MATERIALS AND METHODS: GLC-14, GLC-16 and GLC-19 SCLC cell lines derived from one patient, representing increasing progressive stages of disease were used. CSC marker expressions was determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses, and heterogeneity was studied by CSC marker expression by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Colony formation assays were used to assess stem cell properties and therapy sensitivity.
RESULTS: Increasing expression of stem cell markers MYC, SOX2 and particularly CD44 were found in association with advancing disease. Single and overlapping expression of these markers indicated the presence of different CSC populations. The accumulation of more homogeneous double- and triple-positive CSC populations evolved with disease progression. Functional characterization of CSC properties affirmed higher proficiency of colony forming ability and increased resistance to γ-irradiation in GLC-16 and GLC-19 compared to GLC-14. GLC-19 colony formation was significantly inhibited by a human anti-CD44 antibody.
CONCLUSION: The progressive increase of MYC, SOX2 and particularly CD44 expression that was accompanied with enhanced colony forming capacity and resistance in the in vitro GLC disease progression model, supports the potential clinical relevance of CSC populations in malignancy and disease relapse of SCLC.
METHODS: MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, ELISA and cell cycle analysis were carried out.
RESULTS: Nordamnacanthal and damnacanthal at IC50 values of 1.7 μg/mL and10 μg/mL, respectively. At the molecular level, these compounds caused internucleosomal DNA cleavage producing multiple 180-200 bp fragments that are visible as a "ladder" on the agarose gel. This was due to the activation of the Mg2+/Ca2+-dependent endonuclease. The induction of apoptosis by nordamnacanthal was different from the one induced by damnacanthal, in a way that it occurs independently of ongoing transcription process. Nevertheless, in both cases, the process of dephosphorylation of protein phosphates 1 and 2A, the ongoing protein synthesis and the elevations of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were not needed for apoptosis to take place. Nordamnacanthal was found to have a cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis, while damnacanthal caused arrest at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle.
CONCLUSION: Damnacanthal and nordamnacanthal have anticancer properties, and could act as potential treatment for T-lymphoblastic leukemia.