PURPOSE: This study reports on the first finding of Psychoda larvae collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.
METHODS: The larvae were first observed on rabbit carcasses and were collected using tweezers and carefully preserved in 70% ethanol. They were subsequently mounted on microscopy slides using Hoyer's medium and identified as Psychoda sp. morphologically. The identification was also confirmed through a DNA barcoding analysis.
RESULTS: Psychoda sp. larvae were collected on day-10 post-mortem where the rabbit carcasses were at the advanced decay stage of decomposition. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of the larvae had 90% similarity with the Psychoda spp. in the database.
CONCLUSION: The finding of these larvae on carrion may provide additional valuable insights into forensic entomology and may assist in death investigations.
METHODS: In this study, twenty formalin embalmed human cadavers were used and we have documented the orientation of the PTLF and quantified the number of peripheral nerve endings at the different vertebral levels.
RESULTS: Mean distance of PTLF from vertebral spines to the musculofascial junction was at thoracic region 3.38cm and 3.34cm; at lumbar region, it was 7.4cm and 7.36cm and at sacral region it was 2.98cm and 2.96cm on right and left side, respectively. The angulation of PTLF varies from 18-110 degrees at different vertebral levels. The microscopic data shows the thickness of PTLF and number of nerve endings in the sacral level is increased compared to that of thoracic vertebral levels.
CONCLUSIONS: We have contributed the novel morphological and microscopical details to the limited existing data on PTLF. We also have provided the quantitative data of nerve fibers, which are possible nociceptors of PTLF.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 107 cadavers that had undergone conventional autopsy and PMCT. We made 5 measurements from the PMCT that included cervical length (CL), thoracic length (TL), lumbosacral length (LS), total column length of the spine, excluding the sacrum and coccyx (TCL), and ellipse line measurement of the whole spine, excluding the sacrum and coccyx (EL). We compared these anthropometric PMCT measurements with AL and correlated them using linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: The results showed a significant linear relationship existed between TL and LS with AL, which was higher in comparison with the other parameters than the rest of the spine parameters. The linear regression formula derived was: 48.163 + 2.458 (TL) + 2.246 (LS).
CONCLUSIONS: The linear regression formula derived from PMCT spine length parameters particularly thoracic and lumbar spine gave a finer correlation with autopsy body length and can be used for accurate estimation of cadaveric height. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever linear regression formula for cadaveric height assessment using only post mortem CT spine length measurements.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of two groups. For the first group, 50 unpaired dry femur bones were obtained from adult human cadavers; and the second group was a clinical group of 50 adult patients. Standardised radiographic techniques were used to measure the extra-cortical and intra-cortical morphometric parameters. Based on these, dimensionless ratios were calculated to express the shape of the proximal femur. The data were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and a comparison made with other studies.
Results: A significant difference was noted across various population subsets within the Indian subcontinent and also in comparison to the Western population, suggestive of regional variation. The measurements made in cadaveric bone differed significantly from those in live patients, especially the femoral head diameter and extra-cortical and intra-cortical width. Femoral offset, head height and diameter were significantly less in females.
Conclusion: The south Indian population needs customised implants with an increase in neck shaft angle and a decrease in intra-cortical and extra-cortical width for press fit in hip arthroplasty. The variation between the two sexes must also be accounted for during prosthesis design.
METHODS: Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria including 1761 cadaveric limbs.
RESULTS: The results were as following: (a) the mean palmaris longus tendon length was of 13.9 ± 2.6 cm, (b) the mean ratio palmaris longus tendon length/forearm length was of 0.545 ± 0.06, (c) the weighted correlation value was of 0.686, and (d) the mean palmaris longus tendon width was of 4.0 ± 1.7 mm. Only five studies reported a palmaris longus tendon length of more than 15 cm. The palmaris longus tendon length was shown to vary between ancestries; the Japanese had the shortest while Malaysian the longest palmaris longus tendons. All studies but one reported a palmaris longus tendon mean width of more than 3 mm where the minimal mean palmaris longus tendon width was of 2.5 mm.
CONCLUSION: While the requested length depends on the recipient site and/or type of reconstructive surgery, the palmaris longus tendon often met the required diameter for grafting. Our review demonstrated that while palmaris longus length varies between ancestries, its width is often adequate for grafting. In addition, the forearm length could be a good predictor of palmaris longus tendon length; such correlation could assist surgeons when planning to use palmaris longus tendon as a graft source.