Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

  1. Satheesha NB, Soumya KV
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2021 6 25;18(72):340-343.
    PMID: 34165088
    Background Gallstone disease (GSD) is one among the most prevalent diseases that affects approximately 10-15% of the population. It is associated with many other diseases like gallbladder cancer, renal stones, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke. Objective Objective of this study is to document the prevalence of gallstones among south Indian cadavers. Method One hundred and twenty three South Indian cadaveric livers/gallbladders were observed for the presence of gallstones. The age range was 40 to 70 years. The gallbladders were palpated to know the presence of stones. They were then dissected and the stones were classified based on appearance. Gall bladder walls were also observed to know the associated fibrosis. Result Among the cadavers studied, 0.81% possessed cholesterol stones and 4.06% had pigment stones. Among the stones, 83.33% were pigment stones and 16.66% were cholesterol stones. Conclusion Compared to the western countries and north Indian studies, the prevalence of gallstone diseaseis low in the south Indian population (4.87%). The low prevalence was probably due to the low socioeconomic status and the diet and lifestyle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  2. Mohamed AS, McCulloch TM
    Laryngoscope, 2004 Jun;114(6):1128-9.
    PMID: 15179226
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  3. Loh YC, Lam WL, Stanley JK, Soames RW
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2004 Jun;12(1):83-6.
    PMID: 15237127 DOI: 10.1177/230949900401200115
    Radial tunnel syndrome refers to pain on the lateral aspect of the forearm as a result of compression of the posterior interosseous nerve within a tunnel with specific anatomical boundaries. Diagnosis of the condition is difficult because of its close association with lateral epicondylitis, which warrants different methods of treatment. Based on a cadaveric study, a new clinical test, the Rule-of-Nine test, is proposed to improve the diagnostic accuracy in radial tunnel syndrome. The test involves constructing 9 equal squares on the anterior aspect of the forearm and noting those squares where tenderness can be elicited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  4. Al-Amery SM, Ngeow WC, Nambiar P, Naidu M
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2018 Sep;47(9):1153-1160.
    PMID: 29735199 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2018.04.013
    The lingual guttering technique for third molar surgery carries the risk of injury to the lingual nerve if the surgical bur comes into direct contact with it. This study investigated the extent of nerve injury caused by two different burs, a tungsten carbide bur and the Dentium implant bur; the latter is designed to be soft tissue friendly. This study also examined whether ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are able to detect any injury inflicted. This cadaveric research involved subjecting 12 lingual nerves to the drilling effect of two different burs at two different speeds. The amount of damage caused was measured using different imaging modalities to assess their ability to detect the injury inflicted. At high speed, the Dentium bur caused a deeper and wider laceration than the carbide bur. At low speed, the laceration depths and widths caused by the two burs did not differ significantly. Ultrasound scanning was able to detect the nerve laceration at damaged sites observed using optical coherence tomography. Thus, a carbide bur (at low speed) would be preferable for lingual bone guttering, as it causes less laceration to the lingual nerve. In the event of a suspected injury, ultrasound scanning would provide an objective evaluation of the amount of nerve damage in vivo.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  5. Chen CD, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Hashim R, Abdullah NA, Ramli R, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;31(2):381-6.
    PMID: 25134909 MyJurnal
    This study reported the ant species that were recovered from monkey carcasses in three different ecological habitats in Malaysia. The study was conducted from 9 May - 10 October 2007, 6 May - 6 August 2008 and 26 May - 14 July 2009 in forested area (Gombak, Selangor), coastal area (Tanjong Sepat, Selangor) and highland area (Bukit Cincin, Pahang), respectively. Monkey carcass was used as a model for human decomposition in this study. A total of 4 replicates were used in each of the study sites. Ants were observed to prey on eggs, larvae, pupae and newly emerged flies. This study found that ant species could be found at all stages of decomposition, indicating that ants were not a significant indicator for faunal succession. However, different species of ants were obtained from monkey carcasses placed in different ecological habitats. Cardiocondyla sp. was only found on carcasses placed in the coastal area; while Pheidole longipes, Hypoponera sp. and Pachycondyla sp. were solely found on carcasses placed in the highland area. On the other hand, Pheidologeton diversus and Paratrechina longicornis were found in several ecological habitats. These data suggests that specific ant species can act as geographic indicators for different ecological habitats in forensic entomology cases in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  6. Heo CC, Mohamad AM, Ahmad Firdaus MS, Jeffery J, Baharudin O
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):23-7.
    PMID: 18209704 MyJurnal
    This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  7. Azwandi A, Abu Hassan A
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):1-10.
    PMID: 19696721 MyJurnal
    This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah using monkey carcasses and focuses in documenting the decomposition and dipteran colonization sequences in 50 days. This is the first study of Diptera associated with the exploitation of carcasses conducted in the north of peninsular Malaysia during the dry and wet seasons thereat. During the process of decomposition in both seasons, five phases of decay were recognized namely fresh, bloated, active decay, advance decay and dry remain. In this decomposition study, biomass loss of carcass occurred rapidly during the fresh to active decay stage due to the colonization and feeding activity of the Diptera larvae. The duration of the fresh and bloated stages of decay were the same in wet and dry seasons but later stages of decay were markedly shorter during the wet season. Twenty one species of adult Diptera were identified colonizing carcasses in the study period. Among the flies from the family Calliphoridae, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin were recognized as the earliest arrivals on the first day of exposure. Adult Ch. nigripes was abundant for approximately two weeks after placement of the carcasses. By comparing the percentages of adults collected during the study period, the calliphorids abundance in percentages in wet season was 50.83%, but in dry season, the abundance was only about 35.2%. In contrast, the percentage of Sphaeroceridae in wet season was only 3.33%, but in the dry season, the abundance was 20.8%. Dipteran in family Phoridae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, Drosophilidae and Dolichopodidae colonized the carcasses for a long period of time and were categorized as long term colonizers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  8. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):131-3.
    PMID: 20562823
    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  9. Nayak S, Pamidi N, George BM, Guru A
    JOP, 2013 Jan;14(1):96-8.
    PMID: 23306345 DOI: 10.6092/1590-8577/1281
    The pancreas is a soft lobulated gland situated transversely across the upper part of the posterior abdominal wall. Its parts include the head, neck, body and tail. Annular pancreas is a rare condition where the head of the pancreas surrounds the second part of the duodenum like a ring.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  10. Satheesha NB
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2007 Jan-Mar;5(1):108-9.
    PMID: 18603997
    The testis is an important organ upon which the survival of the human species depends. Any compression of testicular artery may lead to loss of gametogenesis and hormone production. We found a left testicular artery entrapped between two divisions of a left renal vein in an approximately 50 year old cadaver. The left renal vein was formed by union of two veins coming from the kidney, left suprarenal vein, left testicular vein and an abnormally enlarged lumbar vein. This case may be of particular importance to surgeons who transplant kidneys, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons dealing with the spine repairs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  11. Moore K, Prasad AM, Satheesha Nayak B
    Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ), 2021 6 24;18(71):313-315.
    PMID: 34158443
    The musculocutaneous and median nerves frequently show variations from their normal course. The purpose of this paper is to report a rare variation, in which the right musculocutaneous nerve was absent. Consequently, the median nerve supplied motor innervation to the flexor compartment of the arm and sensory innervation to the lateral aspect of the forearm. The primary targets of this paper are orthopedic surgeons, anesthesiologists and radiologists. In cases of injuries to the upper limb, knowledge of these variations can assist them in avoiding misdiagnoses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  12. Taty-Anna K, Farihah HS, Norzana AG, Farida H, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2012 Nov;163(6):503-4.
    PMID: 23306746
    The right and left lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by an isthmus. The isthmus lies at the level of the second and third tracheal rings. Occasionaly, the isthmus may be absent. We hereby, report the absence of isthmus in a 52-year-old male cadaver of unknown origin. Both the right and left lobes were normal but they were separated. Both the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland measured 4.3 cm vertically. The separation distance between right and left glands was noted at the upper, middle and lower parts. The upper end of medial border of both lobes were separated by a distance of 1 cm while the separation distance was 0.7 cm and 1.5 cm at the middle and lower parts, respectively. The anatomical and clinical significance of absence of isthmus is important for medical personnel and the surgeons operating on the thyroid gland. The present case report is a an attempt to highlight such.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  13. Das S, Haji Suhaimi F, Abd Latiff A, Pa Pa Hlaing K, Abd Ghafar N, Othman F
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2009;50(3):509-11.
    PMID: 19690784
    Peroneus tertius (PT) is a muscle of the anterior compartment of the leg. The PT muscle originates from the anterior surface of the fibula and the interosseous membrane and inserts into the medial side of the dorsal region of the fifth metatarsal bone. During routine dissection, we observed the absence of PT on the left lower limb of a cadaver. Usually, the PT is involved in dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot. In many cases, the absence of PT maybe asymptomatic and it may be incidentally detected during cadaveric dissections or autopsies. The existence of PT may help in the swing phase of bipedal walking. The PT may be used for tendon graft surgeries. The pull of the PT may be responsible for causing stress on the fifth metacarpal and account for all stress fractures in any individual. The absence of the PT may puzzle any transplant and foot surgeons performing graft operations. We as anatomists discuss the clinical implications of the absence of PT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  14. Kanagasingam S, Hussaini HM, Soo I, Baharin S, Ashar A, Patel S
    Int Endod J, 2017 May;50(5):427-436.
    PMID: 27063356 DOI: 10.1111/iej.12651
    AIM: To compare the accuracy of film and digital periapical radiography (PR) in detecting apical periodontitis (AP) using histopathological findings as a reference standard.

    METHODOLOGY: Jaw sections containing 67 teeth (86 roots) were collected from nine fresh, unclaimed bodies that were due for cremation. Imaging was carried out to detect AP lesions using film and digital PR with a centred view (FP and DP groups); film and digital PR combining central with 10˚ mesially and distally angled (parallax) views (FPS and DPS groups). All specimens underwent histopathological examination to confirm the diagnosis of AP. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PR were analysed using rater mean (n = 5). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: Sensitivity was 0.16, 0.37, 0.27 and 0.38 for FP, FPS, DP and DPS, respectively. Both FP and FPS had specificity and positive predictive values of 1.0, whilst DP and DPS had specificity and positive predictive values of 0.99. Negative predictive value was 0.36, 0.43, 0.39 and 0.44 for FP, FPS, DP and DPS, respectively. Area under the curve (AUC) for the various imaging methods was 0.562 (FP), 0.629 (DP), 0.685 (FPS), 0.6880 (DPS).

    CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of single digital periapical radiography was significantly better than single film periapical radiography. The inclusion of two additional horizontal (parallax) angulated periapical radiograph images (mesial and distal horizontal angulations) significantly improved detection of apical periodontitis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  15. Azwandi A, Nina Keterina H, Owen LC, Nurizzati MD, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Sep;30(3):481-94.
    PMID: 24189678 MyJurnal
    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are necrophagous, and will also possibly colonize human cadaver, and potentially be useful in assisting in estimates of PMI in future forensic cases in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  16. Rao KG, Bhat MS
    Clin Anat, 2006 Nov;19(8):724-5.
    PMID: 16944500
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  17. Das S, Norzana AG, Azian AL, Farihah HS, Faizah O
    Clin Ter, 2011;162(6):555-7.
    PMID: 22262329
    In this case report, we report the absence of the fourth tendon of flexor digitorium superficialis (FDS) to the little finger with a concurrent anomalous muscular belly of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) in the palm. The FDS originated from the medial epicondyle, divided into three tendons for the index, middle and ring fingers with the little finger devoid of any attachment. The FDP exhibited a muscular belly which passed deep to the flexor retinaculum (FR) and continued for another 4 cm thereby dividing into four slips for the index, middle, ring and little fingers. The presence of the muscular belly of the FDP lead us to think whether it was an adhesion between the tendons of the FDP, so we proceeded to histological analysis. The tissue was processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Abundant longitudinal muscle fibers with peripherally situated nuclei confirmed it to be a skeletal muscle. Absence of the tendon of FDS to little finger may influence the flexion movement in the middle and proximal interphalangeal joints. Presence of anomalous muscle belly of FDP in the palm may mimic any soft tissue tumour, compress neurovascular structures or even pose difficulty while performing tendon transplant surgeries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  18. Khan AA, Asari MA, Hassan A, Aiman N
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2013 Feb;72(1):82-5.
    PMID: 23749717
    Anatomical variations in the femoral vein are of great clinical importance especially in cases of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Knowledge of the variable anatomy of the femoral vein is important to minimise false-negative findings on ultrasound examination in patients with DVT and help to explain the 'silent' DVT. Furthermore, the presence of a duplicated femoral vein itself is associated with higher incidence of DVT. These venous anomalies are usually due to the truncular venous malformation. In the present study, while dissecting the right lower limb, we found a case of variation of the femoral vein. In this case, besides a duplicated femoral vein, we also noticed a 3rd interconnecting channel near the apex of the femoral triangle joining the two veins. This variation has not been reported previously by other authors. Considering its uniqueness and clinical importance, we decided to report this case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  19. Rumiza AR, Khairul O, Zuha RM, Heo CC
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):373-83.
    PMID: 21399577
    This study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. Six adult long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. The control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline LD50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. All carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion process of cadaveric fauna on the carcasses. A total of five decomposition stages were recognized during this study. This study was performed during July 2007. Fresh stage of control and test carcasses occurred between 0 to 15 and 0 to 39 hours of exposure, respectively. The subsequent decomposition stages also exhibited the similar pattern whereby the decomposition process of control carcasses were faster than tested one. The first larvae were found on control carcasses after 9 hours of death while the test group carcasses had only their first blowfly eggs after 15 hours of exposure. Blow flies, Achoetandrus rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala were the most dominant invader of both carcasses throughout the decaying process. Diptera collected from control carcasses comprised of scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris and flesh fly, sarcophagid. We concluded that the presence of gasoline and its odor on the carcass had delayed the arrival of insect to the carcasses, thereby slowing down the decomposition process in the carcass by 6 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  20. Syamsa RA, Ahmad FM, Zuha RM, Khairul AZ, Marwi MA, Shahrom AW, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;29(1):107-12.
    PMID: 22543610 MyJurnal
    This is the first report of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) on a human corpse discovered in a high-rise building in Malaysia. On 5 March 2008, a decomposing body of an adult female was found on the top floor of a thirteen-story building in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her body was colonized by S. nudiseta larvae, which were normally associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. The post-mortem interval (PMI) was estimated at approximately 5 to 9 days. This case is significant as it demonstrates that this species can locate a dead body even in a high-rise building. Further findings of fly distribution especially in high-rise buildings should be reported to assist entomologists in PMI analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
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