Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

  1. Chan CY, Kwan MK, Saw LB
    Eur Spine J, 2010 Jan;19(1):78-84.
    PMID: 19763636 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-009-1157-8
    The objective of this cadaveric study is to determine the safety and outcome of thoracic pedicle screw placement in Asians using the funnel technique. Pedicle screws have superior biomechanical as well as clinical data when compared to other methods of instrumentation. However, misplacement in the thoracic spine can result in major neurological implications. There is great variability of the thoracic pedicle morphometry between the Western and the Asian population. The feasibility of thoracic pedicle screw insertion in Asians has not been fully elucidated yet. A pre-insertion radiograph was performed and surgeons were blinded to the morphometry of the thoracic pedicles. 240 pedicle screws were inserted in ten Asian cadavers from T1 to T12 using the funnel technique. 5.0 mm screws were used from T1 to T6 while 6.0 mm screws were used from T7 to T12. Perforations were detected by direct visualization via a wide laminectomy. The narrowest pedicles are found between T3 and T6. T5 pedicle width is smallest measuring 4.1 +/- 1.3 mm. There were 24 (10.0%) Grade 1 perforations and only 1 (0.4%) Grade 2 perforation. Grade 2 or worse perforation is considered significant perforation which would threaten the neural structures. There were twice as many lateral and inferior perforations compared to medial perforations. 48.0% of the perforations occurred at T1, T2 and T3 pedicles. Pedicle fracture occurred in 10.4% of pedicles. Intra-operatively, the absence of funnel was found in 24.5% of pedicles. In conclusion, thoracic pedicle screws using 5.0 mm at T1-T6 and 6.0 mm at T7-T12 can be inserted safely in Asian cadavers using the funnel technique despite having smaller thoracic pedicle morphometry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  2. Kavitha R, Nazni WA, Tan TC, Lee HL, Isa MN, Azirun MS
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):127-32.
    PMID: 23424775 MyJurnal
    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  3. Kwan MK, Chiu CK, Lee CK, Chan CY
    Bone Joint J, 2015 Nov;97-B(11):1555-61.
    PMID: 26530660 DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.97B11.35789
    Percutaneous placement of pedicle screws is a well-established technique, however, no studies have compared percutaneous and open placement of screws in the thoracic spine. The aim of this cadaveric study was to compare the accuracy and safety of these techniques at the thoracic spinal level. A total of 288 screws were inserted in 16 (eight cadavers, 144 screws in percutaneous and eight cadavers, 144 screws in open). Pedicle perforations and fractures were documented subsequent to wide laminectomy followed by skeletalisation of the vertebrae. The perforations were classified as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: < 2 mm perforation, grade 2: 2 mm to 4 mm perforation and grade 3: > 4 mm perforation. In the percutaneous group, the perforation rate was 11.1% with 15 (10.4%) grade 1 and one (0.7%) grade 2 perforations. In the open group, the perforation rate was 8.3% (12 screws) and all were grade 1. This difference was not significant (p = 0.45). There were 19 (13.2%) pedicle fractures in the percutaneous group and 21 (14.6%) in the open group (p = 0.73). In summary, the safety of percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided pedicle screw placement in the thoracic spine between T4 and T12 is similar to that of the conventional open technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  4. Wong LP
    Clin Transplant, 2011 Jan-Feb;25(1):E22-31.
    PMID: 20718827 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2010.01312.x
    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  5. Nayak SB, Shetty SD
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2021 Mar;43(3):413-416.
    PMID: 33231750 DOI: 10.1007/s00276-020-02619-z
    Knowledge of variations of the internal carotid artery is significant to surgeons and radiologists. The internal carotid artery normally runs a straight course in the neck. Its anomalies can lead to its iatrogenic injuries. We report a case of a large loop of the internal carotid artery in a male cadaver aged about 75 years. The common carotid artery terminated by dividing it into the external carotid artery and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. From the level of origin, the internal carotid artery coursed upwards, backwards and laterally, and formed a large loop behind the internal jugular vein. The variation was found on the left side of the neck and was unilateral. The uncommon looping of the internal carotid artery might result in altered blood flow to the brain and may lead to misperceptions in surgical, imaging, and invasive procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  6. Nair RS, Nair S
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2015;12(5):517-23.
    PMID: 25675336
    Mortality rate due to heart diseases increases dramatically with age. Captopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE) used effectively for the management of hypertension. Due to short elimination half-life of captopril the oral dose is very high. Captopril is prone to oxidation and it has been reported that the oxidation rate of captopril in skin tissues is considerably low when compared to intestinal tissues. All these factors make captopril an ideal drug candidate for transdermal delivery. In this research work an effort was made to formulate transdermal films of captopril by utilizing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as film formers and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) as a plasticizer. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) were used as permeation enhancers. Physicochemical parameters of the films such as appearance, thickness, weight variation and drug content were evaluated. The invitro permeation studies were carried out through excised human cadaver skin using Franz diffusion cells. The in-vitro permeation studies demonstrated that the film (P4) having the polymer ratio (PVP:PVA = 80:20) with DMSO (10%) resulted a promising drug release of 79.58% at 24 hours with a flux of 70.0 µg/cm(2)/hr. No signs of erythema or oedema were observed on the rabbit skin as a result of skin irritation study by Draize test. Based on the stability report it was confirmed that the films were physically and chemically stable, hence the prepared films are very well suited for transdermal application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  7. Rahman NA, Das S, Maatoq Sulaiman I, Hlaing KP, Haji Suhaimi F, Latiff AA, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2009;160(2):129-31.
    PMID: 19452102
    The sternalis is an anomalous muscle located in the anterior wall of thorax and several past reports have described its presence with clinical implications. The sternalis muscle may be incidentally detected during routine cadaveric dissections and autopsies. We observed the presence of anomalous sternalis muscle on both sides of the anterior chest wall in 25 cadavers (n = 50), over a span of three years. Out of a 50 cases, we observed a single case of sternalis on the right side of the 55-year-old male cadaver (2%). The sternalis was found to be absent in the rest 49 cases (98%). The sternalis muscle displayed an oblique course in the anterior wall of the thorax. The muscle originated near the seventh costal cartilage extending obliquely upwards to insert into the second costal cartilage close to the sternum. The originating portion of the muscle was located at a distance of 3.5 cm lateral to the mid-sternal plane. The vertical length and the maximum width of the anomalous sternalis muscle measured 9 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. The fibers of the muscle vertically ascended upwards. No other associated anomalies were observed in the same cadaver. The presence of sternalis muscle is considered to be a rare variation with no earlier studies being performed in the Malaysian population. The anomalous sternalis muscle may be important for reconstructive surgeons performing mastectomy and radiologists interpreting mammograms. Thus, the sternalis muscle may be academically, anthropologically and surgically important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  8. Chen TP, Teo SM, Tan JC, Koh SN, Ambalavanar N, Tan SY
    Transplant Proc, 2000 Nov;32(7):1809-10.
    PMID: 11119946
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  9. Morad Z, Lim TO
    Transplant Proc, 2000 Nov;32(7):1485-6.
    PMID: 11119799
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  10. Tan SY, Chen TP, Lee SH, Tan PS, Chua CT, Teo SM, et al.
    Transplant Proc, 2000 Nov;32(7):1811-2.
    PMID: 11119947
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  11. Labens R, Khairuddin NH, Murray M, Jermyn K, Ahmad RS
    Vet Surg, 2019 Jan;48(1):96-104.
    PMID: 30403407 DOI: 10.1111/vsu.13123
    OBJECTIVE: To assess fracture gap reduction and stability of linear vs triangular 4.5-mm lag screw repair of experimental, uniarticular, and complete forelimb proximal phalanx (P1) fractures.

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental.

    SAMPLE POPULATION: Fourteen equine cadaver limbs/horses.

    METHODS: Simulated fractures were repaired with 2 lag screws under 4-Nm insertion torque (linear repair). Computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed with the leg unloaded and loaded to forces generated while walking. The fracture repair was revised to include 3 lag screws placed with the same insertion torque (triangular repair) prior to CT. The width of the fracture gap was assessed qualitatively by 2 observers and graded on the basis of gap measurements relative to the average voxel size at dorsal, mid, and palmar P1 sites. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Cohen's κ. The effect of repair type, loading condition, and measurement site on fracture gap grades was evaluated by using Kendall's τ-b correlation coefficients and paired nonparametric tests. Significance was set at P ≤ .05.

    RESULTS: Agreement between loading and fracture gap widening was fair in triangular (κ = 0.53) and excellent in linear (κ = 0.81) repairs. Loading resulted in fracture gap distraction in linear repairs (Plinear  = .008). Triangular repairs reduced fractures better irrespective of loading (Punloaded  = .003; Ploaded  

    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  12. Abidin ZL, Ming WT, Loch A, Hilmi I, Hautmann O
    Transpl Int, 2013 Feb;26(2):187-94.
    PMID: 23199156 DOI: 10.1111/tri.12019
    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  13. Kondo E, Merican AM, Yasuda K, Amis AA
    Arthroscopy, 2014 Mar;30(3):335-43.
    PMID: 24581258 DOI: 10.1016/j.arthro.2013.12.003
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes in the kinematics of the knee that result from isolated deficiency of the anteromedial (AM) or posterolateral (PL) bundle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  14. Thwin SS, Zaini F, Than M, Lwin S, Myint M
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Jun;53(6):e128-30.
    PMID: 22711051
    The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system often accounts for unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. We report unusual variations of the lateral and posterior cords of the brachial plexus in a female cadaver. Such variations are attributed to a faulty union of divisions of the brachial plexus during the embryonic period. The median nerve lay medial to the axillary artery (AA) on both sides. On the right, the lateral root of the median nerve crossing the AA and the median nerve in relation to the medial side of the AA was likely the result of a faulty development of the seventh intersegmental artery. We discuss these variations and compare them with the findings of other researchers. Knowledge of such rare variations is clinically important, aiding radiologists, anaesthesiologists and surgeons to avoid inadvertent damage to nerves and the AA during blocks and surgical interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  15. Hlaing KP, Thwin SS, Shwe N
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Dec;52(12):e262-4.
    PMID: 22159949
    The cystic artery (CA) is known to exhibit variations in its origin and branching pattern. This is attributed to the developmental changes occurring in the primitive ventral splanchnic arteries. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, we observed that the CA originated from the middle hepatic artery (MHA) at a distance of about 1 cm from its origin, and the MHA originated from the right hepatic artery at a distance of 2.1 cm from its origin. The CA traversed for a distance of 1.5 cm, giving off a branch to the cystic duct. It then passed anterior to the cystic duct. The origin of the CA was located to the left of the common hepatic duct, outside the Calot's triangle. The topographical anatomy of the arterial system of the hepatobiliary region and their anomalous origin should be considered during hepatobiliary surgeries. This knowledge is also important for interventional radiologists in routine clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  16. Omar N, Abidin FZ, Das S, Abd Ghafar N, Haji Suhaimi F, Abd Latiff A, et al.
    Morphologie, 2010 May;94(305):36-9.
    PMID: 20359930 DOI: 10.1016/j.morpho.2010.03.001
    The latissimus dorsi is a muscle of the back which forms the posterior fold of the axilla and its tendon twists to insert into the floor of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus. Occasionally, the muscle has a muscular slip which crosses the axilla to insert into the pectoralis major. This muscular slip is often termed as "axillary arch." In the present study, we report bilateral axillary arch detected in a 45-year-old male cadaver. The average vertical length of the axillary arch measured 7 cm. The average maximum width of the uppermost, middle and lower part of the arch measured 2, 3.5 and 3.2 cm, respectively. The presence of the axillary arch is an uncommon finding in humans, considering the fact that it is solely found in the animals who prefer to hang on the trees. A histological study of the axillary arch was also performed and it showed skeletal muscle fibres which was uniformly arranged. The presence of the axillary arch may assist in the adduction of the shoulder. It may also compress the axillary vessels and nerves thereby causing resultant symptoms. Prior anatomical knowledge of the presence of axillary arch may be helpful for surgeons performing radical dissection of the axillary lymph nodes and ligation of axillary vessels, clinicians diagnosing abduction syndromes and interventional radiologists interpreting axillary mass in day to day clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  17. Thwin SS, Soe MM, Myint M, Than M, Lwin S
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):e40-2.
    PMID: 20358142
    We report a unique variation in the origin and branches of both the left and right external carotid artery (ECA) found during the dissection of a human cadaver. Knowledge of the possible anatomical variations of the ECA is especially important in facio-maxillary and neck surgeries. Surgeons need to be aware of the possibility of encountering such variations, as they may lead to difficulties in differentiating between the external and internal carotid arteries, and in identifying the branches and origins. This knowledge is also important for radiologists in the image interpretation of the face and neck regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  18. Wong LP
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):790-5.
    PMID: 21103814
    This study assessed the information needs, preferred educational messages and channels of delivery, as well as opinions on strategies to promote organ donation. It aimed to provide insight into a culturally sensitive public education campaign to encourage organ donation in diverse ethnic communities in Asia, namely the Malays, Chinese and Indians.

    A total of 17 focus group discussions with 105 participants were conducted between September and December 2008. The participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, who were recruited through convenient sampling in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia.

    Across ethnic groups, there was a general concern about the mistreatment of the deceased's body in the organ procurement process. The Chinese and Indian participants wanted assurance that the body would be treated with respect and care. The Muslims wanted assurance that the handling of a Muslim's body would follow the rules and regulations of the Islamic faith. The most important information requested by the Muslim participants was whether cadaveric donation is permissible in Islam. A lack of national public education and promotion of organ donation was noted. All the three ethnic groups, especially the Malays, required community and religious leaders for support, encouragement and involvement, as sociocultural influences play a significant role in the willingness to donate organs.

    The pronounced ethnic differences in information needs suggest that culturally sensitive public educational messages are required. Organ donation and transplantation organisations should work closely with community and religious organisations to address the sociocultural barriers identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  19. Jusoh AR, Abd Rahman N, Abd Latiff A, Othman F, Das S, Abd Ghafar N, et al.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2010;51(1):163-6.
    PMID: 20191138
    The obturator artery (OA) originates from the internal iliac artery. Variation in the origin of the OA may be asymptomatic in individuals and occasionally be detected during routine cadaveric dissections or autopsies. In the present study, we observed the origin and the branching pattern of the OA on 34 lower limbs (17 right sides and 17 left sides) irrespective of sex. The bifurcation of the common iliac artery into internal and external iliac from the sacral ala varied between 4.3-5.3 cm. The distance of the origin of the anterior division of internal iliac artery from the bifurcation of common iliac artery varied between 1-6 cm. The distance of the origin of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery from the point of bifurcation of the common iliac artery varied between 0-6 cm. Out of 34 lower limbs studied, two specimens (5.8%) showed anomalous origin of the OA originating from the posterior division of the internal iliac artery. Of these two, one limb belonged to the right side while the other was from the left side. The anomalous OA gave off an inferior vesical branch to the prostate in both the specimens. No other associated anomalies regarding the origin or branching pattern of the OA were observed. Prior knowledge of the anatomical variations may be beneficial for vascular surgeons ligating the internal iliac artery or its branches and the radiologists interpreting angiograms of the pelvic region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  20. Das S, Othman F, Suhaimi FH, Latiff AA
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2008;49(3):421-3.
    PMID: 18758652
    An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein is known as arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The AVM or the AVF might be congenital in origin or even acquired. The arteriovenous communications are usually surgically made in patients undergoing repeated hemodialysis, while suffering from any chronic renal disease. The abnormal arteriovenous communications may be asymptomatic in nature. The arteriovenous communications might be an incidental finding during any anatomical dissections or medico-legal autopsies. The present study reports the presence of BBC on both sides of a 54-year-old male cadaver who died of road traffic accident. There was a communication between the brachial artery and the brachial vein, 11.5 cm above the medial epicondyle. The oblique communicating channel measured 1.5 cm in length and connected the brachial artery to the brachial vein. A detailed histological study of the communication showed the presence of thick tunica media. Knowledge of arteriovenous communications may be beneficial for any academic studies and equally important for vascular surgeons and radiologists performing angiographic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
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