien M, et al.
    J Proteome Res, 2017 09 01;16(9):3137-3146.
    PMID: 28758405 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b01062
    Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolites were measured in blood from 392 men from the Oxford (UK) cohort (EPIC-Oxford) and in 327 control subjects who were part of a nested case-control study on hepatobiliary carcinomas (EPIC-Hepatobiliary). Measured metabolites included amino acids, acylcarnitines, hexoses, biogenic amines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins. Linear regression models controlled for potential confounders and multiple testing were run to evaluate the associations of metabolite concentrations with BMI. 40 and 45 individual metabolites showed significant differences according to BMI variations, in the EPIC-Oxford and EPIC-Hepatobiliary subcohorts, respectively. Twenty two individual metabolites (kynurenine, one sphingomyelin, glutamate and 19 phosphatidylcholines) were associated with BMI in both subcohorts. The present findings provide additional knowledge on blood metabolic signatures of BMI in European adults, which may help identify mechanisms mediating the relationship of BMI with obesity-related diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
  20. Choo KE, Lau KB, Davis WA, Chew PH, Jenkins AJ, Davis TM
    Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2007 Apr;76(1):119-25.
    PMID: 16979774 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.08.006
    Diabetes prevalence is increasing rapidly in Asian populations but the influence of a family history of diabetes on cardiovascular risk is unknown. To assess this relationship, 120 urban-dwelling Malays were recruited to a cross-sectional case-control study. Sixty were pre-pubertal children, 30 of diabetic parentage (Group 1) and 30 with no diabetes family history (Group 2). Group 1 and 2 subjects were the offspring of adults with (Group 3) or without (Group 4) type 2 diabetes. Subjects were assessed for clinical and biochemical variables defining cardiovascular risk. Principal component analysis assessed clustering of variables in the children. Group 1 subjects had a higher mean waist:hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and HbA(1c) than those in Group 2, and a lower HDL:total cholesterol ratio (P<0.03). Although there were no correlations between Group 1 and 3 subjects for cardiovascular risk variables, significant associations were found in Groups 2 and 4, especially HbA(1c) and insulin sensitivity (P< or =0.004). Of five separate clusters of variables (factors) identified amongst the children, the strongest comprised diabetic parentage, HbA(1c), insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Features of the metabolic syndrome are becoming evident in the young non-obese children of diabetic Malays, suggesting that lifestyle factors merit particular attention in this group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Body Mass Index
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