Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 903 in total

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  1. Kumar AVP, Dubey SK, Tiwari S, Puri A, Hejmady S, Gorain B, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Sep 05;606:120848.
    PMID: 34216762 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120848
    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive procedure for treating cancer. The two significant prerequisites of PTT are the photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) and near-infrared radiation (NIR). The PTA absorbs NIR, causing hyperthermia in the malignant cells. This increased temperature at the tumor microenvironment finally results in tumor cell damage. Nanoparticles play a crucial role in PTT, aiding in the passive and active targeting of the PTA to the tumor microenvironment. Through enhanced permeation and retention effect and surface-engineering, specific targeting could be achieved. This novel delivery tool provides the advantages of changing the shape, size, and surface attributes of the carriers containing PTAs, which might facilitate tumor regression significantly. Further, inclusion of surface engineering of nanoparticles is facilitated through ligating ligands specific to overexpressed receptors on the cancer cell surface. Thus, transforming nanoparticles grants the ability to combine different treatment strategies with PTT to enhance cancer treatment. This review emphasizes properties of PTAs, conjugated biomolecules of PTAs, and the combinatorial techniques for a better therapeutic effect of PTT using the nanoparticle platform.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  2. Al-Amin M, Eltayeb NM, Khairuddean M, Salhimi SM
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Sep;35(18):3166-3170.
    PMID: 31726856 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1690489
    Rhizomes of Curcuma caesia are traditionally used to treat cancer in India. The aim is to isolate chemical constituents from C. caesia rhizomes through bioassay-guided fractionation. The extract, hexanes and chloroform fractions showed effect on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231cells in cell viability assay. The chromatographic separation afforded germacrone (1), zerumbone (2), furanodienone (3), curzerenone (4), curcumenol (5), zederone (6), curcumenone (7), dehydrocurdione (8) from hexanes fraction and curcuminol G (9), curcuzederone (10), (1S, 10S), (4S,5S)-germacrone-1 (10), 4-diepoxide (11), wenyujinin B (12), alismoxide (13), aerugidiol (14), zedoarolide B (15), zedoalactone B (16), zedoarondiol (17), isozedoarondiol (18) from chloroform fraction. This is first report of compounds 2, 9-13, 15-18 from C. caesia. The study demonstrated compounds 1-4 and 10 are the bioactive compounds. The effect of curcuzederone (10) on MDA-MB-231 cell migration showed significant inhibition in scratch and Transwell migration assays. The results revealed that curcuzederone could be a promising drug to treat cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  3. Herdiana Y, Wathoni N, Shamsuddin S, Muchtaridi M
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 24;26(17).
    PMID: 34500560 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175119
    α-Mangostin (AMG) is a potent anticancer xanthone that was discovered in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.). AMG possesses the highest opportunity for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic therapy. AMG inhibits every step in the process of carcinogenesis. AMG suppressed multiple breast cancer (BC) cell proliferation and apoptosis by decreasing the creation of cancerous compounds. Accumulating BC abnormalities and their associated molecular signaling pathways promotes novel treatment strategies. Chemotherapy is a commonly used treatment; due to the possibility of unpleasant side effects and multidrug resistance, there has been substantial progress in searching for alternative solutions, including the use of plant-derived natural chemicals. Due to the limitations of conventional cancer therapy, nanotechnology provides hope for effective and efficient cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanotechnology enables the delivery of nanoparticles and increased solubility of drugs and drug targeting, resulting in increased cytotoxicity and cell death during BC treatment. This review summarizes the progress and development of AMG's cytotoxicity and the mechanism of death BC cells. The combination of natural medicine and nanotechnology into a synergistic capital will provide various benefits. This information will aid in the development of AMG nanoparticle preparations and may open up new avenues for discovering an effective BC treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  4. Chok KC, Koh RY, Ng MG, Ng PY, Chye SM
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 20;26(16).
    PMID: 34443626 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26165038
    Even though an increasing number of anticancer treatments have been discovered, the mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) have still been high in the past few years. It has been discovered that melatonin has pro-apoptotic properties and counteracts inflammation, proliferation, angiogenesis, cell invasion, and cell migration. In previous studies, melatonin has been shown to have an anticancer effect in multiple tumors, including CRC, but the underlying mechanisms of melatonin action on CRC have not been fully explored. Thus, in this study, we investigated the role of autophagy pathways in CRC cells treated with melatonin. In vitro CRC cell models, HT-29, SW48, and Caco-2, were treated with melatonin. CRC cell death, oxidative stress, and autophagic vacuoles formation were induced by melatonin in a dose-dependent manner. Several autophagy pathways were examined, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Our results showed that melatonin significantly induced autophagy via the ER stress pathway in CRC cells. In conclusion, melatonin demonstrated a potential as an anticancer drug for CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  5. Khan NA, Soopramanien M, Maciver SK, Anuar TS, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 18;26(16).
    PMID: 34443585 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164999
    Crocodiles are remarkable animals that have the ability to endure extremely harsh conditions and can survive up to a 100 years while being exposed to noxious agents that are detrimental to Homo sapiens. Besides their immunity, we postulate that the microbial gut flora of crocodiles may produce substances with protective effects. In this study, we isolated and characterized selected bacteria colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of Crocodylusporosus and demonstrated their inhibitory effects against three different cancerous cell lineages. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, several molecules were identified. For the first time, we report partial analyses of crocodile's gut bacterial molecules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  6. Lalani S, Masomian M, Poh CL
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Aug 15;22(16).
    PMID: 34445463 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22168757
    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major neurovirulent agent capable of causing severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) associated with neurological complications and death. Currently, no FDA-approved antiviral is available for the treatment of EV-A71 infections. The flavonoid silymarin was shown to exert virucidal effects, but the binding site on the capsid was unknown. In this study, the ligand interacting site of silymarin was determined in silico and validated in vitro. Moreover, the potential of EV-A71 to develop resistance against silymarin was further evaluated. Molecular docking of silymarin with the capsid of EV-A71 indicated that silymarin binds to viral protein 1 (VP1) of EV-A71, specifically at the GH loop of VP1. The in vitro binding of silymarin with VP1 of EV-A71 was validated using recombinant VP1 through ELISA competitive binding assay. Continuous passaging of EV-A71 in the presence of silymarin resulted in the emergence of a mutant carrying a substitution of isoleucine by threonine (I97T) at position 97 of the BC loop of EV-A71. The mutation was speculated to overcome the inhibitory effects of silymarin. This study provides functional insights into the underlying mechanism of EV-A71 inhibition by silymarin, but warrants further in vivo evaluation before being developed as a potential therapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  7. Sharma A, Hawthorne S, Jha SK, Jha NK, Kumar D, Girgis S, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2021 08;16(20):1763-1773.
    PMID: 34296625 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2021-0066
    Aim: This study was aimed at evaluating the anticancer potential of curcumin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nanoparticles (NPs) in MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells. Methods: Curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs were developed using a modified solvent evaporation technique. Physical characterization was performed on the formulated NPs. Furthermore, in vitro experiments were conducted to study the biological activity of the curcumin-loaded NPs. Results: Curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs demonstrated high encapsulation efficiency and sustained payload release. Moreover, the NPs exhibited a significant reduction in cell viability, cell migration and cell invasion in the MDA-MB231 cells. Conclusion: The study revealed that the formulated curcumin-loaded PLGA NPs possessed significant anti-metastatic properties. The findings showcased the possible potential of curcumin-loaded NPs in the management of debilitating conditions such as cancer. In addition, this study could form the basis for further research and advancements in this area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  8. Holland I, Bakri YM, Sakoff J, Zaleta Pinet D, Motti C, van Altena I
    Phytochemistry, 2021 Aug;188:112798.
    PMID: 34020274 DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112798
    As part of our ongoing study of the specialised metabolites present in brown algae belonging to the Cystophora genus, eight new steroids including three pairs of diastereoisomers were isolated from Cystophora xiphocarpa (Harvey) (Sargassacea, Fucales). The metabolites identified by standard spectrometric methods are (16S,22S)-16,22-dihydroxyergosta-4,24(28)-dien-3-one and (16S,22R)-16,22-dihydroxyergosta-4,24(28)-dien-3-one, (16S,22S,24R)-16,22,24-trihydroxyporifera-4,28-dien-3-one and (16S,22S,24S)-16,22,24-trihydroxystigma-4,28-dien-3-one along with (16S,22S,24E)-16,22-dihydroxystigma-4,24(28)-dien-3-one and (16S,20S)-16,20-dihydroxyergosta-4,24(28)-dien-3-one. (16S,22S,24E)-16,22-Dihydroxystigma-4,24(28)-dien-3-one possessed the most potent cytotoxicity of the steroids in this series with cell growth inhibitions of GI50 8.7 ± 0.7 μM against colon cancer HT29, GI50 5.6 ± 0.8 μM against the breast cancer line MCF-7 and GI50 4.5 ± 0.2 μM against the ovarian cancer cell line A2780. (16S,22R)-16,22-dihydroxyergosta-4,24(28)-dien-3-one was found to be active against the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with a GI50 of 6.2 ± 0.1 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  9. Bruce JP, To KF, Lui VWY, Chung GTY, Chan YY, Tsang CM, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2021 07 07;12(1):4193.
    PMID: 34234122 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-24348-6
    Interplay between EBV infection and acquired genetic alterations during nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development remains vague. Here we report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 70 NPCs, combining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microdissected tumor cells with EBV oncogene expression to reveal multiple aspects of cellular-viral co-operation in tumorigenesis. Genomic aberrations along with EBV-encoded LMP1 expression underpin constitutive NF-κB activation in 90% of NPCs. A similar spectrum of somatic aberrations and viral gene expression undermine innate immunity in 79% of cases and adaptive immunity in 47% of cases; mechanisms by which NPC may evade immune surveillance despite its pro-inflammatory phenotype. Additionally, genomic changes impairing TGFBR2 promote oncogenesis and stabilize EBV infection in tumor cells. Fine-mapping of CDKN2A/CDKN2B deletion breakpoints reveals homozygous MTAP deletions in 32-34% of NPCs that confer marked sensitivity to MAT2A inhibition. Our work concludes that NPC is a homogeneously NF-κB-driven and immune-protected, yet potentially druggable, cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  10. Mahmood I, Azfaralariff A, Mohamad A, Airianah OB, Law D, Dyari HRE, et al.
    PMID: 33737223 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109033
    The ability of natural extracts to inhibit melanocyte activity is of great interest to researchers. This study evaluates and explores the ability of mutated Shiitake (A37) and wildtype Shiitake (WE) extract to inhibit this activity. Several properties such as total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, effect on cell and component profiling were conducted. While having no significant differences in total phenolic content, mutation resulted in A37 having a TFC content (1.04 ± 0.7 mg/100 ml) compared to WE (0.86 ± 0.9 mg/100 ml). Despite that, A37 extract has lower antioxidant activity (EC50, A37 = 549.6 ± 2.70 μg/ml) than WE (EC50 = 52.8 ± 1.19 μg/ml). Toxicity tests on zebrafish embryos show that both extracts, stop the embryogenesis process when the concentration used exceeds 900 μg/ml. Although both extracts showed pigmentation reduction in zebrafish embryos, A37 extract showed no effect on embryo heartbeat. Cell cycle studies revealed that WE significantly affect the cell cycle while A37 not. Further tests found that these extracts inhibit the phosphorylation of Glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (pGSK3β) in HS27 cell line, which may explain the activation of apoptosis in melanin-producing cells. It was found that from 19 known compounds, 14 compounds were present in both WE and A37 extracts. Interestingly, the presence of decitabine in A37 extract makes it very potential for use in the medical application such as treatment of melanoma, skin therapy and even cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  11. Nik Mohamed Kamal NNS, Abdul Aziz FA, Tan WN, Fauzi AN, Lim V
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 09;26(12).
    PMID: 34207699 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26123518
    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive disease that progresses in a relatively symptom-free manner; thus, is difficult to detect and treat. Essential oil is reported to exhibit pharmacological properties, besides its common and well-known function as aromatherapy. Therefore, this study herein aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative effect of essential oil extracted from leaves of Garcinia atroviridis (EO-L) against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cell line. The cell growth inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) and selective index (SI) values of EO-L analyses were determined as 78 µg/mL and 1.23, respectively. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed moderate synergism (CI values of 0.36 to 0.75) between EO-L and 2 deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) treatments. The treatments of PANC-1 cells with EO-L, 2-DG and EOL+2DG showed evidence of depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The molecular mechanism causing the anti-proliferative effect between EO-L and 2-DG is potentially through pronounced up-regulation of P53 (4.40-fold), HIF1α (1.92-fold), HK2 (2.88-fold) and down-regulation of CYP3A5 (0.11-fold), as supported by quantitative mRNA expression analysis. Collectively, the current data suggest that the combination of two anti-proliferative agents, EO-L and 2-DG, can potentially be explored as therapeutic treatments and as potentiating agents to conventional therapy against human pancreatic cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  12. Al-Fahdawi MQ, Al-Doghachi FAJ, Abdullah QK, Hammad RT, Rasedee A, Ibrahim WN, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2021 Jun;138:111483.
    PMID: 33744756 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111483
    The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize, and determine the in vitro anticancer effects of platinum-doped magnesia (Pt/MgO) nanoparticles. The chemical compositions, functional groups, and size of nanoparticles were determined using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Pt/MgO nanoparticles were cuboid and in the nanosize range of 30-50 nm. The cytotoxicity of Pt/MgO nanoparticles was determined via the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on the human lung and colonic cancer cells (A549 and HT29 respectively) and normal human lung and colonic fibroblasts cells (MRC-5 and CCD-18Co repectively). The Pt/MgO nanoparticles were relatively innocuous to normal cells. Pt/MgO nanoparticles downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated Bax and p53 tumor suppressor proteins in the cancer cells. Pt/MgO nanoparticles also induced production of reactive oxygen species, decreased cellular glutathione level, and increased lipid peroxidation. Thus, the anticancer effects of Pt/MgO nanoparticles were attributed to the induction of oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study showed the potential of Pt/MgO nanoparticles as an anti-cancer compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  13. Ankasha SJ, Shafiee MN, Abdul Wahab N, Raja Ali RA, Mokhtar NM
    PMID: 34071861 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18115741
    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most common ovarian cancer with highly metastatic properties. A small non-coding RNA, microRNA (miRNA) was discovered to be a major regulator in many types of cancers through binding at the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR), leading to degradation of the mRNA. In this study, we sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the dysregulation of miR-200c-3p in HGSC progression and metastasis. We identified the upregulation of miR-200c-3p expression in different stages of HGSC clinical samples and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene, Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1), expression. Over expression of miR-200c-3p in HGSC cell lines downregulated DLC1 but upregulated the epithelial marker, E-cadherin (CDH1). Based on in silico analysis, two putative binding sites were found within the 3'UTR of DLC1, and we confirmed the direct binding of miR-200c-3p to the target binding motif at position 1488-1495 bp of 3'UTR of DLC1 by luciferase reporter assay in a SKOV3 cell line co-transfected with vectors and miR-200c-3p mimic. These data showed that miR-200c-3p regulated the progression of HGSC by regulating DLC1 expression post-transcription and can be considered as a promising target for therapeutic purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  14. Maher T, Ahmad Raus R, Daddiouaissa D, Ahmad F, Adzhar NS, Latif ES, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 May 07;26(9).
    PMID: 34066963 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26092741
    Leukemia is a leukocyte cancer that is characterized by anarchic growth of immature immune cells in the bone marrow, blood and spleen. There are many forms of leukemia, and the best course of therapy and the chance of a patient's survival depend on the type of leukemic disease. Different forms of drugs have been used to treat leukemia. Due to the adverse effects associated with such therapies and drug resistance, the search for safer and more effective drugs remains one of the most challenging areas of research. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are important to improving outcomes. Almost half of the drugs utilized nowadays in treating cancer are from natural products and their derivatives. Medicinal plants have proven to be an effective natural source of anti-leukemic drugs. The cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these plants to leukemic cells and their isolated compounds were investigated. Effort has been made throughout this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in leukemia therapies using plant-derived compounds and the crude extracts from various medicinal plants. Furthermore, the mechanisms of action of these plants are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  15. Hama M, Ishima Y, Chuang VTG, Ando H, Shimizu T, Ishida T
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2021 May 05;13(17):19736-19744.
    PMID: 33881292 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.1c03065
    Abraxane, an albumin-bound paclitaxel nanoparticle formulation, is superior to conventional paclitaxel preparations because it has better efficacy against unresectable pancreatic cancer. Previous reports suggest that this better efficacy of Abraxane than conventional paclitaxel preparation is probably due to its transport through Gp60, an albumin receptor on the surface of vascular endothelial cells. The increased tumor accumulation of Abraxane is also caused by the secreted protein acid and rich in cysteine in the tumor stroma. However, the uptake mechanism of Abraxane remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the delivery of Abraxane occurred via different receptor pathways from that of endogenous albumin. Our results showed that the uptake of endogenous albumin was inhibited by a Gp60 pathway inhibitor in the process of endocytosis through endothelial cells or tumor cells. In contrast, the uptake of Abraxane-derived HSA was less affected by the Gp60 pathway inhibitor but significantly reduced by denatured albumin receptor inhibitors. In conclusion, these data indicate that Abraxane-derived HSA was taken up into endothelial cells or tumor cells by a mechanism different from normal endogenous albumin. These new data on distinct cellular transport pathways of denatured albumin via gp family proteins different from those of innate albumin shed light on the mechanisms of tumor delivery and antitumor activity of Abraxane and provide new scientific rationale for the development of a novel albumin drug delivery strategy via a denatured albumin receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  16. Shu YH, Yuan HH, Xu MT, Hong YT, Gao CC, Wu ZP, et al.
    Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2021 May;42(5):780-790.
    PMID: 32814819 DOI: 10.1038/s41401-020-0492-5
    Guangsangon E (GSE) is a novel Diels-Alder adduct isolated from leaves of Morus alba L, a traditional Chinese medicine widely applied in respiratory diseases. It is reported that GSE has cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. In our research, we investigated its anticancer effect on respiratory cancer and revealed that GSE induces autophagy and apoptosis in lung and nasopharyngeal cancer cells. We first observed that GSE inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 and CNE1 cells. Meanwhile, the upregulation of autophagosome marker LC3 and increased formation of GFP-LC3 puncta demonstrates the induction of autophagy in GSE-treated cells. Moreover, GSE increases the autophagy flux by enhancing lysosomal activity and the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Next, we investigated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in autophagy induction by GSE. GSE activates the ER stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, which can be blocked by ROS scavenger NAC. Finally, inhibition of autophagy attenuates GSE-caused cell death, termed as "autophagy-mediated cell death." Taken together, we revealed the molecular mechanism of GSE against respiratory cancer, which demonstrates great potential of GSE in the treatment of representative cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  17. Liew K, Yu GQS, Wei Pua LJ, Wong LZ, Tham SY, Hii LW, et al.
    Cancer Lett, 2021 04 28;504:81-90.
    PMID: 33587980 DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2021.02.006
    Despite recent in advances in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), development of targeted therapy remains challenging particularly in patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. To search for clinically relevant targets for the treatment of NPC, we carried out parallel genome-wide functional screens to identified essential genes that are required for NPC cells proliferation and cisplatin resistance. We identified lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) as a key vulnerability of both proliferation and cisplatin resistance. Depletion of endogenous LCK or treatment of cells with LCK inhibitor induced tumor-specific cell death and synergized cisplatin sensitivity in EBV-positive C666-1 and EBV-negative SUNE1 cells. Further analyses demonstrated that LCK is regulating the proliferation and cisplatin resistance through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Taken together, our study provides a molecular basis for targeting LCK and STAT5 signaling as potential druggable targets for the management of NPC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  18. Hossan MS, Break MKB, Bradshaw TD, Collins HM, Wiart C, Khoo TJ, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 09;26(8).
    PMID: 33918814 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26082166
    Cardamonin is a polyphenolic natural product that has been shown to possess cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer cell lines. We previously reported the semi-synthesis of a novel Cu (II)-cardamonin complex (19) that demonstrated potent antitumour activity. In this study, we further investigated the bioactivity of 19 against MDA-MB-468 and PANC-1 cancer cells in an attempt to discover an effective treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and pancreatic cancer, respectively. Results revealed that 19 abolished the formation of MDA-MB-468 and PANC-1 colonies, exerted growth-inhibitory activity, and inhibited cancer cell migration. Further mechanistic studies showed that 19 induced DNA damage resulting in gap 2 (G2)/mitosis (M) phase arrest and microtubule network disruption. Moreover, 19 generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to induction of apoptosis, corroborated by activation of caspase-3/7, PARP cleavage, and downregulation of Mcl-1. Complex 19 also decreased the expression levels of p-Akt and p-4EBP1, which indicates that the compound exerts its activity, at least in part, via inhibition of Akt signalling. Furthermore, 19 decreased the expression of c-Myc in PANC-1 cells only, which suggests that it may exert its bioactivity via multiple mechanisms of action. These results demonstrate the potential of 19 as a therapeutic agent for TNBC and pancreatic cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  19. Heng WS, Pore M, Meijer C, Hiltermann TJN, Cheah SC, Gosens R, et al.
    Lung Cancer, 2021 04;154:13-22.
    PMID: 33607458 DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.02.002
    OBJECTIVES: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in disease progression of aggressive cancers including small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Here, we have examined the possible contribution of CSCs to SCLC progression and aggressiveness.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: GLC-14, GLC-16 and GLC-19 SCLC cell lines derived from one patient, representing increasing progressive stages of disease were used. CSC marker expressions was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses, and heterogeneity was studied by CSC marker expression by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Colony formation assays were used to assess stem cell properties and therapy sensitivity.

    RESULTS: Increasing expression of stem cell markers MYC, SOX2 and particularly CD44 were found in association with advancing disease. Single and overlapping expression of these markers indicated the presence of different CSC populations. The accumulation of more homogeneous double- and triple-positive CSC populations evolved with disease progression. Functional characterization of CSC properties affirmed higher proficiency of colony forming ability and increased resistance to γ-irradiation in GLC-16 and GLC-19 compared to GLC-14. GLC-19 colony formation was significantly inhibited by a human anti-CD44 antibody.

    CONCLUSION: The progressive increase of MYC, SOX2 and particularly CD44 expression that was accompanied with enhanced colony forming capacity and resistance in the in vitro GLC disease progression model, supports the potential clinical relevance of CSC populations in malignancy and disease relapse of SCLC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
  20. Latifah SY, Gopalsamy B, Abdul Rahim R, Manaf Ali A, Haji Lajis N
    Molecules, 2021 Mar 12;26(6).
    PMID: 33808969 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26061554
    BACKGROUND: This study reports on the cytotoxic properties of nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal, isolated from roots of Morinda elliptica on T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (CEM-SS) cell lines.

    METHODS: MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, ELISA and cell cycle analysis were carried out.

    RESULTS: Nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal at IC50 values of 1.7 μg/mL and10 μg/mL, respectively. At the molecular level, these compounds caused internucleosomal DNA cleavage producing multiple 180-200 bp fragments that are visible as a "ladder" on the agarose gel. This was due to the activation of the Mg2+/Ca2+-dependent endonuclease. The induction of apoptosis by nordamnacanthal was different from the one induced by damnacanthal, in a way that it occurs independently of ongoing transcription process. Nevertheless, in both cases, the process of dephosphorylation of protein phosphates 1 and 2A, the ongoing protein synthesis and the elevations of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were not needed for apoptosis to take place. Nordamnacanthal was found to have a cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis, while damnacanthal caused arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle.

    CONCLUSION: Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal have anticancer properties, and could act as potential treatment for T-lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Line, Tumor
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